5 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
    1. Statistical heterogeneity is the term given to differences in the effects of interventions and comesabout because of clinical and/or methodological differences between studies (ie it is a consequenceof clinical and/or methodological heterogeneity). Although some variation in the effects ofinterventions between studies will always exist, whether this variation is greater than what isexpected by chance alone needs to be determined.

      If the statistical heterogeneity is larger that what's expected by chance alone, then what does that imply? That there's either clinical or methodological heterogeneity within the pooled studies.

      What's the impact of the presence of clinical heterogeneity? The statistical heterogeneity (variation of effects/results of interventions) becomes greater than what's expected by chance alone

      What's happens if methodological heterogeneity is present? The statistical heterogeneity (variation of effects/results of interventions) becomes greater than what's expected by chance alone

    1. Scaffolding is the act of providing learners with assistance or support to perform a taskbeyond their own reach if pursued independently when “unassisted.”

      Wood, Bruner, & Ross (1976) define scaffolding as what? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) The act of providing learners with assistance or support to perform a task beyond their own reach if pursued independently when "unassisted."

      What term do Wood, Bruner, & Ross (1976) define as "The act of providing learners with assistance or support to perform a task beyond their own reach if pursued independently when 'unassisted.'"? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) Scaffolding

    2. Schemas are chunks of multiple individual units of memory that are linked into a system ofunderstanding

      How do Bransford, Brown, & Cocking (2000) define schemas? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) As chunks of multiple individual units of memory that are linked into a system of understanding

      What term is defined by Bransford, Brown, & Cocking (2000) to be "chunks of multiple individual units of memory that are linked into a system of understanding"? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) Schemas.

    3. Learning is defined to be “storage of automated schema in long-term memory.

      How is learning defined by Sweller in 2002? (Metiri Group, Cisco Sytems, 2008) The storage of automated schema in long-term memory

      What term does Sweller define as the "storage of automated schema in long-term memory"?

    1. What Is a Blockchain Oracle? A blockchain oracle is a secure piece of middleware that facilitates communication between blockchains and any off-chain system, including data providers, web APIs, enterprise backends, cloud providers, IoT devices, e-signatures, payment systems, other blockchains, and more. Oracles take on several key functions: Listen – monitor the blockchain network to check for any incoming user or smart contract requests for off-chain data. Extract – fetch data from one or multiple external systems such as off-chain APIs hosted on third-party web servers. Format – format data retrieved from external APIs into a blockchain readable format (input) and/or making blockchain data compatible with an external API (output). Validate – generate a cryptographic proof attesting to the performance of an oracle service using any combination of data signing, blockchain transaction signing, TLS signatures, Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) attestations, or zero-knowledge proofs. Compute – perform some type of secure off-chain computation for the smart contract, such as calculating a median from multiple oracle submissions or generating a verifiable random number for a gaming application. Broadcast – sign and broadcast a transaction on the blockchain in order to send data and any corresponding proof on-chain for consumption by the smart contract. Output (optional) –  send data to an external system upon the execution of a smart contract, such as relaying payment instructions to a traditional payment network or triggering actions from a cyber-physical system.

      Seems related to the paradox of information systems. Add to Anki deck