829 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2018
  2. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. "The message;' she writes, "was that people would lose their Mohegan identity when they left the tribal lands:'

      McMullen writes and begins to explain her analysis as a non-native. She explains that the basket signifies the Mohegan struggle to connect with their past as the lose their identity to the growing English identity and their identity faces persecution. This is much like the Black Lives Matter movement in which they feel like their people are being persecuted and result in a tarnished identity, leading them to work as a movement to fight their opression. Unlike the Mohegans, who simply acknowledged their loss. The BLM movement has allowed for a growing awareness of oppression and great coverage to the injustice that people of African American descent face. http://time.com/time-person-of-the-year-2015-runner-up-black-lives-matter/

    2. A spiritual force is present in this Mohegan manuaa. One of the primary symbols of the basket, perhaps the most important symbol found in Mohe-gan culrure, is the four-domed medallion. It is thought to represent the four directions, or four cardinal points, as well as the interrelationship of the soul, earth, and universe. 73 Through the use of this symbol, the basket pattern offers a view into traditional Mohegan belief and cosmology. T

      Fitzgerald adds in a secondary source along with her analysis of the primary source of the basket to further explain its importance. She goes into explaining the "spiritual force" present in the basket. The designs on the basket greatly signify the importance of Mohegan cosmology in their theological beliefs and traditions and it played a great role in their lives. By utilizing this secondary source, Fitzgerald can further prove the basket's importance to the Mohegan society, especially in their spiritual walks.

    3. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant

      The designs are clearly important into magnifying into the Mohegan culture and lifestyle of the time period that they were created in. When viewing the basket, the patterns, symbols, and designs are meant to encompass all aspects how the Mohegans lived and interacted with one other. They utilized these baskets from aspects of agricultural work to their spiritual life. All areas of their life were embodied through the life of a basket and it's multiple uses.

    4. The Mohegan covered manuaa, or basket, pictured here is lined with an 1817 Hartford, Connecticut, newspaper, thereby fixing the date of the basket at 1817 or earlier. Newspaper linings were common practice during the nineteenth cenrury.69

      The particular Mohegan basket that is being discussed is seen to have been lined by an 1817 newspaper from Hatford, Connecticut. At first glance, one may infer that the lining could maybe hinder the date of creation by it being lined by an older newspaper, but the opposite is quite the case. The lining is was used commonly to store the contents and protect the overall structure of this basket. This can go to show that those held these baskets knew that they hold great value to society within their intricate designs and patterns and there was effort to preserve them. Though this is evident, the majority of society set these objects aside rather than viewing them as historical artifacts.

    5. Both the variety of design patterns and symbols on Mohegan baskets of the early nineteenth cenrury and Mohegan cultural memory support the theory that basket patterns were used as communicative or narrative devices.

      these traditions of basket making have dated back to the 18th century, but by then the tradition had been well developed. These basket designs were used as a forum for the political opinions of the basket makers. Many basket makers expressed the opinion that one would not lose their Mohegan identity just by leaving Mohegan boundaries, since the medallions were made both inside and outside Mohegan territories. Many basket makers use the medallions to represent those who lived inside the boundaries, and other motifs, such as strawberries, to represent those outside of the Mohegan boundaries.

    6. >lative

      In the article,"Standing Rock Sioux Claim 'Victory and Vindiction' in Court", the Sioux tribe came into legal conflict with the U.S. army corps of engineering when they planned to construct a pipeline within the area of where the Siuox tribe inhabits. What the court did not consider was the economic consequence that would happen if there was to be an oil spill of some sort. The outcome could ruin the everyday life of the Sioux tribe, because it would kill off the fish that live in the river, also where the tribe fish; The water would also be contaminated so the game that drinks from the water would also become very sick, preventing the Sioux to be able to hunt these animals. After a year long legal battle with the court, the Sioux tribe would get their first victory against the pipeline, and the construction would be put on hold for now. The Sioux tribe would be able to protect the land that they have so much history on for now.

    7. In sum, by touching every aspect of daily Native life, both past and present, basketry is imbued with cultural and spiritual power. 63

      According to the Mohegan tribe website, there was this tradition that the Mohegan people had about Makiawisug, otherwise known as "little people". These were considered as good spirits, but they were also to be treated with respect. What the Mohegan people did during nightfall was to carry baskets out to the woods where they would leave various types of food out for these spirits. After a certain time the Makiawisug would collect the baskets. The thing about these spirits were that they had their own form of etiquette. You weren't suppose to look them in the eyes for it was considered rude; with a single point they would root you to the ground and take all of your belongings. You weren't allowed to talk about them in the summertime either, because that's when they were most active. In return, the spirits taught the Mohegan people man skills such as growing corn, and utilizing healing plants. The spirits keep the Earth healthy as well as others who honor them.

    8. One of the primary symbols of the basket, perhaps the most important symbol found in Mohe-gan culrure, is the four-domed medallion. It

      According to the Mohegan tribe website, the Medallion of the Mohegan culture had four different parts to it: Four SemiCircular Domes, Four Sacred Trees, 13 dots around the center circle, and the Sacred Center Circle, as shown below

      Each part listed on the medallion all have a different meaning, but they all correlate to the Earth and the past generations of the tribe, for example how the four semi-circular domes represent the back grandfather turtle where the Earth was grown upon; or the thirteen circles that represent the past generations since the Uncas.

    9. a gendered cultural form, the basket is the embodiment of the role of women in passing on not only the basket-weaving tradition but cultural know~~ge as we~.

      The woven basket was a feminine form of expression for the mohegan people, it showed exactly the role that women played in the daily lives of the Mohegan people and Native Americans in general. Women were more that just women to their culture. They represented divinity, fertility, and the building of the people. The woman being a strong willed and lasting person was critical to the Native American people, and the Mohegans modeled their baskets after the woman because of the same concept. The baskets were meant to be lasting and to represent everything that the culture entailed.

    10. The significance of these two cardinal directions is found in other aspects of Mohegan life, such as the eastern-and western-facing openings in the ceremo-nial arbor.

      Daily mohegan life was based around ceremonial and spiritual practices. They used different elements in nature to weave the painted wood splint baskets, even though it was a object in use by them regularly. The land was represented by using strawberries and stylized leaves weaved inside the baskets. The spiritual connection the Mohegans had with the land led to the baskets meaning more than just the physical aspect of the land, but also the food and medicine the land provided. The four domed medallion also had a specific design on the baskets because it showed the energy that the baskets brought to mohegan culture. The mohegans believed that the baskets were more like channeled energy that flowed through its people. The medallion was made of four semicircular domes, four sacred trees, thirteen dots around the center circle, and the sacred center circle.

    11. t is no cause for wonder that a basket of this era might depict the migration story. In 1775, some forty-two years before the confirmed date of the basket, Samson Occom, the Mohegan minister and tribal elder, led a group of Mohegans and Long Island Indians to create a s~ttl~ment at Broth~on, New York, to escape both white inffuence and white mfringement on Indian lands.

      Art and history are intertwined. This is an example of how art can be used to document historical events. When native land was seized by the settlers it began a long journey of them preserving, their culture. These baskets are just one of many types of native art, but they explain so much. One thing that can be determined is that they were in tune with their surroundings. The nature depicted on the baskets represented a nod to the world around them, showing mindfulness and appreciation. These weren’t savages. Many of the baskets depicted cosmic mappings, symbols, and history. This is a clear sign of not only worldly intelligence but spiritual maturity.

    12. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant. The artistic renderings displayed on the basket are representations of both rhe abundant natural landscape and the Mohegan cosmology.

      Even I am guilty of eruocentricity. To understand the cultural significance of an artifact you have to get to know the culture. Nature is very sacred and important to the Mohegan. It was praised, and expressed through their artwork. They embraced the world around them and rightfully held it on a pedestal. The importance of historical artifacts from other places such as Spain and Italy verses the discredit of native artifacts shows the obvious dismissal of native history. If these achievements aren’t highlighted it’s easier to continue the narrative that the natives were savages. Crediting art work like these intricate baskets shows that the natives were advanced and multifaceted people.

    13. The designs are not only aesthetically pleasing but also deeply culturally significant. The artistic renderings displayed on the basket are representations of both rhe abundant natural landscape and the Mohegan cosmology. As the Mohegan elder Gladys Tantaquidgeon explains, "To the Mohegan, designs and life are more than simple representations of narure. There is a spiritual force that Rows through all things, and if these symbols are true representations of that force, this spirit should be expressed in the designs:

      Companies such as Energy Transfer Partners main goal is to do nothing but make money; which is the point of all businesses. However, like most western developers, they lack the empathy. Not only is it imperialistic to force natives to give up their land but these companies have no concern for the long term effects something like an oil pipeline can have. Native ideologies consider nature sacred and worthy of the upmost respect. It is not far-fetched to say that if we don’t take care of the planet we depend on for survival that it won’t take care of us. When a river is polluted it cannot produce what we need to live such as: drinkable water, food, and trees. These companies ignore long term effects, but you can’t count money with no oxygen.

    14. Because they do not conform to Western conceptions of writing, they have been dismissed, ignored, and largely excluded from the historical record, thus obscuring the long history of Native texts and textualities.

      Native Americans have a long history of being dismissed, bullied, and having their culture exterminated. It didn’t stop in the 1800’s. In fact, just last year 2017 the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe had a year-long stand-off protesting The Dakota Access Pipeline. The Pipeline runs 1,100 miles across the Great Plains through Native American reservation territory. It not only posed an environmental threat to the land, and the tribes living on it, it broke a treaty. Native Americans have established many treaties with the U.S government in order to insure reparations and to grant land to the tribes. Activists from all over joined the protest for many reasons. Some environmental activists were protesting the dangers a possible oil spill would pose to the land, rivers along the pipeline, and the water supply near the reservation. Civil rights activists also gathered in protest because native land was invaded by big business, for a one-sided benefit. Stephanie Fitzgerald was correct in stating Native Americans have been dismissed. This word choice, specifically, is a great representation of the history of how they have—and continue to be—treated. Initially they were forced off of their homeland, and now centuries later that pattern is repeating. On Jun 14th 2017, the court ruled in favor of the Standing Rock tribe. James Boasberg, who sits on D.C. district court, said that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers failed to perform an adequate study of the pipeline’s environmental consequences when it first approved its construction. Here, there’s another example of the carelessness, and brutality these natives face. The way Energy Transfer Partners being an astronomical construction project without conducting thorough environmental impact report is the very definition of dismissive. The victory was a huge milestone for native rights however, the win was bitter sweet. Although the court has ruled in favor of the Sioux tribe, the pipeline is still allowed to operate until another environmental report is conducted.

    15. Few late nineteenth-century northeastern Native baskets were signed by their makers

      Western civilization has an entitled mindset. It was built on imperialism and today those ideals still infiltrate our world through many ways. Native cultures didn’t indulge in the concept of ownership. The idea that something could belong to one person was foreign to them. To natives this land and everything that comes from it is for everyone to use, and when we pass we give it all back. Essentially, nothing belongs to anyone; we are only borrowers.

    16. The basket represents multiple layers of meaning on several different l~vel~

      The Mohegan people are very spiritual people, and hold their tradition and culture to a very high standard. They not only hold the past of their ancestors who brought them to the newfound land through "The Great Fresh Water" but also the cultural work that comes from the people. The cultural works mean more than the actual work, but represent the deeper meaning behind the civilization as a whole. The Standing Rock Sioux tribe challenged the United States government heavily trying to preserve their culture and traditions that the Dakota Access Pipeline threatened. Fishing and hunting was not only the way they maintained their livelihood, but also a part of their traditions and culture.The Mohegans, just like the Sioux are being threatened not just to the extent of current artifacts that are perishable, like the fish and game along the pipeline, but the complete history of the people and what their ancestors fought for and believed in.

    17. I read the design pat-tern of this basket as a possible retelling of the Mohegan original migration story

      according to scientific evidence, the Mohegans, also known as the Wolf Clan, had shown presence in the area for 10,000 years. They were mostly settled in what is now know as upstate New-York, but had migrated to Connecticut because of European migration. It wouldn't be until they came to Connecticut that they would be known as the Mohegan Tribe.

    18. Indians made baskets and other woven objects long before European and other settlers reached American shores, and they continue these cultural prac• rices to this day

      When they say Indians continue their practices to this day, they are not wrong. Even today, many tribes are continuing their lifestyle that they had back then. for example, the Standing Rock Sioux tribe. The Sioux Tribe had been in a legal battle with the U.S. army corps of engineers about a Dakota Access Pipeline. The only problem with it is that it could endanger the everyday life of the Sioux tribe if there were to be some accident in the river. The members of the tribe still hunt game and fish near the river to this day. Along with many other tribes to this day, their practices are being endangered with government advances.

    19. It ia 12 inches wide, 17 inches long, and 11 inches high. It is rectangular in shape, with sides that curve slightly inward.

      In the beginning, Woodsplint baskets were made freehand, meaning without using knives or other tools. It wouldn't be until later on where tribes such as the Mohegans would use a draw knife, which is a a blade with a handle on each end to use for both hands. when they designed their medallions onto the baskets, each tribe would have a unique way in how they would created their medallions. these medallions represented their tribe in someway, whether it be the people in their group, or their strength in unity.

    1. hat in objects there can be read essential evidence of unconscious as well as conscious attitudes and beliefs, some specific to those objects original makers and users as individuals, others latent in the larger cultural milieus in which those objects circulated.

      This appears to be the definition of material culture. It describes that the attitudes and beliefs come from both the maker and the culture from which it came. The article about the CRT shows how the attitudes and beliefs toward it affected how long it was in use.

    2. The method works because of the deceptively straightforward

      This is probably not the only method to describe material culture, but Haltman claims it is the most efficient and effective.

    3. It is the object, more specifically the object as described, that represents

      The description of the object is the primary resource as opposed to the object itself.

    4. ot just withwhat but with hou the object signifies. Speculation, moreover, reaches beyond unitary readings to lay stress instead on recognizing the object as asite of contested meanings

      I think Haltman is saying that you must use your own ideas or opinions when describing material culture. Lepawsky seems to hold an impartial opinion toward the CRT throughout the article.

    5. How does the object make one feel? Specifically, what in or about the object brings those feelings out?

      The CRTs most likely had an emotional impact on families as it was a center piece for a family room, and families gathered around to watch broadcasts. This could be a testament to the emotional connection of material culture.

    6. One way we respond to what we see in or experience of an object amounts to intellectual detective work. We see articulation and deduce patterns of use;

      Haltman talks about how "intellectual detective work" (Haltman) can lead to a pattern of use. The CRT article talks about how the CRT was used and the different technological advances that stem from it.

    7. Technically accurate language (nominative, for the most part) plays an important role in this, but ultimately not the most important role which is reserved, perhaps somewhat counter-intuitively, to descriptive modifiers (adjectives) and, most crucially, to terms expressive of the dynamics of interrelation (verbs, adverbs, prepositions). Only active verbs and descriptive prose cast in an active voice serve to establish cause and agency.

      Haltman describes that objects should be described in an active, but the article about CRT uses a passive voice for descriptions. It uses terms like "was introduced" or "has entailed.

    8. “We do not explain pictures: we explain remarks about pictures-or rather, we explain pictures only in so far as we have considered them under some verbal description or specification

      Remarks about the picture act as the attitude towards the event; therefore, the remarks symbolize culture.

    9. the most persistent object metaphors expressive of belief” seem embedded in polarities

      The article by Josh Lepawsky about the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) does not seem to show how the material culture (CRT) expresses or showcases a polarity.

  3. spring2018.robinwharton.net spring2018.robinwharton.net
    1. The supplemental article I chose originally was "Material Culture", by Sophie Woodward. This article basically touches on the similar ideas that the first paragraphs on "American Artifacts" focused on; how culture relates to objects. Basically, Woodward explains how materials relate to culture. She states that the way that people interpret the object, either culturally or historically, gives it a deeper meaning. For example, a glass coke bottle can be a way of culturally and historically interpreting an object. A glass coke in all can mean nothing, but time, place, date it was made can all add to the meaning of the bottle.

      During World War 2, Coca-Cola trademarked their bottle to be unique and unlike any drinking bottle in America. As time progressed, the traditional coke bottle changed its for, but regardless, the glass coke bottle remained known by consumers that this was a traditional coke bottle originally designed during the early 1900's. Therefore, the coke bottle has become more than just an object to Americans. It is a symbol of patriotism, of interaction, of the growing economy.

      In conclusion, all both Haltman and Woodward are saying in their articles is that any object can have more in depth meaning other than its literal meaning. The ways that the an object can have more meaning is based on cultural meaning, or phycological meaning but nonetheless a more in depth meaning.


    2. Prownian analysis

      A means of identifying, analyzing and categorizing objects in Historical Archaeology.

    3. While only some of culture takes material form, the part that does records the shape and imprint of otherwise more abstract, conceptual, or even metaphysical aspects of that culture that they quite literally embody. These are the objects we as historians in the field of Material Culture seek to understand. Our investigations-analysis followed by interpretation-necessarily begin in the material realm with the objects themselves but gain analytic hold and open upon interpretation only through vigorous attention

      In the analysis of the machete, the author examines not only the object itself, but the cultural significance of it and talks about how the original culture would interpret it as simply a tool and weapon of the poor farmers.

    4. All objects signify; some signify more expressively than others.

      Some objects are meant to spread a message while some are products of necessity. The machete has been able to do both as an indirect effect of being a tool that was necessary at the time and a weapon that is capable of harming. However the extend to which an object signifies a deep and meaningful message about a particular culture does not limit it's cultural importance, it only makes such importance in the object harder to find.

      Nobody ever thinks of a plan stapler as an essential and even cultural item that must have a prominent and deep meaning, but with enough observation and digging back to the roots of history, you can find intriguing facts and connections that can be made. Staples are only a byproduct of humanity's growth in written language and technology. They would not exist if machines like the typewriter and printer were not invented (both significant items on their own). To judge an object as historically important can turn out to be one sided and closed minded as there is signifigance is everything, and everything can be tied to a culture or a historical even that has either grown or reduced a culture.

    5. Moreover, such polarities and oppositions offer effective analytic "hooks" of use in organizing insights.

      These hooks make the object more interesting and offer a point of contrast that could be used when talking about cultures. One object can be associated with one ideal and be the opposite of that ideal. Taking the example of the machete, people view it as a destructive tool used for homocide, but historically it has saved many people and cultures from their downfall. This technique can make the reader intrigued and even invite more room for speculation as people will want to know what connections can be made between the two contrasting ideals. Such soeculation has the potential to create questions and invoke more thoughts about the background of the object and create a community discussion that argues about and shakes the current ideas about culture and society in both the present, past, and potentially future.

    6. deductions speculations

      How long should the process of speculating be? I've always seen it as a process that can take a while depending on how detailed the object is. For something like the AIDS quilt, there is so much behind the entire project ranging from the visual aspects of our individual panels of the quilt to the in depth stories of the families and why they decided to memorialize their loved ones despite the heated political climate around the time. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2016/10/11/almost-30-years-later-people-are-still-impacted-by-the-aids-memorial-quilt/?utm_term=.b66b589fd879

    7. All objects signify; some signify more expressively than others.

      This statement, while simple, really calls out to me because of its accuracy. Every object, if given the time, has a meaning beyond its outside material. For example, a drinking cup is simply a drinking cup, but if one goes more into depth as to what it means then it can have several alternate meanings. If a cup is placed on a flag, it can mean that the state is hardworking (because of thirst) or if it is a clean cup then the state is "clean." While this example may seem silly, it's a way of viewing what Haltman is saying in its entirety.

    8. Our investigations-analysis followed by interpretation-necessarily begin in the material realm with the objects themselves but gain analytic hold and open upon interpretation only through vigorous attention,

      In the second part of this paragraph, Haltman goes over the "steps" that historians go through in order to interpret an artifact. He lightly touches on what the analysis consists of. For example, he makes it evident that when analyzing an artifact, they begin my interpreting the artifact itself, then going in afterwards and interpreting beyond the material. This part of the reading can be helpful if someone is looking to interpret an artifact, because it is written by a historian. In other words, his instructions are reliable.

    9. One way we respond to what we see in or experience of an object .imounts to intellectual detective work.~ We see articulation and deduce patterns of use; we see interaction and deduce relationship; we see expres-sion and deduce reception.

      Noticing every nuance of an object can bring out unnoticed details and can maybe bring up more questions about the object, these questions help us become more aware of the possible origins of the object. Mars is currently a planet being observed in astrology. Scientists have analyzed samples of dirt and are trying to describe the planet in all it's entirety, and it seems that the more than the notice about the planet, the more questions they have about it's possible origins. Patterns are found such as the polar icecaps once being oceans, and they expand on that in order to deduce the possibility of life.

    10. I have tried to define, with only partial success, just what it is that tells me-often quite clearly-that an object is culturally potent.

      Cultural significance is different from culture to culture, one culture will regard one thing as insignificant while the other will highly regard it. When doing an object analysis, one should know the history of the object and the culture that the object originated from. Without knowing this, people are likely to misinterpret the importance of an object or reject it. For example many people think machetes are things that only violent criminals use due to their growing presence in horror.

    11. nly active verbs and descriptive prose cast in an active voice serve to establish cause and agency. As a means to this end, avoiding the verb to be (in all its forms: 1s, are, there 1s, there are) will help to make visible thematically-charged spatial and functional complex-ities otherwise flattened or obscured.

      I understand that in analyzing an object, you have to be accurate in how you describe it, but more attention should be focused on what the object means, describing the object is merely convenient for people who don't know what the aforementioned object is.

    12. The key to good description is a rich, nuanced vocabulary. Technically accurate language (nominative, for the most part) plays an important role in this, but ultimately not the most important role which is reserved, per-haps somewhat counter-inruitively, to descriptive modifiers (adjectives) and, most crucially, to terms expressive of the dynamics of mterrelation (verbs, adverbs, prepositions).

      I thought this sentence accurately described what one might feel they lack when reading essays such as this one. The dense language and seemingly abstract concept of objects that Prown and Haltman write about... Prown and Haltman write about the concept of objects in a seemingly philosophical sense. Their use of dense and "nuanced" vocabulary allows for a very meticulous description, but it alienates me as a reader. In comparison, "3-D print your way to freedom and prosperity" takes a similar approach but makes understanding easier. The words chosen to describe concepts like "The Californian Ideology" are rich and nuanced, but using them to talk about a concept/product that is more commonly known in modern-day makes the idea easier to grasp.

    13. The more self-conscious one becomes, the more complex one's rela-tionship co an object becomes, physically and ocularly as well as psycho-logically and experientially. For the purpose of analysis, there is value in isolating different realms of deductive response so that these can be han-Jled more circumspectly.

      This further cements the idea that rich vocabulary is essential for elaborating the emotions, sensations, and descriptions one can create when analyzing an object. The term "self-conscious" has taken a negative connotation in the way we speak today. Many use this term to describe aspects of themselves that they are insecure about, like appearances, emotions, or mental well-being. However, when analyzing an object, having a self-conscious viewpoint can be a benefit.

    14. I chose the supplemental source: "What is a Machete, Anyway?" written by John Cline. In the article, he explores the history and the cultural significance of the machete as a weapon and a common farming tool. Cline recalls the recent event of a man who got arrested for carrying a machete in a public space, and talks about the nature of the machete as a revolutionary object. The topic switches to a historical instance of an uprising in the 1800's led by five South American countries. William Walker was an American filibuster who controlled these nations for 2 years and was executed after a combined effort of multiple armies. A machete is used as the symbol of that event, and is seen as a commoner's weapon. He then goes into the origins of the machete as a agricultural tool first created in medieval Europe and spread to South America during Colonization. During the time, it was used by slaves and peasants and slaves. which furthers the idea that it was a farmer's tool and something used to protect the defenseless masses. Cline provides additional examples of how machetes have been an instrumental tool for revolution and some cases where they were used for violent displays of power, stating that it is a unique object in the sense that it's truly a multi purpose tool that have served the disadvantaged in times of turmoil and bondage.

    15. In the process of analyzing these two pieces, I have come across many similarities and comparisons between Cline's piece, an example of a object analysis, and Haltman's description of a object analysis essay. While reading these two works, there were points where certain steps in Prownian Analysis that could be clearly identified in Cline's piece about the historical observation of the machete. Even though there was no clearn description in the article, Cline speculates about why society reacts to the object and offers a well rounded interpretive analysis about his chosen object. The ability to both read and annotate a guide and an example of an object analysis offers ample learning opportunity for making an object analysis. This assignment has cleared up the process of object analysis and made it more understandable, although it was not easy to complete. Reading these two pieces in light of each other required the ability to analyze, comprehend fully, then articulate thoughts into several text boxes. Being able to expand out of the range of words and use pictures enhanced the and simplified the process of explaining relevant thoughts.

    1. materialexpression

      Is material expression another way of saying describing an object?

    2. object'svisualandphysicaleffectinwords

      Relating to Maguire, where he says use things you can drop on your feet. Meaning physical things, realistic things.

    3. Descriptionanddeduction,reallyprocessesofenablement,makeitpossibletodeferandhencetocontroltheinterferenceofbiasandassumptioninrecognizingwhatanobjectis.

      You mustn't give details in a bias way but rather describe in a way that readers can make their own inferences from what you see and not what you think.

    4. inadditiontoactiveverbs,narrativestructureandmeaningfultransitions

      He is not only emphasizing active verbs, but also using good structure as well. Which also reminds readers that description is not the only thing that can make a good paper.

    5. Materialculturebeginswithaworldofobjectsbuttakesplaceinaworldofwords.Whilewework“with”materialobjects,i.e.refer"to"them,themediuminwhichweworkasculturalhistoriansislanguage.Whenwestudyanobject,formalizingourobservationsinlanguage,wegenerateasetofcarefullyselectednouns,adjectives,adverbs,prepositions,andverbswhicheffectivelydeterminetheboundsofpossibleinterpretation.

      "I'm obsessed with the importance of writing with objects, and know it works, but it's hard to get the idea across. It goes against the conventional teacher wisdom that says students have to handle abstract ideas, and what the heck does writing physically have to do with that?" While Haltman refers to working with material objects the proper historical grammatical language is required. Despite Maguire is obsessed with writing with objects he's not teaching the same methods for proper grammatical usage.

    6. Theseessaysshare,aswell,aspiritofimaginativeinterventioninthestudyofhistory.Theyconstituteasortofpedagogicsampler,ananthologyofessaysinthestrictlyetymologicalsense:experimentsinorelaborationsofarigorouslypractical(asopposedtopurelytheoretical)approachtounderstandingthings

      "How should one train students to give good, vivid examples in their writing? Should you tell them, Be more specific? I used to do that but I don't any more, because it's too vague, not operational." Haltman gave us methods on how write a proper depiction of an object with the correct process such as culturally, emotionally, physically, and creatively.

    7. Producingasketchorschematicdrauvingmayfurtherthisprocess,butavoiduastingpreciouswordsatthispointonintroductions,conclusions,restatementsoftheassignment,orautobiographicalconfessions;justdescribeuhatyousee.Butbesuretoenjoythepleasures

      "When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualizing you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit. When you think of something abstract, you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning." Maguire and Haltman both focus on one narrow point. Haltman focuses on the drawing and the linguistic. Meanwhile, Maguire focuses on the the same methods when describing a visual object.

    8. JosephKoerner,inarguing,hereagaininthecaseofvisualimages,thatsuchdescriptionoffers“thebestaccess”toexperiencinganobjectwithimmediacy,notesthatevocativedescriptioncan“register”thewayanobject“functionsforoneparticularobserver.Ratherthansayingwhatavisualimagemeans,descriptiontellsushouranimagehasopeneditselfuptoaninterpretation.”Aswithimages,sotoowithobjectswhichconstitute,accordingtoPrown,thebroadercategoryintowhichvisualimagesfal

      "If the professional writers whom Fowler and Orwell addressed had to be warned away from over-abstraction, how much more do our students need that advice? Yet the writing textbooks on the whole say nothing about abstractitis, mentioning it at most only in passing. And instructors do not focus on over-abstraction, even though that's the major problem young writers have." Maguire states that even professional writes disapprove the idea of having too many ideas and specific objects and often teachers don't teach student's how to they because society trains the student's to follow. Korener disapprove their idea and argue that even objects can also perform what visual images can provide.

    9. Theseessaysshare,aswell,aspiritofimaginativeinterventioninthestudyofhistory.Theyconstituteasortofpedagogicsampler,ananthologyofessaysinthestrictlyetymologicalsense:experimentsinorelaborationsofarigorouslypractical(asopposedtopurelytheoretical)approachtounderstandingthing

      "How should one train students to give good, vivid examples in their writing? Should you tell them, Be more specific? I used to do that but I don't any more, because it's too vague, not operational" This quote shows a problem of how to improve the student's and on the other hand Haltman's provides the correct terminology to aid students find the approach of understanding things.

    10. Thekeytogooddescriptionisarich,nuancedvocabulary.Technicallyaccuratelanguage(nominative,forthemostpart)playsanimportantroleinthis,butultimatelynotthemostimportantrolewhichisreserved,perhapssomewhatcounter-intuitively,todescriptivemodifiers(adjectives)and,mostcrucially,totermsexpressiveofthedynamicsofinterrelation(verbs,adverbs,prepositions).

      "From a teacher's perspective, the lovely thing about this technique of writing with things you can drop on your foot is that both the skilled and the unskilled can do it. Both kinds of students find the assignment intriguing. Students led into writing this way at the start of a course--writing about abstract ideas in terms of concrete objects--find it strange at first, but they are pleased that the task is actually doable. They start to write with good examples, though they don't think of them as examples, but as objects." what both of them are saying that as long as people think and try coming up with great description and a important vision anyone are able to create great insights

    11. PROWNIAN ANALYSISDescription→Deduction->Speculation->Research->Interpretive Analysis

      This kind of backbone for working can work for many other types of writing but definitely seems useful to be able to truly analyze objects with cultural significance.

    12. Whereasthetransitionfromdescriptiontodeductionflowssoeasilyweneedtoslowitdown,Subsequentmovesfromdeductiontospeculation,becausetheyinvolve-evenrequire-creativity,canposeagreaterchallenge.Butinterpretivehypotheses,orquestionsaboutmeaning,willflowjustasorganicallyoutofourprocessofdeductionprovidedthatweopenourimaginationtoembrace,beyonditsmaterialfacticity,anobject'sthematicresonance.

      It can be easy to describe what is easily seen but it takes creativity and thought to create connections between an object and the culture it belongs to as well as the culture of the one studying it. One must be willing to be imaginative to truly see the object for what it means instead of just the physical nature of it.

    13. Carefuldeductionbuysatleasttheopportunitytoconsiderafullerrangeofpossibilities.

      Only with careful deduction can you take into account both detailed parts of an object as well as the overall picture and connect them well.

    14. Thelongerandharderonelooks,thebetteronesees;thebetteronesees,thesubtlertheconnectionsonefindsoneselfabletomake

      By looking at an object multiple times, in different perspectives, one can discern much more subtle aspects of the object and the culture it represents.

    15. Materialculturebeginswithaworldofobjectsbuttakesplaceinaworldofwords.Whilewework“with”materialobjects,i.e.refer"to"them,themediuminwhichweworkasculturalhistoriansislanguage

      This seems to be one of the main messages of this introduction. We can only really describe materials by using language. Though we interact with objects in the physical world, the significance and culture of an object is seen through the language used to describe it.

    16. Beattentivetodetails(forwhichatechnicalvocabularywillalmostcertainlyproveuseful),buteverkeepaneyeonthebigpicture.Imbueyourdescriptionwiththethicktextureoftaxonomyyetuiththeflowofnarrative.

      There are polarities in how to describe an object just as polarities that are often used to describe objects as well as polarities that the objects symbolize.

    17. Thereadermaywonder,asIstilldo,howobjectscanbegaugedforpotentialculturalexpressivenesspriortosubjectingthemtoanalysis.Studentsinmyseminarareaskedtoselecttheobjectonwhichtheywishtowork,thethoughtbeingthatsomesortofsignificantsympatheticvibrationmayoccursignalingthepotentialforthatparticularindividualtouncoversomesignificantmeaninginthatparticularobject.Iapprovetheselection,preferablyafterseeingtheobject,ifIperceiveorampersuadedofthatpotential.Ihavetriedtodefine,withonlypartialsuccess,justwhatitisthattellsme--oftenquiteclearly-thatanobjectisculturallypotent.Itseemstodependonalinkage-formal,iconographic,functional-betweentheobjectandsomefundamentalhumanexperience,whetherengagementwiththephysicalworld,interactionwithotherindividuals,senseofself(oftenexpressedanthropomorphically),commonhumanemotions,orsignificantlifeevents

      Prown approves objects that students select if he feels that the object has a cultural potency which leads to a good study about a part of a culture or human experience.

    18. thepossibilitiesarevirtuallylimitless-especiallyconsideringthatnotwoindividualswillreadagivenobjectinthesameway.Sohowtochoose?

      It is hard to choose what topic to study, even harder to choose just one panel in a quilt with thousands.

    19. Whileonlysomeofculturetakesmaterialform

      The article I chose was "A Terminal Condition: The Cathode Ray Tube's Strange Afterlife." Part of its cultural significance is the actual object itself but it also showed many different parts of changing cultures over many years.

    20. Thoroughlydescribethisobject,payingcarefulattention,asrelevant,toallofitsaspects-material,spatial,andtemporal.Beattentivetodetails(forwhichatechnicalvocabularywillalmostcertainlyproveuseful),buteverkeepaneyeonthebigpicture.Imbueyourdescriptionwiththethicktextureoftaxonomyyetuiththeflowofnarrative.Renderitaseasyandappealingtoread,a

      In Maguires article-"From a teacher's perspective, the lovely thing about this technique of writing with things you can drop on your foot is that both the skilled and the unskilled can do it." By having different techniques in writing aids the students to write with purpose and pay close attention to verbiage to achieve better writing skills.

    21. Insearchingoutanobjecttointerpret,thesearefactorstobekeptinmind.Moreover,suchpolaritiesandoppositionsoffereffectiveanalytic"hooks”ofuseinorganizinginsights.Thoroughlydescribethisobject,payingcarefulattention,asrelevant,toallofitsaspects-material,spatial,andtemporal.Beattentivetodetails(forwhichatechnicalvocabularywillalmostcertainlyproveuseful),buteverkeepaneyeonthebigpicture.Imbueyourdescriptionwiththethicktextureoftaxonomyyetuiththeflowofnarrative.

      "t's a crucial question for those who want to reform the teaching of writing, because once you ask what skills are missing, you can make a list and start a counter-attack. The alternative to listing missing skills is to settle into a belief that today's kids are dumb or just not interested in ideas -- which is what usually happens these days"

      It shows that students currently lack identifying insights on an object and do not have the correct and vocabulary to even describe their objects

    22. phenomenologically

      The study of the development of human consciousness and self-awareness.

    23. objectsthemselvesbutgainanalyticholdandopenuponinterpretationonlythroughvigorousattention

      You have to first look to see the object itself before you can see beyond it to why it is significant.

    24. Whileonlysomeofculturetakesmaterialform,thepartthatdoesrecordstheshapeandimprintofotherwisemoreabstract,conceptual,orevenmetaphysicalaspectsofthatculturethattheyquiteliterallyembody.

      Going to cultural museums, I have often seen objects be used to explain the cultures of different parts of the world. Specifically, Reflections of Culture at Fernbank that is mostly looking at the significance to different objects and colors for cultures around the world.

    25. Withoutpleasuretakenintheworkoftheimagination,nothingofthesortispossible.Indeed,littledefeatsthepurposeofthisexercisesowellasrigorwithoutreverie.

      Miguire "Ideas are what matter," Bernadette said confidently. "Getting them to define and handle ideas is what's important, not things." Halman explain that without usage ot the mind on thinking and creative ideas it would be almost impossible to write a creative player relating to Migure saying that ideas are the most important.

    26. Withoutpleasuretakenintheworkoftheimagination,nothingofthesortispossible.Indeed,littledefeatsthepurposeofthisexercisesowellasrigorwithoutreverie

      "Ideas are what matter," Bernadette said confidently. "Getting them to define and handle ideas is what's important, not things." - Maguire. In Haltmans text he expresses how it would be almost impossible to write without using your mind and creative imagination skills.

    27. Descriptionanddeduction,reallyprocessesofenablement,makeitpossibletodeferandhencetocontroltheinterferenceofbiasandassumptioninrecognizingwhatanobjectis

      Maguire-"They don't understand why this bias toward the physical matters nor why it works" by writing with a biast perspective allows the reader one side of the story which isn't fair to the reader.

    28. Descriptionanddeduction,reallyprocessesofenablement,makeitpossibletodeferandhencetocontroltheinterferenceofbiasandassumptioninrecognizingwhatanobjectis.

      In Maguire article states "They don't understand why this bias toward the physical matters nor why it works." This will have an negative impact because it would affect how the reader obtain the information only seeing one side of the spectrum. This would only let the reader comprehend one side of the story.

    29. WhiletoomuchKenneth Haltman informationcanbealmostasbadastoolittle,anythingleftoutofdescriptionislosttointerpretationforever. (pg 6/7)

      The students in Maguire classroom didn't do enough research such as examples and information to know more about the subjects they were assigned to which explained detailed in Haltmans quote.The reason is because students ideas are jumbled and not clear and concise to a narrow focus on the subject.

    30. Thedegreeofdetailonerecordsremainsamatterofpersonaldiscretion,butthoroughnesscounts.WhiletoomuchKenneth Haltman informationcanbealmostasbadastoolittle,anythingleftoutofdescriptionislosttointerpretationforever. pg 6 & 7 Maguires students needed definitions or examples to write a Abstract essay on "relationships, health, productively and market society". The Students had issues completing complete thoughts and would just ramble on with unspecific terminology and fill their paper up with un organized ideas.

    31. Allobjectssignify;somesignifymoreexpressivelythanothers.Asthelistofobjectsstudiedoverthecourseoftimeinasingleuniversityseminarattests,thepossibilitiesarevirtuallylimitless-especiallyconsideringthatnotwoindividualswillreadagivenobjectinthesameway

      Maguire state that "Today I give students a shortcut. I say, "Write physically. Write with physical objects. Put physical objects in your essay." This shows that its crucial to express and comprehend the significance of the object because even Maguire follows Haltman's ideology when composing ideas for writing.

    32. Allobjectssignify;somesignifymoreexpressivelythanothers.Asthelistofobjectsstudiedoverthecourseoftimeinasingleuniversityseminarattests,thepossibilitiesarevirtuallylimitless-especiallyconsideringthatnotwoindividualswillreadagivenobjectinthesameway.Sohowtochoose

      By Maguire instructing his students to "Write physically. Write with physical objects. Put physical objects in your essay". When you identify a object it signifies much more meaning and helps you write with purpose when you have a object to show significance much similar to Haltman theory of writing an essay.

    33. Themoreself-consciousonebecomes,themorecomplexone’srelationshiptoanobjectbecomes,physicallyandocularlyaswellaspsychologicallyandexperientially.Forthepurposeofanalysis,thereisvalueinisolatingdifferentrealmsofdeductiveresponsesothatthesecanbehandledmorecircumspectly

      Students doesn't know how to connected with the object and using transition to provided vivid responses.The New Drop discovered the kids didn't know the answer to when she ask them "Can you explain the answer" during class discussion. This displays that students haven't utilize their ability to think critically and creatively.

    34. Themoreself-consciousonebecomes,themorecomplexone’srelationshiptoanobjectbecomes,physicallyandocularlyaswellaspsychologicallyandexperientially.Forthepurposeofanalysis,thereisvalueinisolatingdifferentrealmsofdeductiveresponsesothatthesecanbehandledmorecircumspectly

      New Dorp discovered that students don't know how to use such words to connect and transition sentences like "although" or "despite" once they learned to use these words the students began to write much better . But the students didn't know how to explain how to say "I disagree" or "Can you explain your answer"? this displays that in class discussions students don't use their imagination to think creatively and out side the box.became much better.

    35. Essays in Material Culture

      The text I have decided to examine in conjunction with this one is the article "Material Culture" by Sophie Woodward. I chose this text because of the fact that its rationale is similar to Haltman's.

    36. Themethodasthusconfiguredworksbecauseitworks

      The process may seem arduous, yet it has always shown its effectiveness.

    37. Meaninglieshiddeninthematicfigurations,instructuralandfunctionalmetaphors,inpolaritiessuchasthoseschematizedbyPrown,citedabove-hidden,buteasilydiscernible,ifonlywegotothetroubleofmakingthemout

      Explanations of possible queries will most likely seem hidden away but with the right to detail you can force these concepts out.

    38. Onewaywerespondtowhatweseeinorexperienceofanobjectamountstointellectualdetectivework.

      When it comes to material culture, a incredible amount of thought and knowledge is required and also the ability to recognize key details.

    39. Carefuldeductionbuysatleasttheopportunitytoconsiderafullerrangeofpossibilities

      When collecting ideas from examinations of artifacts it may be best to not make bold presumptions or nonsensical statements.

    40. Whileonlysomeofculturetakesmaterialform,thepartthatdoesrecordstheshapeandimprintofotherwisemoreabstract,conceptual,orevenmetaphysicalaspectsofthatculturethattheyquiteliterallyembody.ThesearetheobjectsweashistoriansinthefieldofMaterialCultureseektounderstand.

      The article written by Sophie Woodman addresses material culture in a similar light, that objects pertaining to a certain culture are likely to represent a demographic wholly.

    41. Speakingofpictures,forwhichwemightSubstituteobjects,MichaelBaxandallhasnoted:“Wedonotexplainpictures:weexplainremarksaboutpictures-orrather,weexplainpicturesonlyinsofaraswehaveconsideredthemundersomeverbaldescriptionorspecification

      Images are not to be presented solely by what they depict but, instead based on reflections and thoughts of that image.

    42. Whatquestionsaremostfruitfultoaskinone'sworkwithanobjectandhowmightonebestgoaboutaskingthem?WhereasscholarswillfindValueinparticularhistoricalinterpretationsproposedbycontributorsconcerningateapot,cardtable,cigarettelighter,cellarette,telephone,quilt,moneybox,corset,parlorstove,lavalamp,footbridge,locket,foodmill,orArgandlamp,studentswillfindvalueprincipallyinlearningfromthemodelsthatthesereadingsofferofhowsuchinterpretationcanbecarriedÖut

      Interpretation on objects that have historical significance to that scholar. We have to be able to identify these objects and values from the reading and the models. In addition, we have to provide interpretation why do these cultural object exist and their importance of our lives.

      When you boil it down, Bernadette, all abstract ideas derive from objects. You can approach them in that concrete way and teach students to do the same. I wanted to remind her what she knew but had forgotten: that abstractions are what you get when you pull back from (or abstractfrom) concrete reality -- from the world of things

    43. Thekeytogooddescriptionisarich,nuancedvocabulary.Technicallyaccuratelanguage(nominative,forthemostpart)playsanimportantroleinthis,butultimatelynotthemostimportantrolewhichisreserved,perhapssomewhatcounter-intuitively,todescriptivemodifiers(adjectives)and,mostcrucially,totermsexpressiveofthedynamicsofinterrelation(verbs,adverbs,prepositions).Onlyactiveverbsanddescriptiveprosecastinanactivevoiceservetoestablishcauseandagency.Asameanstothisend,avoidingtheverbtobe(inallitsforms:is,are,thereis,thereare)willhelptomakevisiblethematically-chargedspatialandfunctionalcomplexitiesotherwiseflattenedorobscured.JosephKoerner,inarguing,hereagaininthecaseofvisualimages,thatsuchdescriptionoffers“thebestaccess”toexperiencinganobjectwithimmediacy,notesthatevocativedescriptioncan“register”thewayanobject“functionsforoneparticularobserver.Ratherthansayingwhatavisualimagemeans,descriptiontellsushouranimagehasopeneditselfuptoaninterpretation.”Aswithimages,sotoowithobjectswhichconstitute,accordingtoPrown,thebroadercategoryintowhichvisualimagesfa

      Haltman seemigly implies that an improper description may fully distort the meaning attached to an object.

    44. smooth/roughshiny/dullhot/coldsoft/hardlight/darktransparent/opaqueup/downin/outstability/instabilityforward/backwardvertical/horizontalstraight/curvedorcrookedlight/heavythin/thickclean/dirty

      With practice and concentration, those who study cultures will be able to deduce notions and behavior based on the physical characteristics of the object.

    45. objectsthemselvesbutgainanalyticholdandopenuponinterpretationonlythroughvigorousattention

      Just as Sophie claims, Haltman as well says that only after full contemplation shall those studying objects and physical aspects be able to grasp a true understanding. Observers must go beyond just looking.

    46. pedagogic

      What is the meaning of "pedagogic" ?

    47. etymologicalsense

      What is "etymological"? Defined as: relating to the origin and historical development of words and their meanings

    48. Whatquestionsaremostfruitfultoaskinone'sworkwithanobjectandhowmightonebestgoaboutaskingthem?

      This relates to what we discussed in class during the first week about what a "good question" is and how would you ask a "good question" and how its important to think about this when working on any type of research. It helps in jogging thoughtful discussion as well.

    49. Allobjectssignify;somesignifymoreexpressivelythanothers.

      There is a meaning behind everything but some things may have a deeper meaning than others or may be interpreted in various ways to different people.

    50. henwestudyanobject,formalizingourobservationsinlanguage,wegenerateasetofcarefullyselectednouns,adjectives,adverbs,prepositions,andverbswhicheffectivelydeterminetheboundsofpossibleinterpretation.Thisiswhythewordswechooseinsayingwhatweseehavesuchfarreachingimportance.Itisoutofourparaphraseofwhatweseethatallinterpretationgrows

      I am applying the "What is a Machete, Anyway" as my supplemental text and the main idea of that article is expressing how there are various interpretations of what a Machete is actually. Some people see it as a tool while others see it as a weapon. Everyone's view on a particular object is not the same because of cultural differences. In the article, Cline says himself, "the machete bears an unusual character. It’s possible to conceive of it as a weapon, yes, but it’s also very much a tool — not altogether different from, say, a shovel."

    51. thepossibilitiesarevirtuallylimitless-especiallyconsideringthatnotwoindividualswillreadagivenobjectinthesameway

      In relations to the "What is a Machete, Anyway" article where the machete can be described as a weapon but also as a tool, relates to this specific line in terms of how people look at objects differently.

    52. Page 11 really delves into the meat of the publication. This section about how students learn about the interconnectedness of objects and history and culture is not talked about in "Material Culture." While the connectedness of history and objects is dived into in "Material Culture" there is nothing in it about students which makes "Essays in Material Culture" a unique source of information for that topic.

    53. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1180761 This journal article Mind in Matter: An Introduction to Material Culture Theory and Method by Jules David Prown helps explain Prown's method of material culture analysis in full detail beyond what is found in this collection of essays. Looking at the process in a more detailed and outlined way. Being able to use the steps (description, deduction, speculation, research, and interpretive analysis) and understand what each step entails through a primary source is helpful to really make the most of the process and analyze an item with a process you understand completely. https://youtu.be/B9gN63kLw3U This youtube video helps explain the steps of Prownian Analysis by seeing it applied in a demonstration. Being able to see the process applied in real time is immensely helpful in simplifying the process and being able to apply it to an object being studied. http://www.engineeringthepast.com/prownian-analysis/ This website suggests that taking notes on a commonly found household items and using the Prownian Analysis steps to familiarize yourself with the process and be able to understand and practice the process. It later explains steps that can help you expand your initial Prownian Analysis. It suggests writing a short paragraph on each step to expand the details of what has been written for each step. The last step suggested in the article is to find other sources, blogs and articles that could assist as outside information. Overall, this article is very helpful in understanding Prownian Analysis and how to apply it.

    54. Thepointistobegintorecognizethewaysinwhichtheobjecthascreateditseffect.

      This is an important part because it incorporates pathos and emotions in the descriptions of materials.

    55. Aresearchprospectus

      A research prospectus is the same as a research proposal.

    56. Thoroughlydescribethisobject,payingcarefulattention,asrelevant,toallofitsaspects-material,spatial,andtemporal.

      When expressing your interpretations of an object you need to understand the physical significant value that object holds in that culture which will explain their individual perspective.

    57. phenomenologically

      Relating to the science of phenomena as distinct from that of the nature of being.

    58. metaphysical

      Relating to metaphysics; the essentially metaphysical question of the nature of the mind.

    59. etymological

      Relating to the origin and historical development of words and their meanings.

    60. Prowniananalysis

      A means of identifying, analyzing and categorizing objects in Historical Archaeology.

    61. PROWNIAN ANALYSISDescription→Deduction->Speculation->Research->Interpretive Analysis

      This flow of writing is important for delving into any topic.

    62. Ratherthansayingwhatavisualimagemeans,descriptiontellsushouranimagehasopeneditselfuptoaninterpretation.”

      Here Haltman is claiming that it is better for authors to describe an object or picture rather than saying what something is so that the reader can use one's imagination.

    63. Thekeytogooddescriptionisarich,nuancedvocabulary.

      This is an important part because it will be helpful in future writing. It is also relevant because this sentence proves true within this text.

    64. Whenwestudyanobject,formalizingourobservationsinlanguage,wegenerateasetofcarefullyselectednouns,adjectives,adverbs,prepositions,andverbswhicheffectivelydeterminetheboundsofpossibleinterpretation.

      This sentence describes the overall thesis of this text

    65. Insearchingoutanobjecttointerpret,thesearefactorstobekeptinmind.Moreover,suchpolaritiesandoppositionsoffereffectiveanalytic"hooks”ofuseinorganizinginsights

      It is important that in when analyzing and describing an event or object that we use the right language that is helpful to the reader.

    66. WhereasscholarswillfindValueinparticularhistoricalinterpretationsproposedbycontributorsconcerningateapot,cardtable,cigarettelighter,cellarette,telephone,quilt,moneybox,corset,parlorstove,lavalamp,footbridge,locket,foodmill,orArgandlamp,studentswillfindvalueprincipallyinlearningfromthemodelsthatthesereadingsofferofhowsuchinterpretationcanbecarriedÖut.

      Students do tend to look at the bigger picture and not what the little things in the picture mean. This is a blessing and a curse and I think we should pay attention to the details more.

    67. methodology

      What is "methodology"?

    68. possibilitiesarevirtuallylimitless-especiallyconsideringthatnotwoindividualswillreadagivenobjectinthesameway.Sohowtochoose?

      It is because of this very limitless possibility that allows for a greater understanding of a culture to be understood

    69. Havingaddressedanobjectintellectually,andexperienceditactuallyorempatheticallywithoursenses,oneturns,generallynotwithoutacertainpleasureandrelief,tomattersmoresubjective.

      Can a object be linked on a spritual and cultural level?

    70. “fusionofvisualanalysisandverbalexpression

      I beleive this text and the secondary The Secret to Good Writing: It's About Objects, Not Ideas, agree in a sense that the main text is looking for a individual to develop a deeper connection and meaning to a object for a better understanding, while the secondary text is developing a a deeper connection to ideas that are presented.

    71. The additional text "Material Culture" by Sophie Woodward defines and starts to explain what material culture is. The work goes into brief detail about how there is a cultural effect on items. It makes the point that an object, it's physical properties, the material it's made with, and what makes them central to understanding culture and social relations. This work also challenges the belief that a physical item is separate from their cultural association. For example, in Christianity (although this is not universal to every sect of Christianity, Jehovah's Witnesses being an example of a religion that rejects symbols of worship) the cross is a well known symbol. At it's base, it is a cross shape possibly made out of wood. That is what it is at base level. However, the cross is culturally accepted as a symbol of Christianity and the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. This is the cultural association that goes along with this artifact. It argues that material properties should not be overlooked when looking at the meaning if an item, but instead are central to the meaning the item possesses. Items also produce an effect on humans. We see this in the real world example of precious family heirlooms or the idea of "prized possessions." The article "Prized Possessions found at http://www.businesspsych.org/articles/113.html illustrates this point by giving an example of a widow who is attached to a home that she lived in with her husband, even though this home may not be practical for a woman living alone. It supports the idea that people become attached and have emotional connections and responses to physical items. It also goes to explain a brief history on the roots of Material Culture in Anthropology and Archeology. Material Culture in itself however is merging the two worlds of items and artifacts and examining how they affect culture and the relationship between people and things. “Obo.” Material Culture - Anthropology - Oxford Bibliographies, 4 Jan. 2018, www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199766567/obo-9780199766567-0085.xml.

    72. Havingaddressedanobjectintellectually,andexperienceditactuallyorempatheticallywithoursenses,oneturns,generallynotwithoutacertainpleasureandrelief,tomattersmoresubjectiv

      Almost like a yin and yang concept. combining both the intellectual and emotion self together is how some can achieve a higher understanding of an object. Let your mind take you through the motions and use research to back up your claims and leading to more interpretations.

    73. Aresearchprospectusshouldbedetailedenoughtogiveaclearsenseofwhatinyourobjecthasgivenrisetointerpretation.FromwhatthatyouSeeorknoworfeelhasyoursenseofyourobject'sthematiccontentemerged?Beawarethatdifferentquestionsleadtodifferentareasofthelibrary(ortoplacesotherthanthelibrary,includingcollectionsofcomparativeobjects)inwhichtodooriginaliresearch

      Use the emotional connections and imagination broaden your horizon and back the claim with research to solidify it. Also research is a good way to find more interpretations that was seen or though of before.

    74. Howdoestheobjectmakeonefeel?Specifically,whatinorabouttheobjectbringsthosefeelingsout?Asthesewillbe,toacertainextentatleast,personalresponses,thechallenge-beyondrecognizingandarticulating-istoaccountforthemmaterially.Thepointistobegintorecognizethewaysinwhichtheobjecthascreateditseffect.Thesemoreemotionaldeductionsserveasabridgetospeculationaboutmeaning.

      Certain things can make people feel a certain type of way. Like a beach can make a person feel happy and relaxed, a forrest or large landscape could make a person feel adventurous and outdoors nostalgia. If one person feels it chances are other have to. By feeling this emotional connection it will open the doors to more elaborate and better meanings of an object.

    75. taxonomy- the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics.

    76. Countlessdeductionsofthiskindsuggestthemselves.Theprocessoperates,infact,soquicklythatitseffectsarenaturalized,cometoseemtruebydefinitionratherthanasevidenceofmeaningfulinscriptionorconstruction.Onlyifweslowthisprocessdowndowefindourselvesenabled

      Why rush it? Wine is best when aged and properly handled but if rushed it will taste terrible. Rushing into analysis an connections will lead someone to have an unbalanced bias on the object. This will lead to a narrow view and ultimately make the object less significant as a whole.

    77. Like "Material Culture" this paragraph details the importance of observing the physical item in detail to be able to grasp a better meaning. While "Material Culture" explains the "why" of observing an object on a physical level, or the importance in doing so, "Essays in Material Culture" describes how to describe and observe an object on a physical level in a body of writing.

    78. Onewaywerespondtowhatweseeinorexperienceofanobjectamountstointellectualdetectivework

      The possibilities are limitless but it up to the perceiver to make sense of. Connections to history, moral values, personal experience, current events, and symbolism can amount to this.

    79. Thedegreeofdetailonerecordsremainsamatterofpersonaldiscretion,butthoroughnesscounts

      It's good to have a certain idea about an object but leave room for improvement, there are limitless thoughts and ways that a person can represent something so its always better not jump the gun and see everything that can be represented.

    80. polishedinterpretiveanalysis

      should have an argument and be clear.

    81. This is very reminiscent of the fourth chapter in the textbook "Images with Messages" by Paul Martin Lester. This chapter focuses on semiotics (the study of signs) and the types of signs, more specifically, it is reminiscent of the section on symbolic signs. This details that humans attach values and ideology to items. This section of "Essays in Material Culture" goes into the types of object metaphors humans give to objects, complimenting what is taught in this textbook.

      Lester, Paul Martin. Visual communication: images with messages. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2014.

    82. Themoreself-consciousonebecomes,themorecomplexone’srelationshiptoanobjectbecomes,physicallyandocularlyaswellaspsychologicallyandexperientially.Forthepurposeofanalysis,thereisvalueinisolatingdifferentrealmsofdeductiveresponsesothatthesecanbehandledmorecircumspectly

      As for the reader, they cannot be on a certain bias or narrow view point as this will close up any gates to further analysis. If a person is stuck a title on a object so rapidly they are then limiting themselves as readers and writers broaden their horizons to better or more constructive works.

    83. Althoughyourannotatedbibliographyneedlistnomorethanahandfulofreferencesatthispoint

      Provides more room for error or merely more information.

    84. Composingandrevisinganobjective-as-possibledescriptionfreesonetomovefromanarrowfocusontheobjectitselftoafocusontherelationshipbetweentheobjectandoneselfasitsperceiver.

      Having limited views on a subject can take out several possibilities to what an object might mean and how the reader will view it. This can limit creativity and the functionality of what an object might mean. If an object was a sword and it give an historical view of King Author's excailber than that leave out the view the reader perceiving the sword as a landmark any other culture or any other famous sword in world history or symbolism for battle or courage.

    85. Onewaywerespondtowhatweseeinorexperienceofanobjectamountstointellectualdetectivework

      Senses response; visual, tactile, oral... etc.

    86. Asameanstothisend,avoidingtheverbtobe(inallitsforms:is,are,thereis,thereare)willhelptomakevisiblethematically-chargedspatialandfunctionalcomplexitiesotherwiseflattenedorobscured.JosephKoerner,inarguing,hereagaininthecaseofvisualimages,thatsuchdescriptionoffers“thebestaccess”toexperiencinganobjectwithimmediacy,notesthatevocativedescriptioncan“register”thewayanobject“functionsforoneparticularobserver.

      Visual imaging help us understand more of what's going on. With 3-D printing we can make that connect by feeling it.

    87. incloselooking-intranslatingmaterialobjectintonarrativedescription.Materialculturebeginswithaworldofobjectsbuttakesplaceinaworldofwords.Whilewework“with”materialobjects,i.e.refer"to"them,themediuminwhichweworkasculturalhistoriansislanguage.Whenwestudyanobject,formalizingourobservationsinlanguage,wegenerateasetofcarefullyselectednouns,adjectives,adverbs,prepositions,andverbswhicheffectivelydeterminetheboundsofpossibleinterpretation

      Diction can be a extremely valuable tool to writers and readers a like. Changing one word or one phrase can change the entire meaning of the object or subject in mind. Certain religious groups take objects and treat them as if it were a living being or person, giving them a human characteristic it personifying the object into something more than an average person might think. Putting a single adjective to a word can change the an object all together. If I said "The grail is over there" can mean a simple antique cup is sitting across the room but if I put the adjective "Holy" in front of it people will recognize this as the ancient legend of the Holy Grail in the bible that give everlasting life. Same with names life Alexander and Alexander the Great. One is a popular western name while the other was a King of an empire.

    88. Speakingofpictures,forwhichwemightSubstituteobjects,MichaelBaxandallhasnoted:“Wedonotexplainpictures:weexplainremarksaboutpictures-orrather,weexplainpicturesonlyinsofaraswehaveconsideredthemundersomeverbaldescriptionorspecification...Everyevolvedexplanationofapictureincludesorimpliesanelaboratedescriptionofthatpicture.”Descriptionprovidesthebridgebetweentherealmofthematerialandthatofconceptsandideas

      We only explain a picture based on our beliefs and understanding of it .

    89. Prowngoesontosuggestthat“themostpersistentobjectmetaphorsexpressiveofbelief”seemembeddedinpolarities,includingbutnotlimitedtothefollowing:

      In 3-D printing the makers movement is a problem many struggle with, it's a constant debate between creating something from scratch or printing something because to don't want to have to go to the store to buy it.

    90. totheseobjects'culturalsignificance;attentionnotjusttowhattheymightbesaidtosignifybut,asimportantly,tohowtheymightbesaidtosignify;totheirgerundialmeaning(activeverbform:tobringmeaningintobeing),totheuaytheymean,bothphenomenologicallyandmetaphorically

      Doing further research to understand the impact of a certain object on others.

    91. Whatquestionsaremostfruitfultoaskinone'sworkwithanobjectandhowmightonebestgoaboutaskingthem?

      Ts questions is important because not only is it insightful but it also connects to our Aids quilt project.

    92. Allobjectssignify;somesignifymoreexpressivelythanothers.Asthelistofobjectsstudiedoverthecourseoftimeinasingleuniversityseminarattests,thepossibilitiesarevirtuallylimitless-especiallyconsideringthatnotwoindividualswillreadagivenobjectinthesameway.

      A certain sense of iconography and symbolism needed. For example a person could look at a tree and think nothing of it but a shaman might look at the tree as something deeper than just roots in ground or a piece of wood. They might see it as a representation of life flowing through the Earth that is ultimately connects everything even humans together. Same would be said about Hindu religion and their view of the world. Seeing as they are hundreds if not thousand of different gods in Hinduism that each represent a certain aspect of life. They might see the sun as a god or the rivers or the ground because that is their view on it. So a single object can in fact mean many different things depending on the culture or point of view of the beholder.

    93. Both passages talk about the physical object as important to study. "Material Culture" challenges the idea that the physical item is somehow separate or less important than the meaning behind the object. It states that material properties are key to the meaning behind the item. "Essays in Material Culture" seems to imply that there are steps to observing an object and that finding cultural significance is a more complex step. These two ideas are complimentary and help paint a full picture of the importance of studying both the physical object, and its cultural significance.

    94. etymological

      Origin of words and thier meanings

    95. nythingleftoutofdescriptionislosttointerpretationforever

      This allows a person to be able to make their own connection and interpretation of the object

    96. maginativeintervention

      Connection to "3-D print your way to freedom and prosperity." Where as 3-D printing is an imaginative intervention.

    97. smooth/roughshiny/dullhot/coldsoft/hardlight/darktransparent/opaqueup/downin/outstability/instabilityforward/backwardvertical/horizontalstraight/curvedorcrookedlight/heavythin/thickclean/dirty

      Can each polarity, open a multitude of insights?

    98. This passage begins to explain something that "Material Culture" does not go into detail about. It begins talking about the connection between studying material culture and studying history and learning about history. "Material Culture begins to talk about the history of the study of material culture in the last section of the passage but it does not talk about what is learned about history from studying material culture. "Material Culture" talks about the start of the study in the 19th and 20th centuries and how central it is to anthropology but does not begin to talk about the impact it has on the knowledge of history through studying significant cultural artifacts.

    99. The idea that "only some of culture takes material form" is one that could be shared with the source "Material Culture" but is not specified in that piece of writing. "Material Culture" places emphasis on the meaning humans give to material items in a cultural sense and does not offer this type of disclaimer. However, both dive into defining what the study of material culture is. By definition, material culture is "The physical objects that belong to or were created by a group (http://sociologydictionary.org/material-culture/)." Both documents, while differing slightly in how detailed they are in explaining whether or not all items possess a level of cultural influence, explain this definition of material culture in their beginning and explain what the study of this is.

    100. Speakingofpictures,forwhichwemightSubstituteobjects,MichaelBaxandallhasnoted:“Wedonotexplainpictures:weexplainremarksaboutpictures-orrather,weexplainpicturesonlyinsofaraswehaveconsideredthemundersomeverbaldescriptionorspecification...Everyevolvedexplanationofapictureincludesorimpliesanelaboratedescriptionofthatpicture.”Descriptionprovidesthebridgebetweentherealmofthematerialandthatofconceptsandideas

      Haltman explains the importance description in essays and the ways we phrase them. This compares to the supplemental text phrase " Something you can drop on your foot" As a way to describe an object to not seem too abstract.

    101. Etymological- relating to the origin and historical development of words and their meaning

    102. Pedagogic- relating to teaching.

    103. Essays in Material Culture

      The supplemental text I'm have chosen to apply to this text would be "3-D print your way to freedom and prosperity" by Jathan Sadowski. Which is an online news article that contains pictures. Unlike the Haltman's text it can be updated and viewed by millions. In both text the idea of polarity comes to play in the Halthman's text it is referred to as an objective metaphor. Whereas, the Sadowski article refers to it as the "maker" movement.

    104. Howdoestheobjectmakeonefeel?Specifically,whatinorabouttheobjectbringsthosefeelingsout?Asthesewillbe,toacertainextentatleast,personalresponses,thechallenge-beyondrecognizingandarticulating-istoaccountforthemmaterially.Thepointistobegintorecognizethewaysinwhichtheobjecthascreateditseffect.Thesemoreemotionaldeductionsserveasabridgetospeculationaboutmeaning

      Feelings bring out a more in depth view into the material.

    105. Ratherthansayingwhatavisualimagemeans,descriptiontellsushouranimagehasopeneditselfuptoaninterpretation.”

      Telling what it means tells only your **interpretation of the image. While describing the image givs room for others to form their own interpretations.

    106. Onlyactiveverbsanddescriptiveprosecastinanactivevoiceservetoestablishcauseandagency

      Using verbs that are descriptive, which gives a more in depth meaning to it.

    107. Thisiswhythewordswechooseinsayingwhatweseehavesuchfarreachingimportance.Itisoutofourparaphraseofwhatweseethatallinterpretationgrows.Speakingofpictures,forwhichwemightSubstituteobjects,MichaelBaxandallhasnoted:“Wedonotexplainpictures:weexplainremarksaboutpictures-orrather,weexplainpicturesonlyinsofaraswehaveconsideredthemundersomeverbaldescriptionorspecification...Everyevolvedexplanationofapictureincludesorimpliesanelaboratedescriptionofthatpicture.”Descriptionprovidesthebridgebetweentherealmofthematerialandthatofconceptsandideas

      The way describe things that we see gives a deeper intell on what is being portrayed. Our descriptions give an idea of the connection between the picture and the worldly view on it.

    108. Asthelistofobjectsstudiedoverthecourseoftimeinasingleuniversityseminarattests,thepossibilitiesarevirtuallylimitless-especiallyconsideringthatnotwoindividualswillreadagivenobjectinthesameway.Sohowtochoose?

      There are numerous ways to seeing things. Since everyone is different, people will see something and have two completely different aspects on that thing.

    109. totheseobjects'culturalsignificance;attentionnotjusttowhattheymightbesaidtosignifybut,asimportantly,tohowtheymightbesaidtosignify;totheirgerundialmeaning(activeverbform:tobringmeaningintobeing),totheuaytheymean,bothphenomenologicallyandmetaphorically

      Its not merely about what is being said to describe something meaningful, but digging deeper into the how it is said. What the significance of the way its said and how that is impactful to the piece.

    1. they themselves can finally see what they are talking about.

      Not only will readers be able to visualize the analysis, but also the writer. Which is kind of ironic, but true when you actually think about it. The idea that you as the writer can actually see what you have thought was to only get a point across to others, you also did that for yourself in an unconscious way.

    2. They start to write with good examples, though they don't think of them as examples, but as objects.

      This is where Haltman and Maguire tie in together as i stated before. Rather than the word example, they turn into descriptions.

    3. writing with things you can drop on your foot

      I believe this is a great way at looking at things as far as being descriptive. Using actually objects, things that your audience can actually visualize in their head while reading. This will allow readers to be more engaged because they can relate more.

    4. A writer uses abstract words because his thoughts are cloudy; the habit of using them clouds his thoughts still further; he may end by concealing his meaning not only from his readers but also from himself.

      This definitely goes hand in hand with Haltmans stance on not creating a bias essay.

    5. abstractions are what you get when you pull back from (or abstract from) concrete reality -- from the world of thing

      These are things that are below the surface. Things that are easily skimmed over, but could be valuable if people actually take a deeper look into describing them.

    6. the giving of examples as a skill

      Although in Haltman's text he doesnt exactly say examples, they both give the idea to be descriptive, use examples. They obviously both feel like thiese are the steps to creating a great paper.

    7. The Secret to Good Writing: It's About Objects, Not Ideas

      The title alone will grasp a readers attention. Even those who know how to write well will read this article, because there is always room for improvement.

    8. abstract ideas derive from objects.

      Relating back to the Haltman text, where he also beieves in description of the object. He makes it a point to saying that objects is where your best ideas will come from, without actually focusing on the idea..

    9. Like the teachers at New Dorp, I believe in conscious skill instruction and over the years have made my own list of missing skills.

      Similar to the Haltman text, where he gave instructions on his idea of "missing skills"

    10. many students show up in a freshman comp class believing they can't write, and their opinion is valid. They don't realize that it's because they lack certain skills that were common among college freshmen 40 years ago.

      Many students lack the fundamentals, which is why the criteria in high school should be alternated. Things that were in the criteria back then aren't in the high school agenda now. Which makes it more difficult for students to write a goodItalic** paper.

    1. And what of the CRT’s death?

      It is a very bad death with fits and starts. It does not get a proper burial nor does its death provide new life. The circle of life does not seem to be working well for CRTs. This break in the circle of life seems to be causing a whole lot of problems for other parts that are connected to them.

    2. They suffered from high levels of stress, musculoskeletal trauma, eye strain, skin damage, even miscarriages. Labor organizations responded strongly to the difficulties faced by the new "pink collared" workforce. In 1978, not too far from Silicon Valley, a VDT coalition was established to fight for the rights of workers tied to CRTs. Similar organizations emerged across North American and Europe to improve conditions for workers using CRTs in the automated office. There is now legislation in many U.S. states that regulates working conditions by providing adequate lighting, regular breaks from the CRT, and user-adjustable workstations.

      New advancements always seem to come with some problems. Sometimes it is easier to try to adapt to an items problems instead of trying to fix the item.

    3. What you couldn't see, at first, was anything but static on the TV screen. Many Americans bought TVs before they could receive a signal. Turn it on and its CRT showed only what we once called snow. Where do you even put a box like that?In 1951, Better Homes and Gardens referred to something called a "TV room," a concept for something yet to come.

      People were buying into technological things that do not work yet a long time ago. It seems that humanity is always looking at and anticipating about what is coming next in the world even when there is nothing to be seen yet.

    4. And so the CRT—that porthole into the apparently weightless and immaterial realm of cyberspace—has entailed mining and refining of earthly materials for a whole lot of metal, plastic, and glass. You can see the effects from space.

      CRT screens were the first way to see beyond what was within a reachable distance and connect with others both far away and close. It allowed people to disconnect with interacting with the Earth, like playing outside, will the effects of what was needed to create the screens could be seen when away from Earth.

    5. In 17th-century England the existence or non-existence of the vacuum was at the center of one of the greatest controversies of the modern era.

      Of course there was a controversy. It is hard to make people believe that there is something when they cannot see it. It seems to be that in those times there was always skeptics about new technology as it hadn't been seen before. This helps to bring even more history to something that would be considered ancient by anyone born in the last decade.

    6. The cathode ray tube is dead.

      I am not sure that it is completely dead. There is still some use for it, especially among older generations that grew up with it. I know that I still make use of cathode ray tube tvs.

    1. But the machete bears an unusual character. It’s possible to conceive of it as a weapon, yes, but it’s also very much a tool—not altogether different from, say, a shovel. It’s possible that Wilson is just a stunted adolescent who never grew out of buying switchblades and throwing stars when the carnival comes to town, but the ease with which “tool” becomes “weapon” in the eyes of the law is remarkable.

      As related to the primary text, the interpretations of what a machete is defined as can be viewed differently from all aspects. From a law standpoint, they see the machete as a weapon because it is a sharp object but others see it as a tool because it can be compared to a table saw or an ax.

    2. Machete

      What is a "Machete"? In my opinion a machete is a tool because tools can also be defined as weapons if they are used in an aggressive/deadly manner. For an example, a hammer is a tool but may also be used to harm someone.

    3. “full size” machete.

      Are there miniature machetes? But wouldn't a small machete be considered a knife?

    4. the machete has a special place in the labor history of Florida, where for three and a half centuries slaves and wageworkers cut sugarcane in the fields by hand. Indeed, machetes are unique to the extent that they have always been used for both purposes—and not just as a plot device in horror flicks, either.

      The machete can be used for various reasons. Many people use it in an ax-like manner to cut things down because that is how their cultural history used the "weapon/tool". I personally carry a pocket knife for various reasons. My main reason is for cutting open things in my art class (used as a tool) but I also carry it for protection because I have night classes (weapon). I don't believe you can say what a machete actually is because there are multiple uses for it.

    5. I quickly realized from the descriptions that a machete was essentially the same thing as a “corn knife.”

      This goes back to the primary researches statement of culture having an affect on how people see objects. Some cultures use machetes as actual tools i.e the "corn knife" while others see it as a weapon because they have seen it being used in that way.

    1. This appears to be the definition of material culture. It describes that the attitudes and beliefs come from both the maker and the culture from which it came.

    2. This is probably not the only method to describe material culture, but Haltman claims it is the most effective or efficient.

    3. The article about the CRT does not seem to follow the Prownian Analysis as it does not use any of these ways to describe the CRT.

    4. The descriptions of the object is the primary resource as opposed to the object itself?

    5. I think Haltman is saying that you must use your own ideas to describe material culture.

    6. The CRT had an emotional impact on families as it was a center piece for a family room and families gathered around to watch broadcasts. This could be a testament to the emotional connection.

    7. Haltman talks about how "intellectual detective work" (Haltman) can lead to a pattern of use. The CRT article talks about how the CRT was used and the different technological advances that stem from it.

    8. Haltman describes that objects should be described in an active voice, but the article about the CRT uses a passive voice for descriptions. For example, "CRTs were introduced..." or "CRT has entailed..." (Lepawsky).

    9. Remarks about the picture act as the attitude towards the event. Therefore, the remarks symbolize culture.

    10. The article about the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) by Josh Lepawsky does not seem to show how the CRT expresses a polarity as material culture.

    1. In the last paragraph of the piece, Haltman writes about the study of material culture being a more exploratory process rather than explanatory process. I believe this is what Cline was doing in his article on the machete. He was exploring different cultures' meaning of the machete.

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    2. In the last paragraph of page eight Haltman writes about the "simplicity of freely choosing an object..."(Haltman, page 8). In Cline's case there was no freedom in choosing an object. Cline wrote the article to give more information on a certain incident.

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    3. On page seven in the last paragraph Haltman says that an analysis of an object should not necessarily be an argument, but should have a claim and present information. Cline seems to do exactly this in his article. He presents historical evidence of the machete being used as a weapon and a tool, but does not argue as to whether or not a machete should be seen as either in today's world (Cline)

      .Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    4. In the third paragraph of page six Haltman describes the importance thinking about how an object signifies its meaning. Cline writes the machete was a symbol of terror during the Rwandan Genocide because it was used to kill millions of people. This effectively explains how the machete was a symbol of terror in Rwanda.

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    5. In the last two paragraphs of page five Haltman describes the process of deducing meaning from an object. It is a very fast process. Our deductions are influenced by our current culture, so our deductions could be wrong because the object comes from a different culture. In his article, Cline talks about his own exposure to machetes being used as agricultural tools. He would at first associate a machete as a tool rather than as a weapon, however in some cultures this symbolism could be wrong.

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    6. On page four Haltman writes about the importance of word choice when writing about an object. A reader's view of a culture will be based on the writer's interpretation, and word choice heavily influences interpretation. Cline seems to write in a light-hearted manner, at times almost comedic, to maintain a more informative approach, as opposed to taking a stand on the arrest of the man carrying a machete (Cline).

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    7. The last paragraph of page three is a quote from Jules Prown on describing an object. In Cline's article a brief history of the machete is given, defining its original purpose as an agricultural tool in 16th century Europe. However, it was soon also used as a weapon, creating a different meaning for the tool (Cline).

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    8. I chose John Cline's article "What is a Machete, Anyway?" as my supplementary reading. The article addresses the arrest of a man who was carrying an unconcealed machete in public. Cline writes about the history and cultural symbolism attached to the machete, pondering whether or not the machete should be considered a weapon (Cline).

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    9. In the first paragraph of page one, Haltman writes about the importance of asking certain types of questions when researching a cultural object. In his article, Cline asks what the machete meant or symbolized to various cultures over time (Cline).

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    10. On page two, Haltman is describing Jules Prown's analysis method. Prown says that the most expressive objects are embedded in polarites, such as life and death or acceptance and rejection (Jules Prown). In Cline's article the machete is symbolized in multiple ways in different cultures, such as a weapon in a revolution or an agricultural tool (Cline). In a revolution a machete could symbolize the polarity of power and lack of control. A group revolting is seizing power from an authority.

      Cline, John. “What Is a Machete, Anyway?” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 21 Oct. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-a-machete-anyway/280705/.

    1. Micro-factory

      With having 3-D printing it takes away the jobs of those in the factories creating this things we will now be "printing". In doing this we are taking away jobs but creating hobbies.

    2. the Californian Ideology

      The Californian Ideology basically defines the idea of free spirit as a result decreases the powers of both the nation and the state.

    3. downside

      The downside of 3-D printing is that everyone will be able to do it.

    4. President Barack Obama, in his 2013 State of the Union address

      President Obama believed that tools like 3-D printing would be very useful for things we do in our everyday lives.

    5. 3-D print your way to freedom and prosperity

      3-D printing is the process of creating an object that is new, by breaking something down and then fabricating it into something of use. This process is very convenient and fast. Unlike the Haltman's essay this discusses the effects of 3-D printing on both social and economical scales.

    6. harbinger

      A person that announces the forerunner.

    7. “maker” movement

      Is the idea of one creating something new, instead of going out to buy it.