143 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. transformative

      do we ever define what this means?

    2. a more dignified and humanizing analysis of young people, particularly those explicitly or implicitly framed from a cultural-deficit perspective

      I appreciate this awareness. Connects to Bell et al, too.

    3. within and across various social spaces and activity systems—particularly for non-dominant youth.

      this reminds me of our video game readings particularly Stevens et al "in game, in room, in world"

    4. immigrant and diasporic communities

      and how might the cultural practices of the same diasporic community in different locations differ based on the context they find themselves in? For example, Irish Catholics in Boston v. Irish Catholics New York? etc

    1. identity formation


    2. In our ethnographies, we have document-ed cases of precocious expertise in such domains as athletics, technology, and design and building while we have also documented youth who regularly participate in such practices in more legitimate peripheral ways.

      I'm curious what impact this has on identity. Did they do any research on that?

      I'm also thinking about the diversity of the community on campus I work with and our value of pluralism. What do we do when certain practices within the CoP differ but pluralism is really important to achieve? Could we analyze that using this framework?

    3. outline a specific framework

      how do they measure this?

    4. We outline how power-related issues associated with privilege and marginalization are attended to in relation to the social, cultural, and ma-terial circumstances of learning within and across environments and discuss future re-search opportunities

      I haven't read all the way through yet but I wonder if this will touch on how this plays out in school settings (even though it seems like the focus of this particular article will be on outside the classroom learning). I imagine that privilege and marginalization come up a lot in school settings and that privileged students have far more learning opportunities outside the classroom than marginalized students. How does that play out?

      I guess we'll see!

    1. transportation systems

      nice that our observation this week was transit. Did you learn anything new that you're excited to incorporate in your final report? I wonder if reading other people's observations might be interesting research for your project going forward (in addition to your own observations of course). Good work! Excited to see where this goes!

    2. documental analysis of the evolution of maps and signs

      where are you finding this?

    3. mix the concept of old-timers/newcomers and the Funds of Knowledge

      is this ok for the assignment? Are there enough connections that you can draw between these two concepts so that your final paper and presentation will be cohesive and thorough?

    1. their relationshiparound video games as an apprenticeshi


    2. hese arrangementsinvolve collaboration across young people rather than young people in solo interaction withagame system

      As opposed to what I (and probably many others) think of as a very isolated, individualized experience. Sure, I've seen people playing video games together (mostly in competition with one another) but I guess this is not the most prominent image that comes to mind.

    3. heseparate worlds viewholds, in different waysfor different writers, that game play is a world apart of people’s other activities in everydaylife.

      so what impact does this have on identity, community involvement, learning? so many questions....

    4. Considerthe following thought experiment: imagine that a learning scientist definitely proved, allother things being the same, that a year spent immersed in a game-based curriculum betterprepared a young person for a successful life and career than that same year spent in atraditional high school curriculum? What sort of changes might a finding like that suggestto the way we conceive of education and to the future of learning? It is clear that a lot hangson the transfer question

      I would love to know the answer to that. As someone who grew up not being allowed to play video games (and in turn, I think they're a huge waste of time), I would love to explore this possibility. More over, how do we decide what types of "out of classroom" learning are legitimate? Who decides this? Why is a trip considered immersive and important but a video game seen as a waste of time or not a valuable learning experience?

    1. Why

      I have a lot of questions about online identity v. in person identity and how that shapes communities, individuals, etc

    2. ‘‘the best thing about having why-pox is havinglost of other people having it too because they know what you are going through.’’This is consistent with the 17.4%of Whyvillians who did not get Whypox butwanted to.

      like when you're 12 and want braces because all of your friends have them despite having braces being a terrible experience ;)

      in all seriousness, if you can't voluntarily participate in what is perceived as a significant communal experience, how do you legitimately participate?

    1. (US$5 a month

      possibly limiting for some participants who can't afford or don't have permission from parents to pay.

    2. WhyvilleWhyville

      are these types of settings similar to playing with Barbies and other dolls?

    3. simulated experiences.
    4. Socializing

      is it meaningful socializing if they never connect in person? can the relationships ever truly deepen?

    5. new playplaces.

      until what age is play considered a legitimate type of learning? forever?

    1. t’s just more convenient

      does this change the nature of relationships?

    2. public-by-default, private-through-effort mentality.Because of this public-by-default framework, most teens won’t bother to limit the audience who can see what they consider to be mundane conversations on Facebook.

      how does this shape identity? If your online personality is different than your in-person personality, how does that change your behavior, how you relate to others, etc?

    3. hese services to meet strangers, failing to recognize the hypocrisy in their advice about talking to strangers

      perhaps it would be worth it to explain to children that adults meeting strangers online is a little different than children given that adults are theoretically able to consent in different ways. I'm thinking about the problem of "stranger danger" online in the same way we think about it in person...

    4. What’s at stake is not whether someone can listen in but whether one should

      but shouldn't a parent be entitled to "listen in" on their child even if the child disagrees?

    5. online journals

      In contrast to a private journal passed between two friends at school (I totally did this) -- this option of secret/private communication isn't available to general public audience in the same way an online journal is. It's easier to keep private from parents, too probably. I feel like anyone posting online should know that it can be accessed by anyone so how private can it possibly be?

  2. Oct 2015
    1. More generally, we can begin to see tourists posing for a photo in front of a statue as an entrypoint or opportunity for a deeper meaning making interaction.

      I'm reminded of the "Auschwitz Selfie" controversy. Are there limits to posing as a legitimate way to interact with statues, cultural artifacts, art? Is it legitimate/appropriate to pose and take a self portrait in front of any type of cultural artifacts especially if we believe it leads to meaning making? Is that more valuable than the potential to offend other visitors or invested participants? Who decides?

    2. knowing that there is a strong physical aspectto visitor meaning making suggests that museums should consider spaces and resources in newways. The features of particular works that invite posing (e.g., the painting figures in Episode1) invite further exploration in order to facilitate the design and arrangement of mediatingresources

      cool suggestion

    3. using their fingers as a part of their cognitive development (e.g., Fischer,2008; Wilson,2002), wemight consider museum visitors’ posing as learning to interpret art

      seems like learning to count is much less subjective than learning to interpret art...

    4. In addition to talk, we also must consider the waysvisitors use their bodies through actions such as posing. It is in the interaction between gesturesand talk that unique meanings arise

      explanation of meaning making as it occurs through posing

    5. serve as a part of museum visitors’ interpretive process, helping them articulate a description,response, interpretation, or experience of a particular piece of art.
    6. acts of comparison that,in relation to the posing gestures in particular, function as central to the pair’s meaning makingprocess.

      the posing alone doesn't seem to be enough to make meaning; the comparisons made through posing lead to interpretation and meaning making

    7. This analysis is also consistent with Roth’s(2002) model of gestures linking bodily experience to verbal expression and reflects a transitionfrom conceptual to depictive gesturing (Streeck,2009b).

      and therefore understanding? meaning making?

    8. Merleau-Ponty’s (1945/1974) notion that the body is central to all interactions andknowing in the world aligns with this article’s exploration of the body in museum experiences.In treating acts of perception as physiological as well as psychological (1945/1974; Joy & Sherry,2003), Merleau-Ponty also establishes a starting point for approaching acts of posing in relationto visitors’ aesthetic experiences
    9. relationship between the physical actionsof the body and meaning making processes

      what happens in the process of the physical act of posing that leads to meaning making?

    10. tourist performances as behaviors that,in coordination with a variety of semiotic resources, fundamentally shape a sense of place andidentity for tourists

      again I'm prompted to raise the question about tourism and authenticity even though this isn't the question we're supposed to be pondering...reminds me of Nespor's piece

    1. structure and release, creative outlet and consistency of routine, and hard work along with expressive play.

      seems like there could be something here about bodies and learning

    2. commitment

      I'm curious to look into this issue of commitment more. What external and internal factors contribute to some people committing to this more than others?

    3. keep standards high

      seems like the goals are different from the first case study. here the focus is learning towards excellent performance as opposed to learning for learning's sake or to teach communal values or to keep young people "off the street."

    4. tried to highlight "Now, youth were drawn to dance...and identity for themselves." (71-72) but hypothesis doesn't want to let me.

      Seems like participants are using dance to learn about their individual identities as well as to find their place within the larger group/CoP.

    5. history of dance as an expression of ethnic heritage, culturally valued narratives and forms of movement, and social protest underscored these leaders' special commitment to this art.

      shared history, values, practice come together in the movement of dance and possibly create opportunities for learning. through learning dances, children in these ethnic groups learn about their cultural history and the values of their communities.

    6. potential role of the arts in creating for young people a sense of story, intense holistic involvement across a range of activ­ities, and a connecting quasi-spiritual bridge to both a past and a future Jed some youth leaders and philanthropic foundations to try immersion in the arts for youngsters

      immersion...this might have something to do with the question we're trying to answer about the relationship between bodies and learning.

    7. to the arts to find ways to attract what they regarded as "at-risk" youth away from drugs

      again, involvement in the arts is a way to keep busy so as to stay out of trouble but not necessarily a longterm solution to solving a societal problem

    8. My people had used music to soothe slavery's tormenl or to propitiate God, or to describe the sweetness of love and the distress of lovelessness, bull knew no race could sing and donee its way to freedom

      seems like movement is described here as a coping mechanism, a way to get by but not a way to accomplish an actual goal.

    1. the formation, role and influence of socially constructed stereotypes

      really interesting. excited to hear more!

    2. there is no other coffee shop that has the repertoirethat Starbucks h

      what do you mean by this and how do you know?

    3. intent participation. I

      is intent participation the concept you're thinking about here? maybe be a little more explicit in the beginning in defining the concept (or how you interpret it) and then explain how you're analyzing it or thinking about it in the context of your site.

    4. Starbucks has its own language

      so true. and they hate when you order "small, large or medium" instead of "tall, grande, venti" etc must be tough on newcomers who really have never seen a starbucks before (tourists from other countries)

    5. “no label”customers

      might be interesting to speak to some of these to see who they are. tourists? students who don't look like students? etc

    6. Starbucks on Washington Square E. and W. 4thStreet,


    1. he did not have strategies that might alter thesituation

      when is it the responsibility of the participant to have and employ strategies to move from peripheral to central? and when is it the responsibility of a more central participant or and oldtimer to recognize that someone is being marginalized and try to make resources more available to them so that they may become a more central part of the CoP?

    2. she saw herself asresponsible for and responsive to the needs of others.

      this is certainly an outcome we strive for in my office's work with student leaders on campus

    3. one can appropriate cultural tools (an aspect of learning) without takingthem on internally (an aspect of identity).

      bit of a departure from Wenger.

    4. maintenance.

      I feel like we focus a lot on identity development (in practice) and less so on the maintenance of identity. Curious to know what research is out there on this.

    5. reconceptualizes learning froman in-the-head phenomenon to a matter of engagement, participation, and member-ship in a community of practice.

      this helps me think about my own work with college students. their level of participation varies from year to year, their identities shift, both as a result of how they see themselves and also how others position them and influence their behavior.

    6. eripheral trajectories never lead to full participation-rather, individuals on thistrajectory stay marginal to the practice over time.

      is it possible for an individual to see her/himself as a full participant but to be truly marginal? who decides? other members of the CoP?

    1. relations between lived activity andrepresentations of that activity in the city visible,

      making connections between lived experiences and representations of activity reminds me of field trips and skate parks but I feel like the countermapping allows the youth to participate in a more legitimate way in public spaces.

    2. new forms of spatial literacy as well as delicate aspects of identity work

      I'd be interested to explore this further - what type of identity formation is going on here? how do the participants see themselves as a result of this experience?

    3. New Mobility Invites Thinking Across Scales

      the ride gave newcomers access to a CoP they did not previously have access to.

    4. learning to operate a bike safely and for collectivelydetecting and fixing kinks in the bicycle before the youth took them home. But the ridingformation was also something worth learning about (i.e., how to ride together in the city).

      the participants, much like skaters at a skatepark, learn by doing much more than from being told how to do something.

    5. Nothing beatsgetting your feet dirty and your hands dirty and getting into the mud, finding outwhat’s there in person, and just reacting to it. And that is, really, the highest sci-ence (Bob Firth, personal communication)

      learning by participation

    1. nner-cityyouth

      hasn't this article been focused on schools in suburban communities? I think there's a difference between city schools and suburban schools and their respective access to real public spaces. maybe I'm misunderstanding the true definition of a public space, but it seems like New York city students have plenty of access to true public spaces; whether they can legitimately participate in them might be a question but I think their participation is even more limited in suburban settings where visits to public spaces are so heavily mediated and choreographed.

    2. genuinetouristattraction

      is a "genuine tourist attraction" inauthentic? what do children gain by visiting a fake public space?

      sidenote: can we talk about tourism as a legitimate form of learning and/or participation?

    3. carefulplanningandcoordination,preparatoryactivitiesinwhichstudentscanlearnaboutthesettingsbeingvisitedandtheeventsorprocessestheysymbolize,andpost-tripactivitiesthatallowstudentstodrawontheirexperiencesatthesites

      does this help form islands of expertise amongst some students?

    4. Fieldtrips

      The "public spaces" visited by students on field trips seem a bit different from public spaces like a skate park because students are not only told how to move through the spaces but they are not given a choice about which spaces to visit. Students may have elected to visit other public spaces but they are taken on field trips to public spaces selected by a teacher or other administrator whereas people elect to go to skate parks.

    5. probablyneverbeen`trulyopenpublicspace[s

      Do NYC parks not count as "truly, open public spaces?"

    6. e ̄ectsthedryingupofsafe,unprogrammedoutdoorsettingsandcommunity-regulatedinteriorsaccessibletokids,andtheirreplacementbyenclosedspaceswithstrongborderscontrolledbyinstitutionscentredoutsidetheneighbourhood.Surveillancebyadultshasintensi®ed,evenaskidsaresegregatedfromadultspaces

      even before public spaces were destroyed by urban renewal, weren't there other concerns with allowing children to loiter in public spaces unaccompanied? safety?

    7. epeatedperform-ances’.Idescribehereinonekindofscriptforsuchperformanc

      Seems like Nespor sees producing space as repeated performance

    8. Spacesareoutcomesofcomplexactivities,someofwhichunfoldslowlyandproducerelativelystableforms(buildings,streets,landscapes),someofwhichemergerapidlyandleavefewobservabletraces(conversations,gazes,briefinspections)

      Can we compare to "arena v. setting" as in the Ma/Munter piece?

  3. doc-08-bk-prod-01-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com doc-08-bk-prod-01-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.com
    1. “world in a box,”

      how is this similar to/different from a figured world?

    2. trying and demonstrating dominated talking about thetrick.

      learning and teaching by doing/participating.

    3. Learning was not separate from participation in the community of prac-tice

      when is learning separate from participation in the CoP? Why would it be?

    4. Seeking teaching as a teacher might have included watching and offering cri-tique and encouragement (mini-ramp and Flatland), sharing experience (Karl and Hal), assessingand disciplining (Zack), or just making oneself visible and available for observation.

      saw examples of all of these (except discipline) in my own observation

    5. eeking teaching—skaters at times posi-tioned themselves to learn from others (seek others to teach them) and other times positionedthemselves to help others (seek to be teachers).

      learning opportunities through positioning

    6. snaking skaters found the space being edited for them, in ways that did not align withthe setting as they conceived of it. That is, their activity within the setting was constrained byZack’s skating patterns. Zack’s use of the space violated one of the goals of the community, toskate without getting in the way of others.

      Zack was limited in his ability to access the space or gain acceptance into the CoP and eventually left since his behavior didn't align with the values/goals of the CoP.

    7. was in conflict with most skaters’ conceptions of the space.

      Here we see an instance where the oldtimers' perceived the design intention of the space to be in conflict with a newcomer's perception of what the space could/should be used for (I'm calling Zack a newcomer because he is described as a "novice skater"). But how would Zack know it isn't supposed to be used that way? What resources does he have to tell him that? How are newcomers acclimated to the space, given access, granted legitimate participation? Poor Zack :(

    8. she said, “I wanna learn those,

      Following up on my initial comment about Laura explicitly naming that she is learning...None of the male skaters studied (or named in this article) explicitly acknowledge that what they're doing is engaging in a process of learning and teaching, even though all of them are. I would be interested to see if there is a connection to gender here.

    9. I like to use it as like a practice or learning type thing.

      interesting to me that this skater (Laura) explicitly states that she likes to use the mini ramp as a place for learning.

    10. illustrate how learning opportu-nities emerged from the dialectical relationship between activity and setting—in this case, fromskaters’ productions of space in skateparks.

      editing space, emergence of learning opportunities.

    11. rom a sociocultural perspective, learning is partic-ipation in increasingly central ways in a community of practice (Lave & Wenger,1991;Wenger,1998). Thenopportunitiesto learn refers to access to participation (Gresalfi,2009).Broadly, this means opportunities to make contributions to the shared goals of the commu-nity

      clarifying definition of learning and framing opportunities to learn as access to participation. "Opportunities to make contributions to the shared goals of the community" helps me better understand these concepts and ideas.

    12. repeatedly (re)produced. At the same time, they help shape meaning and direc-tion for activity and provide resources for individual participants. They are socially producedin the broader ideological context through activity and as a part of activity (Lefebvre,1991).Skateparks and the skateboarding that occurs inside them are shaped by and recognizable in rela-tion to other activities and spaces, including surfing, street skating, and angry city publics.

      does this mean that skatepark skating is inauthentic or less credible/authentic than skating on the street? what if a skater has only ever skated in a skatepark? what are the differences in opportunities for learning in a skatepark versus on the street?

    13. Settings are experienced and (re)edited individually, continually, andrepeatedly.

      expanding on the difference between arena and setting. helpful.

    14. renas(built and designed spaces withintended physical, social, political, economic functions) and supermarkets assettings(experi-enced by shoppers repeatedly and probably in different ways each time)

      wondering if skateparks are arenas or settings?

    15. skaters have recruited and colonized different spaces for skateboarding over thecourse of its brief history, focusing on skateparks as an arena specifically designed for the activity.

      I feel like the word "colonize" has a negative connotation in most contexts and think it's interesting to think about when talking about skaters and how the public views them. Skaters tried (still try?) to use public spaces to practice skating but are redirected to skate parks or other arenas made just for skating to keep them "off the street" so to speak (not allowed to colonize spaces outside of these parks). There are a lot of stereotypes associated with skaters, many of them negative, but I think they'd hate to be seen as colonizers.

    1. describe the ideals that surrounded learning within team life and to capture—primarily through detailing the language of activities—manifestations of the environment of learning that the specialized domain of Little League baseball provided.

      do we consider little league a #communityofpractice?

    2. value of differences among learners

      related to identity. each player is coming to the team with not only differences but also multiple identities (student, brother, religious affiliation, etc). what impact do those identities have on their identity as a little league baseball player?

    3. Learners assume prototypical identities as professionals

      even though they didn't express a desire or expectation to become professional baseball players as adults (p.119)

    4. the coach gives cues to the boys to bring into place certain scenarios in which players take on certain roles, execute particular actions, and may meet with several outcomes. T

      I'm having some trouble deciding whether little league is a community of practice or a figured world, especially with regard to how identity is shaped. If we say that within a figured world, individuals have agency to identify themselves in a certain way and they can also be positioned in particular ways by other participants, it seems like this team is a figured world. At the same time, it seems like access is necessary to be part of little league which is a condition of a community of practice.

    5. supported the notion that reasoning, problem-solving, arguing for a plan, and creating coherent narratives come naturally within many everyday activities.

      more evidence of valuable skills learned as result of "everyday activities"

    1. wouldmakelittlesensewithoutreadingthenearbyblurbexplainingthethemeoftheexhibit

      Given this, did you notice that a lot of people still ignore the blurb?

    2. Onemustcomewithacertainlevelofcommitmenttodrawfromtheavailablefundsofknowledgeiftheywanttoidentifywiththiscommunityofpractice

      Interesting observation. I imagine that specific interest also plays a role here -- if one is not particularly interested in American and/or modern/contemporary art, it may be even more challenging to participate in the CoP or access any funds of knowledge.

      Great job!

    3. wereevidentbytheiruniforms

      good point, I did not clarify how I knew who the security guards were in my fieldwork report.

    4. itwasn’tclearifthetapewaspartoftheexhibit

      totally felt the same way!

    5. movingclosertoread,furtherbacktoallowotherstoread

      How do we know that this is how we're supposed to behave?

    6. Wasthisawayofcommunitybuildingasgroupingcloselyallowedforeasierreading?Dowebecomepartnersinunderstanding,complicitininterpretation?

      Did you attempt to engage anyone in conversation when you found yourself close to someone engaged in reading the same blurb as you? If so, what was that like?

    1. legitimate peripheral participation describes a mechanismwhereby newcomers to a community of practice constantly move between periph-eral and more central forms of participation. Center and periphery do not referto physical locales but rather to relations of production and accountability crucialfor the community’s functioning.

      I'd like to learn more about what Azevedo means by accountability

    2. practice participation results partly from the senseof future that the community imparts to its members.

      thinking about all of the distinctions between the different types of participation.

    3. follows from the child’s identification withfamily and community and his or her ongoing commitment to these

      how does this shape the child's identity?

    4. follows from the child’s identification withfamily and community and his or her ongoing commitment to these

      how does this shape the child's identity?

    5. person’s understanding of his or her ongoing andfuture relationship to the community and its members, as well as his or her motivesfor engaging the practice in the long run.


    6. distributed framesof cognition (Hutchins, 1995, 1998), norms and values of practice in differentcommunities of amateur astronomers, as well as the division of labor in such com-munities (e.g., Stevens, 2000), create the conditions for and shape individuals’forms of participation.

      are these some of the resources perhaps?

    7. structuraland process features of the practice, which together afford individuals the ability tocontinuously tailor the hobby: (a) an extensive and varied material infrastructure;(b) participating simultaneously across multiple communities/sites of astronomypractice; (c) activity structural resources that function as templates for short- andlong-term activities; and (d) processes of collaboration and idea sharing.

      are these possible resources? hopefully an explanation will follow and I can expand on this.

    1. suggestions of how to encode evidence; highlighting individual causal links; offering simple anal-ogies; and perhaps introducing relevant principles and terminology

      all of these help increase accessibility for the children

    2. parent explanations observed were also more simple and incomplete than other forms of situated, informal explanation that have been described
    3. object label and connections to prior knowledge were the only significant predictors of the younger chil-dren's identification scores.

      interest driven

    4. although gender differences are not a focus of the current study.

      I kind of wish it was a focus -- I'm interested to learn more about those differences.

    5. oice into a more excited and proud-sounding par-ent voice, implicitly praising the boy and asking how he knew what the ob-ject was

      the discussion about language and tone reminds me of what we read in #littleleague. The coach uses conversation to influence his players in particular ways, teach them certain skills, behaviors, attitudes, values.

    6. feet we did observe was consistent with the idea that explanations are associ-ated with greater learning during family museum activity.

      as opposed to what? children touring the museum by themselves without their parents to mediate the experience? I wonder what results a study of that might reveal.

    7. We propose that the learning conversation in the mu-seum, precisely because it is rare and thus fairly memorable, may become a particularly powerful example on which further learning can be built.

      reminds me of what we consider immersive experiences -- because they're rare and intensive they are more impactful, learning is increased.

    8. they trace these interests, looking for opportunities to collect and connect new experiences.

      similar to Azevedo's "lines of practice?"

    1. experts scaffold the participation of novices in settings outside ofschool: by fostering a sense of safety and belonging, making the domain visible,embodying trajectories of competence, and providing timely and flexible feedback

      would be interesting to research how this happens in adult educational institutions as well, ie, a university department (academic or not) -- I'm thinking about onboarding and training new employees, teaching new employees how to interact/collaborative with students, etc. how much is instructional and how much is on-the-job? how much is "intent participation" or apprenticeship?

    2. in apprenticeships, in which there is often a desig-nated expert, it can be challenging to discern what the master does to instruct orteach novices

      I imagine intent participation happens here, though, and might be effective.

    3. Apprenticeship,

      thinking about apprenticeship again it seems. excited to see where this goes.

    1. many communities especially emphasize keen observation in supportof participation in ongoing mature activities.

      that these communities expect observation to come with some sort of intent to participate in mature activities seems crucial to knowledge acquisition and skills development and is not necessarily something that happens in every classroom setting, although as Rogoff has pointed out, it can happen.

    2. n communities in which young children are involved in the mature activities oftheir family and community, it may be superfluous for adults to organize lessons andspecialized conversations to prepare young children with the skills of schooling, toprepare them for the “real” world.

      interesting to me that we still perceive schooling in America to prepare students for the "real" world. As we've seen in many of our readings, it is vital to learn so that we can exist productively within the real world and also I feel like we have also acknowledged that conventional schooling does not necessarily prepare us for that.

    3. 5 Dec 2002 15:28 AR AR178-PS54-07.tex AR178-PS54-07.sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18)P1: GJB180ROGOFF ET AL.Children in many communities begin to participate in work and other matureactivities from age 3 or 4 (Chamoux 1986, Martini & Kirkpatrick 1992). In afarming community in East Africa, 3- and 4-year-old children spent 25–35% oftheir time doing chores, whereas middle-class U.S. children of the same ages spentonly 0–1% of their time doing chores and 4–5% of their time accompanying othersin chores (Harkness & Super 1992).By 5–7 years of age, children in many communities have substantial responsi-bilities for child, animal, and household care, participating in most adult activities(Rogoff et al. 1975, Paradise 1987, Whiting & Edwards 1988). When young chil-dren are included in the social as well as the economic life of their community,they are participants in the adult world, not “in the way” (Nsamenang 1992).The opportunities of children in the United States and a number of other nationsto participate in a wide range of mature community activities have decreaseddramatically over the past century or so. These children are increasingly involved,instead, in specialized child-focused activities—especially schooling—designedto instruct them in skills to be employed in adulthood once they are allowed to beinvolved in mature activities.HISTORICAL CHANGESSEGREGATING U.S. CHILDRENFROM MATURE ACTIVITIES

      Aha, this whole section speaks to American children and their lack of learning by intent participation.

    4. These children are increasingly involved,instead, in specialized child-focused activities

      Perhaps this is why American children don't spend as much time observing or learning via intent participation

    5. no differences in recall compared with children who participated in theactivity directly

      what does this mean for experiential education? would Rogoff say that experiential ed is extraneous because observations are sufficient?

  4. Sep 2015
    1. individualistic understanding of behaviour and experience in museumsand galleries

      I wonder if this might be a generational thing. I recognize that Heath is contrasting the individual experience with someone visiting a museum with others but I'd like to focus on the individualistic interpretation. Meaning, before the internet and mass access to information, maybe this for exhibits to appeal to every single type of individual didn't exist. On the one hand, accessibility is important and on the other, what does art lose by having to be accessed by/appeal to a person with no knowledge of art and an expert at the same time? How does this relate to learning? Accessibility is a huge factor in education broadly speaking.

    2. curiosity

      similar to Moll and Allen

    1. last decade’s work has highlighted for me the vital role of ongoing, focusedresearch and evaluation.

      I would argue we needs this in schools, too. Practitioners need simultaneous research in order to continue teaching effectively.

    2. “museum fatigue,

      what versions of "fatigue" do we see in other learning settings (in or out of school)?

    3. department of visitor research and evaluation withinthe museum, with a research agenda at the intersection of the academic and practitionercommunities. For us, research and practice are deeply linked.

      really important. This also happens to some degree in universities (course evaluations, surveys, etc) -- what about other school settings? I think this is particularly important for practitioners to keep in mind. Often we think it's outside of our role to conduct research while simultaneously teaching but sometimes it might be necessary.

    4. Curiosity was used as the driving force that nudged visitors through-out this cycle a step at a time,

      using curiosity as a strategy to keep learners hooked is interesting - don't we see this outside of museum settings, too? I feel like we saw this in the Moll piece as well -- students were encouraged to pursue projects based on their own interests.

    5. Relevance: The label makes a connection to the everydayexperience

      again, relevance plays a role. We aren't learning for learning's sake, necessarily

    6. eacher can use a variety of strategies to regulate her students’progress, ensuring that they all arrive at the rewarding or significant climax of a lesson

      like we saw in the Moll piece -- teachers can use tact to steer students even if students have a lot of direction and independence

    1. only when we considermental activity in the context of everyday life "that itsouter directednessbecomes finally clear" (p. 17, emphasis in original). Our exampleswere meant to capture not only this "outer directedness," the medi-ated character of life, but how individuals always form part of con-necting relationships that bind them, and their mental activities,together.

      this is similar to our first set of readings for this class where we discussed the necessity of knowledge that relates to how we experience every day life. #connection

    2. "funds of knowledge"to refer to the diverse social networks that in-terconnect households with their social environments and facilitatethe sharing or exchange of resources, including knowledge, skills, andlabor essential for the households' functioning, if not their well-being(for details, see Greenberg, 1989; Velez-lbanez, 1988, in press; Velez-lbanez & Greenberg, 1989).

      This reminds me a lot of the transmission of knowledge that happens with student club leaders that I work with at NYU. Previous board members will sit with new board members and download insider information to make their terms smoother right off the bat. This works nicely sometimes but other times, it backfires especially if changes need to be made. Students get stuck in "the way we've always done it" rather than thinking outside the box about how we might improve upon past successes.

    1. kioskhad  a  whole  new  set  of  skill  sets  that  needed  t

      like what?

    2. out,  some  tourists  and  other

      interesting part of NYU -- the entire campus is situated such that it's not separate from the rest of the city.

    1. oothly  without  disrupting  the  stream  of  people.

      interesting that folks are so concerned with everyone around them when taking this on. Colin also noted that folks were self conscious about being humiliated in front of others or standing out for being new if they didn't execute it properly.

    2.  entering  into  Bobst  Library  from  the  street,  rather  than  from  inside  watching  people  exit  the  building.

      different from Colin's perspective (from inside Kimmel)

    1. a community of revolving doorusers at Kimmel, which involved the construction of identities,even if just a small partof the identitiesof individuals that are part of it

      when I think of "communities of practice," I think of communities based on values, something more substantive than "users of revolving doors." This might be a silly question but does this actually count as a COP?

    2. learnhow to use the door by observing

      one of the other "learning by..." (as mentioned in class discussion)

    3. Prior experience

      This comes up a lot - the different ways in which newcomers navigate the experience of using the doors v. experienced revolving door users.

    1. learning is a way of being in the social world, not a way of coming to know about it. Learners, like observers more generally, are engaged both in the contexts of their learning and in the broader social world within which these contexts are produced. Without this en­gagement, there is no learning, and where the proper engage­ment is sustained, learning will occur

      consistent with Resnick

    1. School is not only a place to prepare people for the world of work and everyday practical problems. It is also a place in which a particular kind of work is done-intellectual work that engages reflection and reasoning. At its best such work steps back from the everyday world in order to consider and evaluate it, yet is engaged with that world as the object of reflection and reasoning. If we value reason and reflection in social, political, or personal life, we must maintain a place devoted to learning how to engage in this extremely impor- tant process. School, at its best, is such a place. There, reasoning and reflection can be cultivated, and a shared cultural knowledge that permits a population to function as a true society can be developed.

      Nice. I think Becker would hope so, too.

    2. schooling seems to play a role in helping people adapt.

      I would like to think that this is an outcome of most schooling. Is it?

    3. situation-specific learning by itself is very limiting.

      Resnick is naming something that those of us in the field (and probably most outside of it) know happens: the disconnect between what's learned in school and what we actually do in our everyday lives outside of school. But this line, and the second-to-last sentence in this paragraph ("Schooled people do better...") resonated with me because I also very much believe in school and being formally educated. It's nice to see Resnick affirm that experience isn't everything and must be supplemented with formal schooling. I see this a lot in my work with student leaders who think that they know everything about being an effective leader or community organizer because they were the president of a student club for a year. They don't recognize that some sort of leadership or professional development in a more formal setting might really strengthen that experience and help them become more effective in future leadership roles.

    1. It is hard to say what the desired outcomes of a college's educational efforts are. But if they are a change in values and the acquisition of certain intellectual skills, students might be diverted from such goals by the necessity of studying for exams not requiring those abilities.

      I felt this a lot as a college student but thankfully don't as a graduate student. I also see this in my own students and resent the anxiety caused by the tension of needing to prep for an exam and also feeling like they need some other fulfillment be it spiritual, intellectual, values-driven, etc.

    2. The relationship might be interesting if pupils had more power over its dimensions

      I found this interesting because in my experience facilitating immersive and/or experiential learning experiences for college students, they have a lot of say in what they learn and how they learn it. Even in the day-to-day programming at the Bronfman Center, everything is student driven. We rarely take on a program that wasn't cooked up by a student.