1,354 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. How to fold and cut a Christmas star<br /> Christian Lawson-Perfect https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S90WPkgxvas

      What a great simple example with some interesting complexity.

      For teachers trying this with students, when one is done making some five pointed stars, the next questions a curious mathematician might ask are: how might I generalize this new knowledge to make a 6 pointed star? A 7 pointed star? a 1,729 pointed star? Is there a maximum number of points possible? Is there a minimum? Can any star be made without a cut? What happens if we make more than one cut? Are there certain numbers for which a star can't be made? Is there a relationship between the number of folds made and the number of points? What does all this have to do with our basic definition of what a paper star might look like? What other questions might we ask to extend this little idea of cutting paper stars?

      Recalling some results from my third grade origami days, based on the thickness of most standard office paper, a typical sheet of paper can only be folded in half at most 7 times. This number can go up a bit if the thickness of the paper is reduced, but having a maximum number of potential folds suggests there is an upper bound for how many points a star might have using this method of construction.

  2. Nov 2023
    1. a viable system is one that can handle the variability of its environment. Or, as Ashby put it, only variety can absorb variety.
    2. Ashby came up with the concept of variety as a measurement of the number of possible states of a system. His "Law" of Requisite Variety stated that for a system to be stable, the number of states that its control mechanism is capable of attaining (its variety) must be greater than or equal to the number of states in the system being controlled.
    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boots_theory

      “The Sam Vimes "Boots" Theory of Economic Injustice runs thus:<br /> At the time of Men at Arms, Samuel Vimes earned thirty-eight dollars a month as a Captain of the Watch, plus allowances. A really good pair of leather boots, the sort that would last years and years, cost fifty dollars. This was beyond his pocket and the most he could hope for was an affordable pair of boots costing ten dollars, which might with luck last a year or so before he would need to resort to makeshift cardboard insoles so as to prolong the moment of shelling out another ten dollars.<br /> Therefore over a period of ten years, he might have paid out a hundred dollars on boots, twice as much as the man who could afford fifty dollars up front ten years before. And he would still have wet feet.<br /> Without any special rancour, Vimes stretched this theory to explain why Sybil Ramkin lived twice as comfortably as he did by spending about half as much every month.”<br /> ― Terry Pratchett, Men at Arms (1993)

    1. Black and minority ethnic groups had higher infection and mortality rates due to underlying health conditions, lack of healthcare access, living conditions, and being essential workers.


    1. orthorexia, an eating disorder characterized by an obsession with healthy eating.

      disproportionately affects women, interesting that self-care is considered as part of social care- self- reliance

    1. Disadvantaged young people, for example, face institutionalized racism, poverty, and precarious job markets, but these factors are not considered in this approach.

      ignores intersectionality

    1. you can train them it has memory you can train it you can take a a trained one and a naive one and fuse them they 00:39:24 they'll fuse together and then the memory sort of propagates and the naive one will now remember you know have the memory that that the other one had um no nerves no no brain um single cell
      • for: Michael Levin - slime mold experiment, question - new theory of consciousness from a single cell

      • question

        • is it possible that a theory can be constructed to explain consciousness from the behavior of a single cell organism such as a slime mold?
    1. "landscapes of care" in everyday places where people gather, such as homes, cafes, community centers, and parks.

      informal social care system- not just a political problem, personal is political

    2. Household work is often invisible and paid domestic work is characterized by informality and lack of social protection.

      exploitation of 'female' careers

    1. Black and Minority Ethnic women and people with disabilities have been disproportionately impacted by the cuts.


    2. cuts in social services and benefits, affecting the most vulnerable populations.

      non proportional affecting of all areas of the population, marginalised people are marginalised by policies

    1. A survey carried out across EU countries in 2016 found that among respondents, 44 per cent of women and 30 per cent of men found it difficult to combine paid work with caring responsibilities.8

      uses personal stories, stats and ideology to explain which is quite convincing

    2. The experiences and access to power of women, people of color, and colonized peoples are different and must be taken into account.


    3. Feminist activists and scholars have sought to challenge this by politicizing these tasks and highlighting their importance for the functioning of the economy.

      personal is the political- third wave feminism

    4. unpaid care work compared to men, which includes household chores, personal care, and volunteering.This imbalance in care work can lead to economic disadvantages for women, such as lower earnings and limited job opportunities.

      women are socially and economically disadvantaged (communism) due to unpaid domestic labour and more care responsibilities

    5. interdependence of our lives


    6. The welfare state has played a role in the provision of care, but certain groups have been excluded. Care work is deeply intertwined with power dynamics, and feminist movements have challenged traditional gender roles.
    1. ecorded 20 per cent increase in female labour-force participation in OECD countries over the last thirty years.31
    2. Migrant women from the Global South and Eastern Europe have filled care gaps in the Global North, taking up positions as domestic workers or health and social care workers.

      intersectionality as exploitation

    3. Migration plays a role in care debates, with migrant workers often scapegoated despite their contributions to the economy and care sector.


    4. shifted the cost of care onto individuals and communities, leading to a greater reliance on informal support and charity.

      neoliberal = more exploited women in social care for free

    5. but without a change in the division of unpaid care work, many women are left doing multiple shifts of caring for others.

      women are most impacted as they mostly work in the care industry (more than men). division of labour and paid/unpaid

    6. important role of women in providing unpaid care work and criticizes the invisibility and undervaluation of this labor.
    7. nequal impact of the coronavirus crisis on different groups, such as precarious workers and marginalized communities.

      care industry and capitalism has a greater impact on marginalised groups (intersectionality)

  3. Oct 2023
    1. Alter regularly composes phrases that sound strange in English, in part because they carry hints of ancient Hebrew within them. The translation theorist Lawrence Venuti, whom Alter has cited, describes translations that “foreignize,” or openly signal that a translated text was originally written in another language, and those that “domesticate,” or render invisible the original language. According to Venuti, a “foreignized” translation “seeks to register linguistic and cultural differences.” Alter maintains that his translation of the Bible borrows from the idea of “foreignizing,” and this approach generates unexpected and even radical urgency, particularly in passages that might seem familiar.
    2. The art of the biblical narrative, Alter hypothesized, was finalized in a late editorial stage by some unifying creative mind — a figure who, like a film editor, introduced narrative coherence through the art of montage. Alter called this method “composite artistry,” and he would also come to use the term “the Arranger” — a concept borrowed from scholarship on James Joyce — to describe the editor (or editors) who gave the text a final artistic overlay. It was a secular and literary method of reading the Hebrew Bible but, in its reverent insistence on the coherence and complex artistry of the central texts, it has appealed to some religious readers.
    1. Hayton, Darin. “Washington Irving’s Columbus and the Flat Earth.” History of Science blog. Darin Hayton, December 2, 2014. https://dhayton.haverford.edu/blog/2014/12/02/washington-irvings-columbus-and-the-flat-earth/.

    2. the Columbus myth is alive and well in the United States

      the author cites examples of modern references including: - Lawrence Krauss (cosmologist) # - President Barak Obama # - Chris Impey, astronomer #, #

    3. By the time Andrew White wrote his A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896) (online here), Columbus’s struggles to overcome a medieval Church that believed in a flat earth had become historical fact.
    4. By the latter 19th-century, the supposed truth of the Columbus story had completely replaced the historical truths. In works like John Draper’s History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874) (online here) we read nothing of the reasoned objections raised by the Council at Salamanca or of Columbus’s errors. Instead we learn that his proposal’s irreligious tendency was pointed out by the Spanish ecclesiastics, and condemned by the Council of Salamanca; its orthodoxy was confuted from the Pentateuch, the Psalms, the Prophecies, the Gospels, the Epistles, and the writings of the Fathers—St. Chrysostom, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, St. Gregory, St. Basil, St Ambrose.
    5. Lactantius, of course, and now Cosmas Indicopleustes, who says nothing about antipodes but offers an easily mocked tabernacle-shaped world and flat earth.
    6. Within a decade, William Whewell had published his History of the Inductive Sciences (1837) (online here). In a section on antipodes, he admitted that most people throughout history had known the earth was round.

      Link to https://hypothes.is/a/hvDAtHT0Ee6_Z3em_Dz4bg (Columbus & Washington Irving)

    7. The seeds of the Columbus myth seem to grow from Washington Irving’s biography of Columbus, A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828) (online here). Alexander Everett, Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain, had invited Irving to Madrid in the hopes that Irving would translate a recently published collection of documents on Columbus.

      Source of the Columbus/Flat Earth portion of the bunk theory.

      • summary
        • Konstantin Anokhin proposes a theory of consciousness based on the concept of the cognitome and consists of three principal claims:

          - the study of the structure (mind) must precede the study of the processes that take place within the structure (consciousness)

  4. Sep 2023
    1. 54:30 Max utopian in his head, trust in random people

      • see index zk on Apollonian and Dionysian theory (idealism, good or bad?)

      57:00 inherently, people are good, but they get corrupted (good and evil)

      57:44 “there is some light” (life can be good): see zk 9 section on light & darkness

    1. What a critical social theory really needs to address is why hunger, poverty, and other forms of human suffering persist despite the technological and scientific potential to mitigate them or to eliminate them altogether.

      Adorno and Horkheimer's main critique of 1930-1960 Western Society

    1. A rhizome is a concept in post-structuralism describing a nonlinear network that "connects any point to any other point".[1] It appears in the work of French theorists Deleuze and Guattari, who used the term in their book A Thousand Plateaus to refer to networks that establish "connections between semiotic chains, organizations of power, and circumstances relative to the arts, sciences and social struggles" with no apparent order or coherency.
    1. according to Husserl, Galileo was the one who performed the trick. Who suddenly was hiding the origin of knowledge.
      • for: quote, quote - Galileo, quote - hiding the origin of knowledge, physical theory - hiding origin of knowledge

      • quote

        • According to Husserl, Galileo was the one who performed the trick. Who suddenly was hiding the origin of knowledge.
      • author: Michel Bitbol
    1. religious ideas contend that a non-physical Consciousness called God was in a good mood at one point so he and it usually is a he created 01:27:18 physicality the material world around us thank you so in those viewpoints Frameworks you're not allowed to ask who or what created God because the answer will be well he 01:27:35 just is and always was so have faith my child and stop asking questions like that [Music] religion or Mythos of materialism philosophy you are not allowed to ask 01:27:46 what created physical energy if you do the answer will be the big bang just happened it was this energy in a point that just was and always will be so have faith my child and don't ask questions 01:28:00 that can't be answered
      • for: adjacency: adjacency - monotheistic religions and maerialism
      • adjacency between
        • monotheistic religion
        • materialist / physicalist scientific theories
      • adjacency statement:
        • Good observation of an adjacency, although not all religions hold those views, and even in those religions, those are those views are held by less critical thinkers.
          • In the more contemplative branches of major world religions, there is a lot of deep, critical thinking that is not so naive.
    1. Technology is—the mortal enemy of art.technology. . . .We—are your first fighting and punitive force.We are also your last slave-workers.We are not dreamers from art who build in the imagination:

      This seems to speak to the idea that it will take work to rebuild in the wake of the Revolution. It will take work, constructing, and technology. This is also one of many places where art is denounced.

      • for: nonduality, non-duality, duality, dualism, hard problem of consciousness, explanatory gap, relativistic theory of consciousness, human INTERbeing, human INTERbeCOMing, Deep Humanity, DH
      • title: A Relativistic Theory of Consciousness
      • author: Nir Lahav, Zahariah A. Neemeh
      • date: May 12, 2022

      • abstract

        • In recent decades, the scientific study of consciousness has significantly increased our understanding of this elusive phenomenon.
        • Yet, despite critical development in our understanding of the functional side of consciousness, we still lack a fundamental theory regarding its phenomenal aspect.
        • There is an “explanatory gap” between
          • our scientific knowledge of functional consciousness and
          • its “subjective,” phenomenal aspects,
        • referred to as the “hard problem” of consciousness.
        • The phenomenal aspect of consciousness is the first-person answer to “what it’s like” question, and
          • it has thus far proved recalcitrant to direct scientific investigation.
        • Naturalistic dualists argue that it is composed of a primitive, private, non-reductive element of reality that is independent from the functional and physical aspects of consciousness.
        • Illusionists, on the other hand, argue that it is merely a cognitive illusion, and that all that exists are ultimately physical, non-phenomenal properties.
        • We contend that both the dualist and illusionist positions are flawed because they tacitly assume consciousness to be an absolute property that doesn’t depend on the observer.
        • We develop a conceptual and a mathematical argument for a relativistic theory of consciousness in which
          • a system either has or doesn’t have phenomenal consciousness with respect to some observer.
        • Phenomenal consciousness is neither private nor delusional, just relativistic.
          • In the frame of reference of the cognitive system, it will be observable (first-person perspective) and
          • in other frame of reference it will not (third-person perspective).
        • These two cognitive frames of reference are both correct,
          • just as in the case of
            • an observer that claims to be at rest
            • while another will claim that the observer has constant velocity.
        • Given that consciousness is a relativistic phenomenon, neither observer position can be privileged,
          • as they both describe the same underlying reality.
        • Based on relativistic phenomena in physics
          • we developed a mathematical formalization for consciousness which bridges the explanatory gap and dissolves the hard problem.
        • Given that the first-person cognitive frame of reference also offers legitimate observations on consciousness,
          • we conclude by arguing that philosophers can usefully contribute to the science of consciousness by collaborating with neuroscientists to explore the neural basis of phenomenal structures.
      • comment

        • This is a promising approach to solving the hard problem of consciosness
    1. Phenomenal consciousness is only seemingly private because in order to measure it one needs to be in the appropriate cognitive frame of reference. It is not a simple transformation to change from a third-person cognitive frame of reference to the first-person frame, but in principle it can be done, and hence phenomenal consciousness isn’t private anymore.
      • for: relativistic theory of consciousness, question, question - shifting cognitive frames
      • question
        • How is this transformation done?
    1. Recent work has revealed several new and significant aspects of the dynamics of theory change. First, statistical information, information about the probabilistic contingencies between events, plays a particularly important role in theory-formation both in science and in childhood. In the last fifteen years we’ve discovered the power of early statistical learning.

      The data of the past is congruent with the current psychological trends that face the education system of today. Developmentalists have charted how children construct and revise intuitive theories. In turn, a variety of theories have developed because of the greater use of statistical information that supports probabilistic contingencies that help to better inform us of causal models and their distinctive cognitive functions. These studies investigate the physical, psychological, and social domains. In the case of intuitive psychology, or "theory of mind," developmentalism has traced a progression from an early understanding of emotion and action to an understanding of intentions and simple aspects of perception, to an understanding of knowledge vs. ignorance, and finally to a representational and then an interpretive theory of mind.

      The mechanisms by which life evolved—from chemical beginnings to cognizing human beings—are central to understanding the psychological basis of learning. We are the product of an evolutionary process and it is the mechanisms inherent in this process that offer the most probable explanations to how we think and learn.

      Bada, & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism Learning Theory : A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.

      • for: doppleganger, conflict resolution, deep humanity, common denominators, CHD, Douglas Rushkoff, Naomi Klein, Into the Mirror World, conspiracy theory, conspiracy theories, conspiracy culture, nonduality, self-other, human interbeing, polycrisis, othering, storytelling, myth-making, social media amplifier -summary
        • This conversation was insightful on so many dimensions salient to the polycrisis humanity is moving through.
        • It makes me think of the old cliches:
          • "The more things change, the more they remain the same"
          • "What's old is new" ' "History repeats"
        • the conversation explores Naomi's latest book (as of this podcast), Into the Mirror World, in which Naomi adopts a different style of writing to explicate, articulate and give voice to
          • implicit and tacit discomforting ideas and feelings she experienced during covid and earlier, and
          • became a focal point through a personal comparative analysis with another female author and thought leader, Naomi Wolf,
            • a feminist writer who ended up being rejected by mainstream media and turned to right wing media.
        • The conversation explores the process of:
          • othering,
          • coopting and
          • abandoning
        • of ideas important for personal and social wellbeing.
        • and speaks to the need to identify what is going on and to reclaim those ideas for the sake of humanity
        • In this context, the doppleganger is the people who are mirror-like imiages of ourselves, but on the other side of polarized issues.
        • Charismatic leaders who are bad actors often are good at identifying the suffering of the masses, and coopt the ideas of good actors to serve their own ends of self-enrichment.
        • There are real world conspiracies that have caused significant societal harm, and still do,
        • however, when there ithere are phenomena which we have no direct sense experience of, the mixture of
          • a sense of helplessness,
          • anger emerging from injustice
        • a charismatic leader proposing a concrete, possible but explanatory theory
        • is a powerful story whose mythology can be reified by many people believing it
        • Another cliche springs to mind
          • A lie told a hundred times becomes a truth
          • hence the amplifying role of social media
        • When we think about where this phenomena manifests, we find it everywhere:
  5. Aug 2023
    1. Some may not realize it yet, but the shift in technology represented by ChatGPT is just another small evolution in the chain of predictive text with the realms of information theory and corpus linguistics.

      Claude Shannon's work along with Warren Weaver's introduction in The Mathematical Theory of Communication (1948), shows some of the predictive structure of written communication. This is potentially better underlined for the non-mathematician in John R. Pierce's book An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise (1961) in which discusses how one can do a basic analysis of written English to discover that "e" is the most prolific letter or to predict which letters are more likely to come after other letters. The mathematical structures have interesting consequences like the fact that crossword puzzles are only possible because of the repetitive nature of the English language or that one can use the editor's notation "TK" (usually meaning facts or date To Come) in writing their papers to make it easy to find missing information prior to publication because the statistical existence of the letter combination T followed by K is exceptionally rare and the only appearances of it in long documents are almost assuredly areas which need to be double checked for data or accuracy.

      Cell phone manufacturers took advantage of the lower levels of this mathematical predictability to create T9 predictive text in early mobile phone technology. This functionality is still used in current cell phones to help speed up our texting abilities. The difference between then and now is that almost everyone takes the predictive magic for granted.

      As anyone with "fat fingers" can attest, your phone doesn't always type out exactly what you mean which can result in autocorrect mistakes (see: DYAC (Damn You AutoCorrect)) of varying levels of frustration or hilarity. This means that when texting, one needs to carefully double check their work before sending their text or social media posts or risk sending their messages to Grand Master Flash instead of Grandma.

      The evolution in technology effected by larger amounts of storage, faster processing speeds, and more text to study means that we've gone beyond the level of predicting a single word or two ahead of what you intend to text, but now we're predicting whole sentences and even paragraphs which make sense within a context. ChatGPT means that one can generate whole sections of text which will likely make some sense.

      Sadly, as we know from our T9 experience, this massive jump in predictability doesn't mean that ChatGPT or other predictive artificial intelligence tools are "magically" correct! In fact, quite often they're wrong or will predict nonsense, a phenomenon known as AI hallucination. Just as with T9, we need to take even more time and effort to not only spell check the outputs from the machine, but now we may need to check for the appropriateness of style as well as factual substance!

      The bigger near-term problem is one of human understanding and human communication. While the machine may appear to magically communicate (often on our behalf if we're publishing it's words under our names), is it relaying actual meaning? Is the other person reading these words understanding what was meant to have been communicated? Do the words create knowledge? Insight?

      We need to recall that Claude Shannon specifically carved semantics and meaning out of the picture in the second paragraph of his seminal paper:

      Frequently the messages have meaning; that is they refer to or are correlated according to some system with certain physical or conceptual entities. These semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem.

      So far ChatGPT seems to be accomplishing magic by solving a small part of an engineering problem by being able to explore the adjacent possible. It is far from solving the human semantic problem much less the un-adjacent possibilities (potentially representing wisdom or insight), and we need to take care to be aware of that portion of the unsolved problem. Generative AIs are also just choosing weighted probabilities and spitting out something which is prone to seem possible, but they're not optimizing for which of many potential probabilities is the "best" or the "correct" one. For that, we still need our humanity and faculties for decision making.

      Shannon, Claude E. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 1948.

      Shannon, Claude E., and Warren Weaver. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, 1949.

      Pierce, John Robinson. An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise. Second, Revised. Dover Books on Mathematics. 1961. Reprint, Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, Inc., 1980. https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Information-Theory-Symbols-Mathematics/dp/0486240614.

      Shannon, Claude Elwood. “The Bandwagon.” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2, no. 1 (March 1956): 3. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIT.1956.1056774.

      We may also need to explore The Bandwagon, an early effect which Shannon noticed and commented upon. Everyone seems to be piling on the AI bandwagon right now...

    1. In finance, the greater fool theory suggests that one can sometimes make money through the purchase of overvalued assets — items with a purchase price drastically exceeding the intrinsic value — if those assets can later be resold at an even higher price.
    1. Aguinis, H. and Matthew A. Cronin. (2022). "It's the Theory, Stupid." Organizational Psychology Review Online First. https://doi.org/10.1177/20413866221080629

    2. the number one and most important reason why research is meaningful and makes a useful and valuable contribution is theory.
    3. (1) Why is theory so critical and for whom? (2) What does a good theory look like? (3) What does it mean to have too much or too many theories? (4) When don’t we need a theory? (5) How does falsification work with theory? and (6) Is good theory compatible with current publication pressures?

      This is six question to understand the state of art of a theory

    4. It's the theory, stupid.
    1. published article can be cited as below:

      Sacha Golob (2019) A New Theory of Stupidity, International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 27:4, 562-580, DOI: 10.1080/09672559.2019.1632372

    1. While the proximate mechanisms of these anthropogenic changes are well studied (e.g., climate change, biodiversity loss, population growth), the evolutionary causality of these anthropogenic changes have been largely ignored.
      • for: climate change - evolutionary causes, cultural evolution - unsustainability, unsustainability
      • definition: Anthroecological theory (AET)
        • This theory proposes that the ultimate cause of anthropogenic environmental change is multi-level selection for niche construction and ecosystem engineering
    2. Anthroecological theory (AET) hypothesizes that human social and cultural evolution is the ultimate cause of the ecological crises currently damaging earth systems
      • for: AET, Anthroecological theory, anthropocene - causes, ecological crisis - roots, overshoot
      • paraphrase
        • Anthroecological theory (AET) hypothesizes that
          • human social and cultural evolution is the ultimate cause of the ecological crises currently damaging earth systems
      • for: gene culture coevolution, carrying capacity, unsustainability, overshoot, cultural evolution, progress trap

      • Title: The genetic and cultural evolution of unsustainability

      • Author: Brian F. Snyder

      • Abstract

      • Summary
      • Paraphrase
        • Anthropogenic changes are accelerating and threaten the future of life on earth.
        • While the proximate mechanisms of these anthropogenic changes are well studied
          • climate change,
          • biodiversity loss,
          • population growth
        • the evolutionary causality of these anthropogenic changes have been largely ignored.
        • Anthroecological theory (AET) proposes that the ultimate cause of anthropogenic environmental change is
          • multi-level selection for niche construction and ecosystem engineering.
        • Here, we integrate this theory with
          • Lotka’s Maximum Power Principle
        • and propose a model linking
          • energy extraction from the environment with
          • genetic, technological and cultural evolution
        • to increase human ecosystem carrying capacity.
        • Carrying capacity is partially determined by energetic factors such as
          • the net energy a population can acquire from its environment and
          • the efficiency of conversion from energy input to offspring output.
        • These factors are under Darwinian genetic selection
        • in all species,
        • but in humans, they are also determined by
          • technology and
          • culture.
        • If there is genetic or non-genetic heritable variation in
          • the ability of an individual or social group
        • to increase its carrying capacity,
        • then we hypothesize that - selection or cultural evolution will act - to increase carrying capacity.
        • Furthermore, if this evolution of carrying capacity occurs - faster than the biotic components of the ecological system can respond via their own evolution,
          • then we hypothesize that unsustainable ecological changes will result.
    1. "in his youth he was full of vim and vigor"

      Do calcified words eventually cease to have any definition over time? That is they have a stand alone definition, then a definition within their calcified phrase, then they cease to have any stand alone definition at all though they continue existence only in those calcified phrases.

    1. In the ensuing decades, mathematicians began working with this new thing, the category, and this new idea, equivalence. In so doing they created a revolutionary new approach to mathematics, category theory, that many see as supplanting set theory. Imagine if writers had spent 150 years representing the world only through basic description: This is a red ball. That is a 60-foot tree. This is a dog. Then one day someone discovers metaphor. Suddenly, our ability to find new ways to represent the world explodes, as does our knowledge of writing as a discipline.

      I love the idea here of analogizing the abstract nature of category theory in math with the abstract nature of metaphor in writing!

      Good job Dale Keiger!

    2. "If mathematics is the science of analogy, the study of patterns, then category theory is the study of patterns of mathematical thought."

      original source?

  6. Jul 2023
    1. There are two ways of establishing a chord–scale relationship for ii 7 –V 7 or ii≤57–V 7progressions: either select a mode that works for V7 or select a mode that works for ii7or (ii≤57). As shown in Figure 18.4, mm. 2–4 feature a descending sequence of incompleteII–Vs connecting the tonic on I with the predominant on IV. Each II–V progressionestablishes a chord–scale relationship with the corresponding dominant 7th. Notice that,in m. 2, the use of Mixolydian ≤13 fits the underlying context much better than the diatonicMixolydian mode. The tonic note F4 functions as the ≤13th of Mixolydian ≤13 and isretained as a common tone in mm. 1–2. The second A section (mm. 9–16) demonstratesa different approach to chord–scale theory. The selection of modes for the II–V pro-gression in Figure 18.4 is based on the quality of the predominant chord. Thus, inm. 10, Emin7(≤5)–A7 uses E Locrian, while in m. 11, Dmin7–G7 establishes a chord–scalerelationship with D Dorian, etc

      The bridge of “Confirmation” (mm. 17–24) features two four-bar phrases with ii7 –V7 tonicizations of the IV and ≤VI key areas. The chord–scale relationship for the bridge in Figure 18.4 includes a different selection of modes: Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian for Cmin7–F7–B≤Maj7, and Dorian, Altered, and Lydian for E≤min7–A≤7–D≤Maj7. Tonal and contextual considerations are particularly evident with the choice of Altered mode in m. 22, which accommodates notes from the tonic key and prepares the arrival of FMaj7 in m. 25. The last A section (mm. 25–32) features a much bolder selection of modes. The choices of A Altered in m. 26 and F Locrian in m. 28 are particularly poignant. The former injects chromatic notes into the structure of dominant 7th chord. The choice of F Locrian over Cmin7–F7 in m. 28 might seem out of place because neither chord (at least not in the present form) establishes a convincing relationship with this mode. But, the F Locrian mode forms a chord–scale relationship with F7(≤9≥9)sus, which is an effective harmonic substitution for Cmin7–F7. While the selection of modes in Figure 18.4 is overcrowded with different options, an improvisation may focus on only a few modes. In fact, each A section contains a selection of modes that could be implemented in the course of an entire solo. In establishing a successful chord–scale relationship for the tune, be mindful of three important con- siderations: (1) modal hierarchy, (2) chromatic treatment, and (3) voice leading. Chromatic modes, for instance, contain notes that might need preparation. This preparation usually takes place anywhere from one beat to one measure before the chromatic notes occur. The succession of modes in mm. 5–6—B≤ Mixolydian and D Mixolydian ≤13—illustrates such a case. The latter mode contains the chromatic ≤13th that was introduced as ≤7th of B≤7 in m. 5. “CONFIRMATION” 239

    1. For any action, habit, and belief you have, ask yourself: "Does this help toward my goals and future self or not?", if the answer is no, it is a distraction and part of the 80% you need to let go in order to reach 10X

      Your future self and 10X (or 100X) vision and goals serve as a massive filter for action and belief.

      Note: You should not 10X everything! Just 3 priorities.

    2. What is the game you want to play? What is the game you could play? What is a game you could go all in on and succeed at and be really good at?

      This defines your pathways and strategies within your 20%

      The path can change and adjust over time.

    3. To achieve goals, raise the floor, FOCUS on removing bottlenecks. Also create constraints by Schwerpunkt (primary objective), contrary to common wisdom, constraint actually gives freedom, it prevents analysis paralysis.

  7. Jun 2023
    1. An Alternate Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    2. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    3. A Single-Scale ApproachThe chord structure of the A sections of rhythm changes can be reduced to the fundamentalframework shown in Figure 19.5.While mm. 1–4 of any A section feature a tonic prolongation, mm. 5–8 are morecomplicated even at the background level. For instance, the predominant in mm. 6, 14,and 30 can take the form of major 7th or dominant 7th chords. Also, the tonally closed256 INTERMEDIATEFIGURE 19.5 Fundamental Harmonic Frameworks
    4. FIGURE 19.6 A Basic Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    5. any melodic line can be represented by a chord and/or harmonicprogression and, conversely, any chord or harmonic progression can be horizontalizedwith a melodic line
    6. Chapter 18 provides an analysis of Charlie Parker’s “Confirmation” as a representativecomposition from the Bebop Era. It offers a transcription of the solo by the pianist HankJone
    7. The progression shown in Figure 9.9 exemplifies the structure of a minor blues.4The chord structure of the minor blues is characterized by the presence of traditionaltonal progressions. For instance, the tonicization of iv in m. 4 uses a secondary dominant7th, V7/iv, and the motion to V 7 in m. 10 is prepared by the ≤VI7 chord. This particularpreparation of the dominant 7th, ≤VI7–V7, is one of the harmonic trademarks of the minorblues.
    8. Figure 9.8 establishes a couple of chord–scale relationships for the basic blues progressionin the key of B≤. Figure 9.8a uses major and minor blues scales and Figure 9.8b combinesblues scales and modes
    9. Chapter 9 discusses the most important form in jazz, the blues, examines the structureof the blues scale, and provides chord–scale relationships for the basic and minor bluesprogressions
    10. The intermediary category contains three modes: Dorian, Locrian, and Locrian Ω2
    11. Chapter 8 establishes a relationship between the vertical and horizontal dimensions injazz. The diatonic and chromatic modes are revisited, and chord–scale relationships withfour-, five-part chords, and the II–V–I progressions are established.
    12. Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study


      Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study Terefenko, D. 2014

    1. Diminished Scales and Harmony
    2. Like the diminished chord, the diminished scale is symmetrical, an eight-note (octotonic)collection of alternating whole and half steps, or half and whole steps.21 As Stefan Koskastates, “The octotonic scale is a rich source of melodic and harmonic material. It containsall of the intervals, from minor 2nd up to major 7th. All of the tertian triads except for theaugmented triad can be extracted from this scale, as can four of the five common 7th-chord types (the major-7 th cannot). 22Diminished scales and patterns derived from them are now part of modern jazzharmonic vocabulary and are used primarily to complement altered dominant chords. Forexample, a half-whole diminished scale over a G7 chord will include most of thecommon extensions and alterations:  9, 11, and 13
    3. Another common hybrid scale, thediminished-whole tone, is usually implied by the “alt” chord symbol. This scale includesa 9, both major and minor thirds (also referred to as a 9), and a 5. It starts out like ahalf-whole diminished scale and ends like a whole-tone scale. A diminished-whole tonescale in C would be C, D, E, E, G, A, B
    4. Diminished Scales and Harmony
    1. An article recommended to me by Dalton V. that he thought I'd enjoy and appreciate. Looks like AlignmentForum is one of those "online Rationalist communities" (like LessWrong, SlateStarCodex, etc.).

      The blog post "The Waluigi Effect" by Cleo Nardo touches on a variety of interesting topics:

      • the Waluigi effect
      • Simulator Theory
      • Derrida's "there is no outside text"
      • RLHF (Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback) and potential limits
    1. Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity, logic and the principle of individuation, whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion, ecstasy and unity (hence the omission of the principle of individuation). Nietzsche used these two forces because, for him, the world of mind and order on one side, and passion and chaos on the other, formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture:[3][4] the Apollonian a dreaming state, full of illusions; and Dionysian a state of intoxication, representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries. In this mould, a man appears as the satyr

      Apollo as representing order, clarity, a dream-state of life, an illusion.

      Dionysus, on the other hand, represent chaos, and the dissolution of this dream.

    1. it still strikes me as something people believe in the abstract, rather than know from hard experience. I've always found that if you look behind/under widely held beliefs, you can find useful gems.
    2. Python essentially doesn't have private methods, let alone protected ones, and it doesn't turn out to be that big a deal in practice.
    1. Unlike many developed countries, the United States lacks a national curriculum or teacher-training standards. Local policies change constantly, as governors, school boards, mayors and superintendents flow in and out of jobs.

      Many developed countries have national curricula and specific teacher-training standards, but the United States does not. Instead decisions on curricular and standards are created and enforced at the state and local levels, often by politically elected figures including governors, mayors, superintendents, and school boards.

      This leaves early education in the United States open to a much greater sway of political influence. This can be seen in examples of Texas attempting to legislate the display the ten commandments in school classrooms in 2023, reading science being neglected in the adoption of Culkins' Units of Study curriculum, and other footballs like the supposed suppression of critical race theory in right leaning states.

  8. May 2023
    1. Hyper-zettelkastenStudents stick all of their zettels on the walls with sticky tack or tape (be sure students initial or mark their zettels before doing this).Then, students walk around the room and search for connections and create original ideas using those connections.Students physically attach those zettels with string (like a conspiracy theorist would) and stick a zettel on the string explaining the connection.
    1. unity of science

      process:explaining higher-level scientific phenomena science in theories through the entities and theories from the more fundamental science.

      This lower the level the more material and less constructed the science. (Which makes physics actually one level, according to Bechter and Hamilton (2007))

      also: theory of reduction

    1. However, it's difficult to rely on a case-sensitive email address in the real world because many systems (typically ones that have to handle data merging) don't preserve case. Notably systems that use email addresses for user IDs, or any system that has to collate data from multiple sources (CRMs, email broadcast systems, etc) will either normalise case or treat them case-insensitively.
    2. However, for all practical purposes in the modern age, I believe you can consider email addresses to be case insensitive.
    1. a SHOULD is always trumped in RFCs by a MUST. The fact that hosts SHOULD do something means that they might not and I just wanted reassurance that, in reality, the SHOULD is a bit more widely adopted than its definition implies.
    1. So yes, the part before the "@" could be case-sensitive, since it is entirely under the control of the host system. In practice though, no widely used mail systems distinguish different addresses based on case.
    1. They are efficiency and effectiveness. For memory systems, an effective system is one that gets the right answer every time no matter how long it takes you. And the efficient system is one that uses the least amount of resources like time, associations, dependent systems, etc. but it may not be that good at providing the correct answers.

      Efficiency and effectiveness measures for specific mnemonic systems may vary from person to person, so one should consider them with respect to their own practices. There may not be a single "right" or "correct" practice universally, but there could be one for everyone individually based on their own choices or preferences.

    1. Related to this note:

      Haris Neophytou wants to apply a "primality sieve" (namely the sieve of Eratosthenes) to this list. I think it's so he can construct the primes that divide the order of the monster group \(M\)