46 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2023
  2. drive.google.com drive.google.com
    1. persecute

      迫害 (v.) to treat someone unfairly or cruelly over a long period of time because of their race, religion, or political beliefs, or to annoy someone by refusing to leave them alone

    2. '>pat

      吐 to eject (something) from the mouth

    3. mantle

      斗篷 a figurative cloak symbolizing preeminence or authority

    4. batt;.1lion

      營 a military unit composed of a headquarters and two or more companies, batteries, or similar units

    5. flogged

      鞭打 to beat with or as if with a rod or whip

    6. counsel

      協商 guarded thoughts or intentions

    7. gnac,hing

      咬牙切齒 to strike or grind (the teeth) together

    8. leaven

      酵 a substance (such as yeast) used to produce fermentation in dough or a liquid especially

    9. mustard

      芥末 a pungent yellow condiment consisting of the pulverized seeds of various mustard plants (such as Sinapis alba, Brassica juncea, and B. nigra) either dry or made into a paste or sauce (as by mixing with water or vinegar) and sometimes adulterated with other substances (such as turmeric) or mixed with spices

    10. granary

      糧倉 a storehouse for threshed grain

    11. darncl

      幾種通常多雜草的黑麥草(黑麥草屬)中的任何一種 any of several usually weedy ryegrasses (genus Lolium)

    12. parched

      因乾燥而皺縮 to become dry or scorched

    13. thistles

      薊 any of various prickly composite plants (especially genera Carduus, Cirsium, and Onopordum) with often showy heads of mostly tubular flowers

    14. ra\ening

      貪吃 to feed greedily

    15. rend

      撕裂 to perform an act of tearing or splitting

    16. toii

      辛勞 long strenuous fatiguing labor

    17. mammc~n

      財神爺 material wealth or possessions especially as having a debasing influence

    18. sco" I

      皺眉頭 to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure

    19. synagogues

      猶太教堂 the house of worship and communal center of a Jewish congregation

    20. recompense

      補償 to return in kind

    21. porter

      搬運工 a person who carries burdens

    22. harlotry

      淫亂 sexual profligacy

    23. amiss

      通過踩踏來壓碎、傷害或毀壞 to crush, injure, or destroy by or as if by treading

    24. tramp l ed

      通過踩踏來壓碎、傷害或毀壞 to crush, injure, or destroy by or as if by treading

    25. pigeons

      廣泛分佈的鳥類科(鴿科,鴿形目)中的任何一種,具有粗壯的身體、相當短的腿和光滑緊湊的羽毛 any of a widely distributed family (Columbidae, order Columbiformes) of birds with a stout body, rather short legs, and smooth and compact plumage

    26. census

      古羅馬用於人口統計的量詞 a count of the population and a property evaluation in early Rome

    27. decree

      an order usually having the force of law 有法律效力的命令

    28. guile

      詭計 trick

  3. Mar 2021
  4. Jul 2019
  5. May 2019
    1. d) Particle delivery using the Helios gene gun A day prior to immunization, hair were removed from the abdominal region of mice using a commercial depilatory agent (Anne French cream). Two cartridges/mouse ( ~ 2 Jlg DNA) were shot under pressurized helium gas ( 400 psi) intradermally at the shaven area of the abdomen of mice using the Helios gene gun. Two boosters comprising of two cartridges each were given on days 21 and 35. On day 45, mice in each group received i.m. injection of E. coli expressed recombinant protein (20 Jlglmouse in saline). Mice were bled retro-orbitally on days 0, 45 and 52 for analysis of antibody response.
    2. tubing, which was cut into 0.5 inch pieces (cartridges). These cartridges were used to deliver DNA into epidermis of male/female mice. a) Preparation of DNA-gold microcarrier suspension Twenty five mg of gold microcarriers were weighed in a 1.5 ml eppendorf tube to which 100 J..Ll of 0.05 M spermidine was added and vortexed for 10 sec. To the above mixture 100 J..Ll of DNA (0.5 mg/ml) was added and vortexed for another 10 sec. While vortexing, 100 J..Ll of 1 M CaCh was added dropwise to the mixture and left at RT for 10 min to allow precipitation of DNA onto gold microcarriers. The DNA-gold pellet was collected by centrifuging at 12,000 X g for 1 min at RT. The pellet was washed thrice with 100% ethanol (freshly opened bottle), resuspended in 3 ml of 0.1mg/ml polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) in ethanol and stored at -20°C till further use. b) Loading the DNA/microcarrier suspension into gold-coat tubing using the tubing prep station A 25 inch length of tubing was cut and fixed on tubing prep station, air dried by passing nitrogen gas through it for 15 min. The DNA/microcarrier suspension was vortexed and injected into the tubing using a 5 ml syringe and the microcarriers allowed to settle in the tubing for 3 min. Ethanol from the tubing was removed by slowly sucking into the syringe. The tubing was rotated, while passing the nitrogen gas, using the tubing prep station, for 20-30 sec to allow the microcarriers to evenly coat the inside of the tubing. c) Preparation of cartridges using the tubing cutter The tubing was cut into 0.5 inch long pieces (cartridges) by using the tubing cutter and cartridges stored at 4°C in vials containing desiccant pellets till further use.
    3. Suspension of DNA adsorbed onto gold microcarriers at 0.5 Microcarrier Loading Quantity (MLQ; 50 J.lg DNA/25 mg gold microcarriers) was prepared and coated inside Tefzel
    4. Plasmid DNA adsorbed onto gold microcarriers
    1. For clonogenic assays, 1x103 (A549) or 2x103 (E-10) cells were seeded per well of a six well tissue culture plate and grown for 15 days. For identification of signaling pathways various inhibitors were used viz, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (10μM), MEK inhibitor PD98059 (10μM) or p38 inhibitor SB203580 (10μM). Cells were grown in the presence of inhibitor for seven days following which fresh medium was added. For staining, cells were washed twice with PBS and fixed in 10% formalin for 10 minutes, washed extensively with water and stained with 0.25% crystal violet prepared in 25% methanol for 4hrs at 4°C. Plates were then washed with milli Q water and dried before scanning
    2. Clonogenic Assay
    1. Quantitative measurement of periplasmic acid phosphatase activity in phosphate-starved C. glabratacells was performedas mentioned previously (Orkwis et al., 2010). A total of 0.5 OD600YNB-grown and phosphate-starved cells were collected, washed thrice with cold water and oncewith cold 0.1 M sodium acetatebuffer (pH 4.2). Washed cells were resuspendedin 500 μl sodium acetate (0.1 M)and incubated at 30 ̊C with constant stirring. After 10 min incubation, 500 μl freshly-prepared solution of 20 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate in 0.1 M sodium acetate(pH 4.2) was added to the cell suspension. Enzymatic activity was stopped after incubation at 25 ̊C for 20 min by addition of 250 μl sodium carbonate (1 M)tothe reaction mix. Resultant colour change was measured by monitoring absorbance at 400 nm. Acid phosphatase activity was expressed as a ratio of OD400to OD600 to normalize against cell density
    2. Determination of acid phosphatase activity
    1. C. glabratacells grown either in RPMI medium or harvested from THP-1 macrophages were collected, washed with DEPC treated water and were disrupted with glass beads in trizol. Total RNA was isolated using acid phenol extraction method and frozen at -80C. Quality of RNA was examined by determiningtheRNAintegrity number (RIN) before microarrayanalysis.Microarray experiments wereperformed atOcimum Biosolutions Ltd., Hyderabad (http://www.ocimumbio.com). Briefly, a4x44K GE Agilent array comprised of 10,408 probes representing 5,205 ORFs of C. glabratawas used wherein average number of replicates for each probe was four to five. Feature Extraction software version (Agilent) and Quantile normalization was used for data analysis. Hierarchical clustering was performed using Complete Linkage methodwith Euclidean Distance as distance measure. Data arethe average of two hybridizations from biological replicates ofeach sample and raw data sets for this study areavailable at the Gene Expression Omnibus database(Accession number -GSE38953)
    2. Microarray Analysis
    1. CFUs/ml) onto fully expanded leaf, and pricking with sterile needle to facilitate the entry of bacteria inside the leaves through wound. To detrmine the growth of bacteria inside leaves, 1 cm2 leaf area surrounding the inoculation site was cut at regular time intervals, surface sterilized by dipping in 2% (vol/vol) sodium hypochlorite for 2 min, and washed twice in sterile water. For getting the CFUs, leaves were crushed using mortar and pestle, serially diluted, and plated on PSA medium containing appropriate antibiotics
    2. Exogenous iron supplementation was performed as described previously (Chatterjee and Sonti, 2002). Briefly, leaves of 40-day-old greenhouse-grown rice plants of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichung Native-1 (TN-1) were cut with scissors 2 cm above the junction of the leaf blade and leaf sheath. These cut leaves (25 leaves per flasks) were dipped in 250 ml conical flasks containing 200 ml 1μg/mlof Benzyl amino purine (BAP) in double distilled water. BAP (a cytokine hormone) maintain the detached rice leaves in fresh condition for longer period. For iron supplementation, FeCl3 was added to a final concentration of 50 μM (stock-10 mM). Prior to inoculation with different strains of Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzicola, the leaves were maintained overnight on a laboartory bench top. Strains were inoculated into the leaves by needle pricking method by dropping 20μl of bacterial suspension (approx. 1 × 108bacterial
    3. Exogenous iron supplementation and bacterial growth assay in rice leaves
    1. using the GENESPRING GX (Version 12.0) software,normalized to 75 percentile shift and represent the average of two hybridizations from biological replicates for each sample. Functional annotation of differentially regulated gene set(≥1.5 Fold change with p≤0.05)was performed using the GENESPRING GX (Version 12.0) softwareand GO terms with p<0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Using the REVIGO tool(http://revigo.irb.hr), redundant and significantly overlapping GO terms were removed and summarized. In REVIGO analysis, S. cerevisiaedatabase was chosen for GOterm sizes andtheallowed similarity value was set to 0.5(small).Additionally, to identify the overlap among differentially expressed genes, functional category analysis was performed usingthefungal specific annotation tool FUNGIFUN (https://sbi.hki-jena.de/FungiFun/FungiFun.cgi). Significantly enriched FunCat (Functional Catalogue) associated pathways were extracted usingthewhole C. glabratagenome as background and compared across differentially regulated gene sets. The parameters used for FUNGIFUN analysis were cut-off p=0.05; Fisher’s exact test; FunCatlevel 3. Raw data sets for this study are available attheGene Expression Omnibus database (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/geo; accession no. GSE60741
    2. Log-phase C. glabratacells were grown either in YNB or YNB medium supplemented witheither50 μMBPS(iron limiting) or 500 μMferric chloride (iron excess) for 2 h. Cells were spun down at 4,000 rpm for 5 min and washed twice with ice-cold DEPC-treated water. Total RNA was extracted usingtheacid phenolisolationmethod, resuspended in nuclease-free water and stored at -80°C. The frozen RNA samples were sent to Genotypic Technology Ltd., Bangalore (http://www.genotypic.co.in) wherein quality of RNA samples wasdetermined by examining the RNA integrity number (RIN) before performing microarray analysis. Next, the 8x15 GE Agilent array,comprised of 60mer oligonucleotides representing a total of 5,503 C. glabrataORFs (three replicates of each probe on average),was used for single colour microarray experiments.Datawereextracted
    3. Microarray analysis