344 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2023
    1. esidents of Black and low-income communitiesare more likely to suffer from environmental degradation

      Low income communities are more likely to have depletion of resources because of highways

    2. oncepts of race andspace share very similar characteristics

      Race and space have similar characteristics

    3. engage-ment with racial studies by critical geographers has fosteredan understanding of the ways that “space works to conditionthe operation of power and the constitution of relationalidentities.

      Studies about race have contributed to understanding the ways of other cultures and races

    4. lack women at the center ofstruggles for spatial justice

      More specific in the fact that black women are struggling

    5. Many families who havelived in East Tampa for several generations moved there dueto urban renewal, which demolished housing in other Blackneighborhood

      People moved there because of new housing in other communities that destroyed the housing of the black neighborhoods

    6. predominantly Black, multi-neighborhoodEast Tampa area

      East Tampa- Minority communities

    7. this had occurred in Tampafrom the 1950s through the 1970

      History of the same thing happening

    8. highway expansion initiativeshave disproportionately affected areas of the city that houselarge numbers of ethnic minority residents,

      Highway expansion effects ethnic minority residents by tearing down important cultural institutions.

    9. Young-Green was not only asserting her placeas a community leader but also as someone who could speakto the racialized history of highway expansion.

      African American speaker who lives in Tampa Heights and speaks about race and the history of highway expansion

    10. destroy cherished public and privatespaces without regard for the significance of these placesand spaces to people in the community.

      reason for protesting the TBX project

    11. White audience wereresidents of Tampa Heights

      Tampa Heights=predominantly white

    12. communitiesmay suffer from other effects because of past, current, andproposed urban projects

      May seem like a good idea to implement the TPX project, past projects have effected communities in the past

    13. They had even or-ganized and participated in public protests against the projectcalled Tampa Bay Express

      Residents of Tampa Heights already protested against other highway expansion plans

    14. from other communities who would also be affectedby the expansion plans

      More than one community effected

    15. FDOT

      Florida Department of Transportation- had plans to have the expressway expansion to improve the infrastructure.

    16. Key words:

      Most important words, should highlight these points with the following words.

    17. intersection of race, space, and resistance as we revisit the legacies and contemporary implicationsof urban development policies in historically Black communitie

      Shows what the article is about, which is the urban development and history of the black communities

    1. Key words

      Important words to recognize in the article

    2. intersection of race, space, and resistance as we revisit the legacies and contemporary implications of urban development policies in historically Black communities.

      Talks about the history of development in black communities

    1. pecifically identifiedpractices that could be utilized by mental health nurses inyouth and adult inpatient settings to promote trauma-informed care

      shows what people are able to use these practices

    2. counteracted

      Starting to make a solution

    3. reinforces the link between childhood trauma and long-term negative health outcomes

      Another reason to prove something

    4. positive relationship

      As one goes up, the other goes up as well

    5. study inthe USA established an irrefutable link between the child-hood exposure to harsh experiences, such as physical andsexual abuse, and neglect, and exposure to domestic vio-lence and adverse health outcomes in adulthood

      Statistics proven by a study

    6. Well-connected neural pathways, neces-sary for the development of healthy, adaptive responsesto experiences and emotions, are diminished in childrenexposed to adverse environments compared to thoseexposed to more positive environments. The resultingimpairment in mood and behaviour regulation leads tosubsequent maturational difficulties, such as an inabilityto establish effective interpersonal relationships, regulateemotions, and learn from own and others’ experiences(Schore 2003)

      Problem and result of the problem

  2. Sep 2023
    1. Others worry that their ambivalencewill end up confusing readers who require decisive, clear-cut conclusions.

      Being indecisive often confuses the reader

    2. Byadmitting that the opposing argument has a point, Ungar bolsters hiscredibility,

      Using the other argument increases credibility

    3. us get beyond the kind of “is too” / “is not” exchanges that oftencharacterize the disputes of young children and the more polarized shoutingmatches of talk radio and TV.

      More of a medium between completely agreeing and completely disagreeing

    4. whenever you agree with one person’s view, youare likely disagreeing with someone else’s.

      If you agree with someone, you disagree with others

    5. as long as you can support a positiontaken by someone else without merely restating what was said, there is noreason to worry about being “unoriginal.”

      Basically as long as you add something to the conversation, no reason to say your unoriginal.

    6. your textcan usefully contribute to the conversation simply by pointing out unnoticedimplications or explaining something that needs to be better understood.

      Add to the reasonings to help the reader understand more.

    7. ou also needto do more than simply echo views you agree with.

      Needs be more than restating what others already said

    8. disagreements do not need to take the form of personal put-downs.

      No need to insult when disagreeing.

    9. ot wanting to be unpleasant, to hurt someone’s feelings, or tomake yourself vulnerable to being disagreed with in return

      Reasons to not want to express disagreement

    10. disagree not with the position itself but with the assumption thatit is a new or stunning revelation.

      I've never heard of that way, seems a lot more difficult than arguing the other side.

    11. you also have to offer persuasive reasons why you disagree.

      Explanation on why you disagree

    12. Disagreeingcan also be the easiest way to generate an essay:

      I think this is also the easiest way to write an essay

    13. readers cometo any text needing to learn fairly quickly where the writer stands,

      The readers need to know your argument. What other ways to argue are there besides agree, disagree, or both

    14. stating clearly whether you agree,disagree, or both,

      Make sure your argument is clear.

    15. he more complex and subtle yourargument is, and the more it departs from the conventional ways peoplethink,

      The more complex, the more readers have to think

    16. hen writers take too long to declare their position relative to viewsthey’ve summarized or quoted, readers get frustrated,

      Get to the point so the reader doesn't have to wonder what you are arguing.

    17. agreeing,disagreeing, or some combination of both.

      Ways to respond

    18. What these students come to realize is that goodarguments are based not on knowledge that only a special class of expertshas access to but on everyday habits of mind that can be isolated, identified,and used by almost anyone.

      Arguments are not just based on research

    19. “I say” stage,

      Response stage

    20. “Aquote by Shakespeare says.” Introductory phrases like these are bothredundant and misleading.

      What not to do to introduce a quotation

    21. readers need to see how you interpret the quotation,

      Seeing what you think the meaning of the quote is

    22. not all quotationsrequire the same amount of explanatory framing,

      Different explanations for different quotes

    23. framing creates a kind of hybridmix of Tannen’s words and those of the writer.

      Balance between writer's quote and your words

    24. studentexplains the quotation while restating it in his own words, thereby making itclear that the quotation is being used purposefully instead of having beenstuck in simply to pad the essay or the works-cited list

      Restating the quote in his own words makes it clear that there is a purpose for the quotation

    25. academic communicationtends to be a competition for supremacy in which loftier values liketruth and consensus get lost.

      Communication tends to be an argument for who is right, not what the truth is.

    26. with the statement introducing it serving asthe top slice of bread and the explanation following it serving as the bottomslice.

      How to adequately frame a quotation

    27. Since this student fails to introduce the quotation adequately or explain whyhe finds it worth quoting, readers will have a hard time reconstructing whatTannen argued.

      Failing to introduce a quotation means that readers will have a hard time understanding it.

    28. you need to build a framearound them in which you do that speaking for them.

      Makes the quotes clear and their relevance known.

    29. When you're deeply engaged inthe writing and revising process, there is usually a great deal of back-and-forth between your argument and any quotations you select.

      Choosing the right quotations are difficult and will change throughout the writing process.

    30. you need to have a sense ofwhat you want to do with them—that is, how they will support your text atthe particular point where you insert them.

      The quote being used should have a specific place in the essay that supports your text.

    31. what the quotation means,and how the quotation relates to your own text.

      How to use a quotation in your academic writing

    32. quotations are orphans: wordsthat have been taken from their original contexts and that need to beintegrated into their new textual surroundings.

      They need an explanation around them.

    33. Because the meaning of a quotation isobvious to them, many writers assume that this meaning will also be obvious

      This shows that they should explain the meaning of the quote is so that the readers understand what the quote means too.

    34. because theydon’t fully understand what they’ve quoted and therefore have troubleexplaining what the quotations mean.

      Reasons for not quoting too much, because that could mean a lack of understanding of the quote.

    35. Quoting someone else’s words gives atremendous amount of credibility to your summary and helps ensure that itis fair and accurate.

      Using direct quotes gives more credibility because of its accuracy

    36. Because our speaker failed to mention what others had saidabout Dr. X’s work, he left his audience unsure about why he felt the need tosay what he was saying.

      Nobody knew exactly what he was arguing against

    37. the argument—that Dr. X’s work was very important—was clearenough, but why did the speaker need to make it in the first place? Didanyone dispute it?

      Arguments are useless without a counter claim

    38. To introduce a summary, use one of the signal verbs

      Use signal words to introduce a summary

    39. Though “he says” or “she believes” willsometimes be the most appropriate language for the occasion,

      Use "he says" or "she believes" occasionally, but not too much

    40. urge,” “emphasize,” and “complain about”

      examples of better words to use rather than say

    41. that writing is aboutplaying it safe and not making waves,

      Not true

    42. In some cases,“the says” may even drain the passion out of the ideas you’re summarizing.

      Loses passion by using boring words/templates

    43. avoid bland formulas like “she says” or“they believe.”

      Boring and don't use them often

    44. But in taking their position to itslogical conclusion,

      Must have a logical conclusion

    45. the satiric summary,

      I don't think I'm ever going to use a satiric summary

    46. eflecting not justthe source you are summarizing but your own perspective or take on it aswell.

      Have your own view of the source your summarizing

    47. riting a good summary means not just representing anauthor’s view accurately but doing so in a way that fits what you want to say,the larger point you want to make.

      Summary needs to fit the large point you need to make

    48. it has a clear,overarching goal:

      Make sure your reasonings have a clear goal

    49. Not all lists are bad, however. A list can be an excellent way to organizematerial

      Beneficial for organizing or an outline

    50. ist summaries,

      Fail to focus the summaries to a claim

    51. But writers often summarize a given author on oneissue even though their text actually focuses on another.

      Focus on the same text

    52. th toward Zinczenko’s own text and toward the secondparagraph, where the writer begins to establish her own argument.

      First paragraph has own text and leads to her argument

    53. If you want your essay to encompass all threetopics, you'll need to subordinate these three issues to one of Zinczenko’sgeneral claims and then make sure this general claim directly sets up yourown argument.

      Similar to a five paragraph essay

    54. you to temporarily adopt theworldview of another person, it does not mean ignoring your own viewaltogether.

      Do not ignore your own views


      Have some structure

    56. t is extremely important that you go back to what those others have said,

      Use what other people said, and repeat it in the essay

    57. the closest cliché syndrome,

      Summarized the wrong view the author actually expressed

    58. ou are likely to produce summaries that are so obviously biased thatthey undermine your credibility with readers.

      being too biased makes the article not as credible.

    59. readers should not be able to tell whetheryou agree or disagree with the ideas you are summarizing.

      Important to know for essays

    60. To write a really good summary, you must be able to suspend your ownbeliefs for a time and put yourself in the shoes of someone else.

      Way of trying to understand the other arguments

    61. a summarymust at once be true

      Cannot make false claims about the other argument

    62. Lackingconfidence, perhaps, in their own ideas, these writers so overload their textswith summaries of others’ ideas that their own voice gets lost.

      Find a balance between summarizing and your own ideas.

    63. it is important to knowhow to summarize effectively what those other people say.

      Important to understand what others are saying and summarize it

    64. By reminding readers of the ideas you’re responding to, return sentencesensure that your text maintains a sense of mission and urgency from start tofinish.

      Sense of meeting when repeating claims. Also gets stuck in the reader's head.

    65. In other words, even when presenting your own claims, you should keepreturning to the motivating “they say.”

      Keep the they say in mind and return that

    66. nother way to open with a debate involves starting with a propositionmany people agree with in order to highlight the point(s) on which theyultimately disagree:

      Way to start a debate is to go against the norm

    67. Furthermore, opening with a summary of a debate can help you explore theissue you are writing about before declaring your own view.

      Way of exploring an issue and giving more details before stating your view


      How to make your own argument


      Ways to start with a they say argument

    70. Instead ofOpening with someone else’s views, you could start with an illustrativequotation, a revealing fact or statistic, or—as we do in this chapter—a

      Ways to begin an essay

    71. Modern English . . . is full of badhabits

      I agree with this and I am probably one of those people who have these bad habits

    72. Although we agree that you shouldn’t keep readers in suspense too longabout your central argument, we also believe that you need to present thatargument as part of some larger conversation,

      Find a balance between taking to long to talk about your central argument and presenting your argument as part of a conversation.

    73. The point is to give your readers a quick preview ofwhat is motivating your argument, not to drown them in details right away.

      Details come later.

    74. What we suggest, then, is that as soon as possible youstate your own position and the one it’s responding to together, and that youthink of the two as a unit.

      Your position and the one it responds to should be in the same paragraph.

    75. remember that you areentering a conversation and therefore need to start with “what others aresaying,” as the title of this chapter recommends, and then introduce yourown ideas as a response.

      Topic paragraph should include what others say first, then your ideas

    76. to keep an audience engaged, writers need to explain whatthey are responding to—either before offering that response or, at least, veryearly in the discussion.

      The readers need to know what they are responding to early in the writing.

    77. only what their thesis is but also what larger conversation that thesis isresponding to.

      The thesis should have a thesis that relates to a broader conversation

    78. For the truth isthat there are many very good reasons for giving up meat.

      The truth is the main word that stands out to me. Everyone wants the truth, but there are more than one side that decides the truth

    79. his ability to enter complex, many-sided conversations has taken on aspecial urgency in today’s polarized red state / blue state America,

      Politics in the United States

    80. ltimately, this book invites you to become a criticalthinker who can enter the types of conversations described eloquently by thephilosopher Kenneth Burke in the following widely cited passage.

      Goal, but needs to be taken in small increments in my opinion.

    81. “They say that kids suing fast-foodcompanies for making them fat is a joke; but J say such lawsuits arejustified.”

      Always multiple sides to an argument

    82. but only suggest a way offormatting how you Say it.

      It's supposed to be helpful, but does not have to be used.

    83. In sum, then, while it is not plagiarism to recycleconventionally used formulas, it is a serious academic offense to take thesubstantive content from others’ texts without citing the authors and givingthem proper credit.

      Must cite sources and give the authors credit to avoid plagiarism.

  3. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. At least two Senior High Schools and atleast one Junior High School must be built. MarengoStreet School must be reactivated to reduce thestudent-teacher load at Murchison Street School.

      Schools will no longer be overcrowded and students will get more attention.

    2. Textbooks and curriculum will be developed to showMexican and Mexican-American

      Textbooks that show real history of the Mexican American

    3. Community parents will be engaged as teacher'saides. Orientation

      The community is getting involved

    4. Any teacher having a particularlyhigh percentage of the total school dropouts in hisclasses shall be rated by the Citizens

      responsibility for failure is placed on poor teaching rather than the race of the student

    5. Mexican-Americanstudents. This program will be open to all otherstudents on a voluntary basis.

      The new educational system caters towards the people of color now

    6. o student or teacher will be reprimanded orsuspended for participating in any efforts which areexecuted for the purpose of improving or furtheringthe educational quality in our schools.

      The bettering of the school is now extremely prioritized

    7. "disturbing the peace," thefocus shifted dramatically to legal defenseof those being prosecuted rather thanfighting for equal education.

      equal education AND equality in the justice system

    8. nfortunately these demands fell to thewayside along with the public's attention

      Momentum with the movement died quickly

    9. articulated their needs andinjustices through the EICC in a list of 39demands presented to the Los AngelesBoard of Education.

      They made an organized plan and presented it to fight to change

    10. formedthe core of the Educational IssuesCoordinating Committee (EICC), whichserved as a voicebox for the fight forequal student rights in the aftermath ofthe walkouts

      A committee was now formed to advocate for the students

    11. Mexican Americanstudents continued to trail behind in theclassro

      They began to try to make changes but it did not really work

    12. Prejudice from teachers andadministrators, both liberally-minded andoutright bigoted, instigated stereotypes ofMexican Americans that discouraged thestudents from higher learning.

      Race played a large part in the lack of educational achievement

    13. 60%high school dropout rate. If they didgraduate, they averaged an 8th-gradereading level.

      Education Crisis

    14. New high schools in the area must be immediatelybuilt.

      They are asking for a lot in this article.

    15. chool facilities should be made available forcommunity activities under the supervision of Parents'Councils (not PTA). Recreation programs for childrenwill be developed.

      I agree with this statement

    16. tudent menus should be Mexican oriented. WhenMexican food is served, mother from the barriosshould come to the school and help supervise thepreparation of the food.

      Mexican culture everywhere, even in the school lunches

    17. to show the injustices that Mexicanshave suffered as a culture of that society.

      Similar to what the African Americans want

    18. No student or teacher will be reprimanded orsuspended for participating in any efforts which areexecuted for the purpose of improving or furtheringthe educational quality in our schools.

      No punishment for trying to improve the quality of schools

    19. see how theyfit in with contemporary educationalneeds:

      Solutions to each problem on education.

    20. If the walkouts weren't entirely successful,they certainly empowered and unified theEast LA. community under a just cause,while awakening the politicalconsciousness of Chicano youth.

      The walkout didn't entirely succeed, but they did get attention from the Chicano youth.

    21. agree with 99% ofstudent demands, yet not follow throughciting lack of funding.

      Agreed with the students, and didn't do anything to help them.

    22. improvements to school buildings,facilities and the Industrial Arts Program --designed seemingly to funnel MexicanAmericans to low-paying jobs, whichrequired less critical thinking andcommunication skills.

      Used Mexican Americans to build schools that didn't require that much intelligence

    23. academic changes to theLAUSD curricula and source material inorder to reflect Mexican American historyand culture.

      Another similarity to Massive Resistance in a Small Town

    24. Educational IssuesCoordinating Committee (EICC),

      Seems similar to the NAACP

    25. Meanwhile, adeveloping iconography of cultural prideand beauty was empowering Chicanoswith art and murals throughout East LosAngeles communities.

      Their culture was giving them a power

    26. Mexican Americanstudents continued to trail behind in theclassroom.

      Similar scenario to black people at this time

    27. Prejudice from teachers andadministrators, both liberally-minded andoutright bigoted, instigated stereotypes ofMexican Americans that discouraged thestudents from higher learning.

      Reasoning for the statistic above

    28. 1967 Mexican American studentsthroughout the Southwest held a 60%high school dropout rate.

      That's an unbelievable statistic that shows how poor the education system was for minors.

  4. moodle.lynchburg.edu moodle.lynchburg.edu
    1. hat museum has been the healing ground for me,” Carrington says. She’s learned forthe first time how white families were impacted, befriended a former academy teacher,and done a lot of praying to help get over her anxieties and anger. “I have come so far,”she says. “I’ve surprised myself.

      Not just an African Museum, but it shows how everyone was effected because of these times

    2. nd the common attitude was “never talk about it again,” Ward says. Many who wereinvolved in the strike and subsequent activism never told their children about it. Foryears, there was a pervasive lack of trust between black and white residents, as well astension between white families who sent their children to the academy and those whosent their kids to public schools

      Trying to forget everything about this era.

    3. two Negroes on the six-memberschool board.

      Signs of diversity in the town

    4. But she found herself hating school, shesays, probably because she was out of practice being a student

      Effects of being out of school for so long

    5. early all the students were black, and the private academycontinued to operate.

      Balance of public and private schools

    6. the schools opened in the fall of 1963 in leased public school buildings,with abundant supplies and teachers from across the country.

      Resources for all students, no matter the race

    7. Some were arrested for demonstrating without a permit, somefor singing on the steps of the white Farmville Baptist Church. But several businessesbegan hiring black workers

      Starting to see a change

    8. When the Foundationtried to buy the empty public school buildings for the private school, all but one of theschool board members resigned and released a statement in favor of public education.

      In favor of public education, but still weren't a fan of integrating schools

    9. $250 tuition and bus fee foreach student, there was no way her parents could afford it

      Ways to avoid blacks from attending school

    10. The General Assembly also passed a bill that allowed countyresidents to deduct up to 25 percent of their property taxes if they contributed to aprivate school.

      Helping the whites out

    11. “Going to school in churchbasements wasn’t fun,”

      Lack of resources

    12. We didn’t have schoolbooks to read. Mymother was not very educated but she was very intelligent. She taught us the best shecould.

      Lack of resources Even if the mother was smart, she can't give you the same education as an actual teacher can.

    13. The Virginia Teachers Association also sponsorededucational programs, and volunteers from as far away as New England came to tutorand work with the students

      Finding ways to succeed

    14. The school closings didn’t just affect children’s education—they changed families.

      Effect of the school closings in the area

    15. he Negro plaintiffs had, after all, won the case.”

      Recognition that the African Americans won

    16. he schools that had closed started integrating. And, in May, the FourthCircuit overturned the district judge’s ruling and ordered Prince Edward to integrate itsschools by that fall

      Finally the federal courts step in

    17. hich gave the governor the power to close any school that integrated andstipulated that school districts that integrated would lose state funding.

      Governer of VA given the power to close schools, always finding loopholes

    18. close the public schools should they be ordered to desegregate.

      Close schools to avoid integration

    19. We submit thatVirginia has not abandoned public education; the Supreme Court has abolished it

      It's the supreme courts fault that VA is abandoning public education

    20. is the most seriousblow that has yet been struck against the rights of the states in a matter vitally affectingtheir authority and welfare. .. . In Virginia now we are facing a crisis of the firstmagnitude.”

      Racist statement saying that integration is a blow to Virginia and it is the cause of a crisis

    21. However, supplies such as books and scienceequipment were still scarce.

      Black schools still didn't have the same materials as white schools

    22. The NAACP expected this ruling and continued preparation for an appeal tothe Supreme Court.

      They already knew what the ruling of the court in VA would be

    23. A few acts of intimidation went beyond the “civilized” code. On Sunday, May 6, someoneburned a cross in the Moton schoolyard. The Ku Klux Klan was not active in the area,however, and most people—black and white—agreed it was the action of a few. Griffinreceived death threats, and a crude homemade bomb fizzled on the steps of his house.The Johns family began to fear for Barbara’s safety after receiving several threats againsther. They sent her to live with her uncle Vernon in Montgomery, Alabama, and finish highschool there.

      Violent acts are now being prformed

    24. therblack families began to have problems with their credit too.

      Another way to affect the lives of African Americans.

    25. So white leaders asserted their power through “official” channels. The school board firedMoton’s principal and a teacher who was aunt to a student and whose husband was anNAACP member. They also fired Moton teacher Vera Allen, whose daughter Edwilda wasinvolved in the strike. Eventually, the county abolished John Lancaster’s job as Negrocounty farm agent, ostensibly because of his support of the strike and his efforts as theMoton PTA president to build a new school.

      Firing everyone that supported the strike was the reaction of whites

    26. Anybody who won’t fight against racial prejudice is not a man.”

      Definitely used to motivate people to join the fight.

    27. NAACP

      National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    28. To strike until they got what they wanted. Moststudents were on board immediately. That afternoon they stayed on the school grounds,carrying placards with demands such as “We are tired of tar paper shacks—we want anew school.”

      A great way to get what they deserve

    29. Classes also met in several tar-paper shacks,which county officials had constructed instead of a new school.

      No help to these all-black schools

    30. School supplies were secondhand and spread thin, and more than 450students were packed into a facility originally built for 180.

      Differences between the white and black schools

    31. Since it opened in 2001, it has hosted events and discussions about the civil rights era.

      Helping people understand History and the Civil Rights Movement.

    32. Prince Edward County refused to integrate andlocked its doors.

      The length Virginia would go to not integrate schools

    33. constructed in 1939 to house an all-black highschool, reminds them of an era they’d rather forget.

      Seems like a community where each race respects each other if they want to forget the era of all0black high schools

    34. Near thecenter of town stands a bronze Confederate soldier, a monument to Civil War veterans.Up the hill on the edge of town, past historic storefronts and churches, past LongwoodCollege, sits the Robert Russa Moton Museum, Virginia’s only National Historic Landmarkof the civil rights movement.

      Crazy how they have a confederate soldier and a landmark of the civil rights movement in the same place

    1. A mixed school withpoor and unsympathetic teachers,with hostile public opinion, and noteaching of truth concerning blackfolk, is bad

      No use in having mixed schools if the education is poor

    2. I came toAtlanta University to teach history in1897, without the slightest idea frommy Harvard tuition, that Negroesever had any history!

      A Harvard graduate doesn't even know about African American history.

    3. but there isno doubt but what the tremendouspsychic history of the American andWest Indian groups has made it possi-ble for the present generation to ac-cumulate a wealth of material which,with encouragement and training,could find expression in the drama, incolor and form, and in music. Andno where could this training betterbe pursued than in separate Negroschools under competent and intelli-gent teachers?

      Another example of protecting and understanding the African American Culture

    4. congenital

      A disease or physical abnormality present from birth. Unbelievable that they think of their race as a disease.

    5. Beyond this, Negro colleges oughtto be studying anthropology, psychol-ogy, and the social sciences, from thepoint of view of the colored races.

      Focusing on their race

    6. They ought to studyintelligently and from their own pointof view, the slave trade, slavery,emancipation, Reconstruction, andpresent economic development.

      African American History

    7. Negroesmust know the history of the Negrorace in America, and this they willseldom get in white institutions

      African Americans should learn the history of generations before them

    8. merican Negroes have, be-cause of their history, group experi-ences and memories, a distinct entity,whose spirit and reactions demand acertain type of education for its de-velopment

      Basing what type of education they deserve based on their past.

    9. I have be-come curiously convinced that untilAmerican Negroes believe in their ownpower and ability, they are going tobe helpless before the white world

      Restating the same claim about how American Negroes need to believe in their abilities.

    10. Conceive a Negro teachingin a Southern school the econhicswhich he learned at the Harvard Busi-ness School! Conceive a Negro teacherof history retailing to his black stu-dents the sort of history that is taughtat the University of Chicago!

      Highly educated teachers means high development for their children

    11. Howard, Fisk, and Atlanta arenaturally unable to do the type andgrade of graduate work which is doneat Columbia, Chicago, and Harvard

      HBCUs vs IVY leagues and Chicago, another highly respected college.

    12. There can be nodoubt that if the Supreme Court wereoverwhelmed with cases where theblatant and impudent discriminationagainst Negro education is openlyacknowledged, it would be compelledto hand down decisions which wouldmake this discrimination impossibl&

      Supreme court needs to have cases for them to change a law.

    13. Today, when the rJegro publicschool system gets from half to one-tenth of the amount of money spenton white schools, and is often conse-quently poorly run and poorly taught

      Less money means worse education in this case

    14. bygiving Negro teachers decent wages,decent schoolhouses and equipment,and reasonable chances for advance-ment

      Teachers need to have the same support as the students. Students can't learn if the teacher isn't there or doesn't want to be there.

    15. just so longthe main problem of Negro educationwill not be segregation but self-knowl-edge and self-respect

      They need to believe in themselves, because that is the main problem

    16. If the American Negro reallybelieved in himself; if he believed thatNegro teachers can educate childrenaccording to the best standards ofmodern training; if he believed thatNegro colleges transmit and add toscience, as well as or better than othercolleges, then he would bend his ener-gies, not to escaping inescapable as-sociation with his own group, but toseeing that his group had every op-portunity for its best and highest de-velopment

      Motivation for African Americans everywhere

    17. We shall get a finer, better bal-ance of spirit; an infinitely more ca-pable and rounded personality by put-ting children in schools where theyare wanted, and where they are happyand inspired, than in thrusting therhinto hells where they are ridiculed andhated.

      Segregation of schools might actually be beneficial.

    18. I nother cases, the result of the experi-ment may be complete ruin of char-acter, gift, and ability and ingrainedhatred of schools and men

      Child going to a white school can help a cause, abut it could also hurt the child and the black community

    19. t is difficult to think of any-thing more important for the develop-ment of a people than proper trainingfor their children

      I'm not a parent and I don't have kids, but i know my parents wanted me to have the best education possible.

    20. but as long asAmerican Negroes believe that theirrace is constitutionally and perma-nently inferior to white people, theynecessarily disbelieve in every possi-ble Negro Institution

      Way to motivate African Americans to promote change.

    21. The otherreason is at bottom an utter lack offaith on the part of Negroes that theirrace can do anything really well

      Kind of shocked that Du Bois would say that, unless he is trying to make the African Americans upset.

    22. they refuse to work for their adequatesupport; and they refuse to join pub-lic movements to increase their effi-ciency

      The teachers are not trying to be effective in teaching the kids either

    23. To endure bad schools and wrongeducation because the schools are"mixed" is a costly if not fatal mis-take.

      Huge mistake to not have a good education because they go to a mixed school

    24. In that case, a firmand intelligent appeal to public opin-ion would eventually settle the mat-ter. But the futile attempt to compeleven by law a group to do what it isdetermined not to do, is a silly wasteof money, time, and temper

      Counter argument

    25. We have got to accept Negroschools. Any agitation and actionaimed at compelling a rich and power-ful majority of the citizens to do whatthey will not do, is useless. On theother hand, we have a right and aduty to assure ourselves of the truthconcerning this attitude; by carefulconferences, by public meetings andby petitions, we should convince our-selves whether this demand for sepa-rate schools is merely the agitation ofa prejudiced minority, or the con-sidered and final judgment of thetown

      His argument "I say"

    26. Under such circumstances, there isno room for argument as to whetherthe Negro needs separate school$ ornot. The plain fact faces us, thateither he will have separate schoolsor he will not be educated.

      The only way for African Americans to receive an education is to enroll in only black schools.

    27. And in the same way, there aremany public school systems in theNorth where Negroes are admittedand tolerated, but they are not edu-cated; they are crucified

      Even if African Americans can be in the white schools, they are not educated and are punished for it.

    28. I am no fool; and Iknow that race prejudice in the Uni-ted States today is such that mostNegroes cannot receive proper edu

      The last word is education. Du Bois obviously notices this problem in the US

    29. just solong we shall lack in America thatsort of public education which willcreate the intelligent basis of a realdemocracy

      The lack of public schools creates an unfair democracy

    30. to try to deceive ourselves into think-ing that race prejudice in the UnitedStates across the Color Line is gradu-ally softening and that slowly butsurely we are coming to the timewhen racial animosities and classlines will be so obliterated that sepa-rate schools will be anachronisms

      People are believing that racism is getting better per say, but it's a fallacy