49 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. la estera de esparto

      straw mat

    2. deshilándose

      deshilar: to unravel, fray

    3. las faenas de la trilla

      the task/chores of the threshing (separating wheat)

    4. las vinajeras

      Vessel to hold the wine in for Mass

    5. el misal.

      Missal: a book containing the texts used in the Catholic Mass throughout the year.

    6. la pértiga


    7. los cirios

      altar candles

    8. una mancha

      stain, spot

    9. el camposanto

      graveyard/churchyard, cemetery

    10. sujetando el badajo

      holding the clapper/ringer (of the bell)

    11. pudientes

      influential/powerful, well-to-do, wealthy

    12. la aldea

      small village/town, hamlet

    13. acudirían

      acudir (a): to come, to attend, to go

    14. el difunto

      the deceased

    15. vagaba

      vagar: to roam, to wander

    16. rezando

      rezar: to pray, to recite

    17. desdicha


    18. un arbusto

      shrub, bush

    19. entreabierta


    20. sobrado

      sabrar: to be left over, be extra

    21. un fajo

      a bundle

    22. la casulla

      chasuble: a sleeveless outer vestment worn by priest when celebrating Mass, typically ornate and having a simple hole for the head.

    23. barría

      barrer: to sweep

    24. huerto

      a garden, or vegetable plot

    25. La sacristía

      The sacristy: a room in a church where a priest prepares for a service, and where vestments and other things used in worship are kept

    26. el monaguillo

      altar boy

    27. un potro

      a foal

    28. relinchaba

      relinchar: to neigh/whinny

    29. un saltamontes


    1. he anticommunist crusade after World War II was the lon- gest and most far-reaching period of political repression in U.S. history.

      this is a fascinating assertion


    1. In his 1897 essay “The Conservation of Races,” Du Bois asked, “What, after all am I? Am I an American or am I a Negro? Can I be both? Or is it my duty to cease to be a Negro as soon as possible and be an American?”

      strong connections with the very ideas that he found himself struggling with around twenty years later, could he support a war as an American, or did his identity as a person of color and understanding of the foundations of the war as built upon a desire to control and subjugative people of color across the world force him to oppose it

    2. Du Bois asserted that the real cause lay in “the wild quest for Imperial expansion among colored races between Germany, England and France primarily, and Belgium, Italy, Russia and Austria-Hungary in lesser degree.



    1. abramadoramente



  2. Aug 2021
    1. Mientras que en el territorio republicano el objetivo de algunos individuos era milenario —el asesinato como medio de lograr una tabula rasa y, con ello, un nuevo mundo feliz—-, en la zona controlada por los militares se concebia en general como una acci6n Jimpia- dora cuyo objetivo era librar a la comunidad de las fuentes de «contaminacién» y los peligros que suponian.



    1. The lack of respect for learning or the lack of concern for it melted before the exigencies of conflict, when ideological justifications and rationalizations were needed for actions that had already been taken.

      this is really powerful


    1. wn mar de fondo

      grumbling, complaining, discontent

    2. Alfonso XIII, quien para los problemas de gobiemo era més partidario de jas soluciones militares que de las constitucionales.


    3. el alzamiento

      uprising, revolt


  3. May 2021
    1. A total misinterpretation of the resultsof the aggregated data analysis, which may also be entirely contradictory to the formulation if working with individualdata, is referred to as Robinson's problem (Robinson, 1950)



    1. The results indicate strong support for the first two hypotheses and qualified support for the third one

      confirmed the first two hypotheses

    2. control

      what arguments will people try to counter with? you use control variables to try and counter them

    3. To investigate these hypotheses, I created an election-year-country dataset covering the period from the early 1990s to the present for all post- communist democracies.7 The dataset is structured as a quasi-time series of 93 parliamentary elections in 17 countries from 1991 to 2012, and the depen-dent variable is the natural log of the radical right party’s combined vote share in elections held at time t.

      this is the data, her explanation of the dataset she created

    4. Hypothesis 3: The inclusion of an ideologically extreme ethno-liberal party in a coalition in election t − 1 increases the radical right party’s vote share in elections at t.

      asking: does it matter HOW ethno-liberal a party is?

    5. Hypothesis 1: When the vote share of an ethno-liberal party in an election held at time t − 1 increases, then the radical right party’s vote share in elec-tions at t should also increase.Hypothesis 2: The inclusion of an ethno-liberal party in a governing coalition at time t − 1 increases the radical right party’s vote share in elec-tions at t.Hypothesis 3: The inclusion of an ideologically extreme ethno-liberal party in a coalition in election t − 1 increases the radical right party’s vote share in elections at t
    1. By overlooking the unusual role that ethnic minority parties play in coalition formation in theregion, we are unable to fully understand the reasons for politically important phenomena suchas the recent rise of the radical right in Eastern Europe.

      --> why this topic

    2. Political parties manipulate issues to their own advantage and seek to affect voters’ choice byemphasizing, or ignoring, specific issues


    3. The country “leftout” of the model is Slovakia.

      what does this mean?



    1. the elites of Eastern Europe were left with the ideology of nationalism as a means to build national states and justify their own power. Nationalism was particularly appealing during this period for three reasons.

      1) by dismissing class & emphasizing ethnicity & language, connected the elite to the masses 2) national minorities=focus for majority nationalism 3) legitimized policies that appeared essential to nation-building, such as education

    2. two conditions continued to limit its dominance almost everywhere in the area.

      Conditions which limited the dominance of nationalism in EE: 1) EE's new state's & autonomous regions remained peasant countries with small elites, ruled by bureaucracies which were self-selected & with an interest in personal power. the Industrial Rev had mostly missed them and middle classes rising to challenge this were v small 2) Middle Classes that DID exist were often from minority ethnic groups, and the high levels of ethnic intermingling meant that their were few boundaries for the creation of ethnically homogeneous nation-states in the West Eu style