20 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2022
    1. Originality has three dimensions: new sources, new arguments, and/or new audiences.

      Originality has many facets including:<br /> - new arguments - new sources - new audiences

      What other facets may exist? Think about communication theory to explore this.

      I particularly like the new audiences aspect as there are dramatically different audiences for different pieces. (Eg: academic articles, newspapers, magazines, books, blog posts, social media, etc.) A plethora of audiences may be needed to reach the right audiences.

      Compare this with Terry Tao's list of mathematical talents which includes communication.

    2. But having a conversation partner in your topic is actually ideal!

      What's the solution: dig into your primary sources. Ask open-ended questions, and refine them as you go. Be open to new lines of inquiry. Stage your work in Conversation with so-and-so [ previously defined as the author of the text].

      Stacy Fahrenthold recommends digging into primary sources and using them (and their author(s) as a "conversation partner". She doesn't mention using either one's memory or one's notes as a communication partner the way Luhmann does in "Kommunikation mit Zettelkästen" (1981), which can be an incredibly fruitful and creative method for original material.

      http://luhmann.surge.sh/communicating-with-slip-boxes

    1. “Substantially all ideas are second-hand, consciously and unconsciously drawn from a million outside sources, and daily use by the garnerer with a pride and satisfaction born of the superstition that he originated them.”Mark Twain
    2. William Inge, and English author: “Originality is undetected plagiarism.”
    1. https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd

      [[Anne-Laure Le Cunff & Nick Milo - How can we do Combinational Creativity]]

      Details

      Date: [[2022-09-06]]<br /> Time: 9:00 - 10:00 AM<br /> Host: [[Nick Milo]]<br /> Location / Platform: #Zoom<br /> URL: https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd<br /> Calendar: link <br /> Parent event: [[LYT Conference 2]]<br /> Subject(s): [[combinational creativity]]

      To Do / Follow up

      • [ ] Clean up notes
      • [ ] Post video link when available (@2022-09-11)

      Video

      TK

      Attendees

      Notes

      generational effect

      Silent muses which resulted in drugs, alcohol as chemical muses.

      All creativity is combinational in nature. - A-L L C

      mash-ups are a tacit form of combinatorial creativity

      Methods: - chaining<br /> - clustering (what do things have in common? eg: Cities and living organisms have in common?)<br /> - c...

      Peter Wohlleben is the author of “hidden life of trees”

      CMAPT tools https://cmap.ihmc.us/

      mind mapping

      Metaphor theory is apparently a "thing" follow up on this to see what the work/research looks like

      I put the following into the chat/Q&A:

      The phrase combinatorial creativity seems to stem from this 2014 article: https://fs.blog/networked-knowledge-and-combinatorial-creativity/, the ideas go back much further obviously, often with different names across cultures. Matt Ridley describes it as "ideas have sex" https://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex; Raymond Llull - Llullan combinatorial arts; Niklas Luhmann - linked zettels; Marshall Kirkpatrick - "triangle thinking" - Dan Pink - "symphonic thinking" are some others.

      For those who really want to blow their minds on how not new some of these ideas are, try out Margo Neale and Lynne Kelly's book Songlines: The Power and Promise which describes songlines which were indigenous methods for memory (note taking for oral cultures) and created "combinatorial creativity" for peoples in modern day Australia going back 65,000 years.

      Side benefit of this work:

      "You'll be a lot more fun at dinner parties." -Anne-Laure

      Improv's "yes and" concept is a means of forcing creativity.

      Originality is undetected plagiarism - Gish? English writer 9:41 AM quote; source?

      Me: "Play off of [that]" is a command to encourage combintorial creativity. In music one might say "riff off"...

      Chat log

      none available

    1. The humanities are intrinsically creative andinnovative. They are about originality and invention, notdiscovery. This is precisely Eco’s testimony; even more thana technical manual, this book is an invitation to ingenuity, atribute to imagination.

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  2. Apr 2022
    1. Under the Romantics’ influence, imitation did not merely become less favoredthan previously. It came to be actively disdained and disparaged—an attitudethat was carried forward into succeeding decades. The naturalists of the latenineteenth century described imitation as the habit of children, women, and“savages,” and held up original expression as the preserve of European men.Innovation climbed to the top of the cultural value system, while imitation sankto an unaccustomed low.

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  3. Mar 2022
    1. “We went down the Silicon Valley route—hiring from Facebook, from Twitter,” he says, adding that many recruits had little understanding of gaming or livestreaming and were “unwilling to learn what this community was, why it was special.”

      Interesting argument that to build unique products, you need to hire people uniquely interested in the mission.

  4. Feb 2022
  5. Mar 2021
    1. Based on my search, the game might be developed by neptun digital, an Android game called Brain On Physics Drop - Idle Balls Puzzle. It was released on Amazon, on June 29, 2017. Free.Later on Sep 4, 2017 it was put on google play store called Physics Brain Balls - Drop It On Dots. Free.Then in June 2018, its web browser version Love Draw released by Faramel Games. Free.Later here on Jan 9, 2019, Windows port showed up. Paid to play. Apart from all of this, the design of origin is simply modified based on a free game called Brain Dots released in 2015.A port doesn't deserve to be paid, let alone the origin of the port is not original at all.

      Not everything needs to be 100% original. People are allowed to charge money for their creations/work. "Porting" a game (probably writing from scratch if they are not the same developer) is not trivial.

  6. Sep 2017
    1. The multiple styles of making judgments in Pride and Prejudiceare filtered through conjugality because marriage is action with the highest stakes.

      Not necessarily an original idea, but Moe manipulates this concept to aid her original thesis.

  7. Feb 2014
    1. F a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m a y p o s s e s s t h e r e q u i s i t e o r i g i n a l i t y .

      Factual compilations may possess the requisite originality and so may be copyrightable.

    2. I t i s t h i s b e d r o c k p r i n c i p l e o f c o p y r i g h t t h a t m a n d a t e s t h e l a w ' s s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t o f f a c t s a n d f a c t u a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . " N o o n e m a y c l a i m o r i g i n a l i t y a s t o f a c t s . " I d . , § 2 . 1 1 [ A ] , p . 2 - 1 5 7 . T h i s i s b e c a u s e f a c t s d o n o t o w e t h e i r o r i g i n t o a n a c t o f a u t h o r s h i p . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s o n e b e t w e e n c r e a t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y : T h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o f i n d a n d r e p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t h a s n o t c r e a t e d t h e f a c t ; h e o r s h e h a s m e r e l y d i s c o v e r e d i t s e x i s t e n c e . T o b o r r o w f r o m B u r r o w - G i l e s , o n e w h o d i s c o v e r s a f a c t i s n o t i t s " m a k e r " o r " o r i g i n a t o r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 . " T h e d i s c o v e r e r m e r e l y f i n d s a n d r e c o r d s . " N i m m e r § 2 . 0 3 [ E ] .

      No one may claim originality to facts because facts do not owe their origin to an act of authorship. The distinction is one between creation vs discovery.

    3. T h e o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t a r t i c u l a t e d i n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s a n d B u r r o w - G i l e s r e m a i n s t h e t o u c h s t o n e o f c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n t o d a y . S e e G o l d s t e i n v . C a l i f o r n i a , 4 1 2 U . S . 5 4 6 , 5 6 1 - 5 6 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . I t i s t h e v e r y " p r e m i s e o f c o p y r i g h t l a w . " M i l l e r v . U n i v e r s a l C i t y S t u d i o s , I n c . , 6 5 0 F . 2 d 1 3 6 5 , 1 3 6 8 ( C A 5 1 9 8 1 ) . L e a d i n g s c h o l a r s a g r e e o n t h i s p o i n t . A s o n e p a i r o f c o m m e n t a t o r s s u c c i n c t l y p u t s i t : " T h e o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y m a n d a t e d f o r a l l w o r k s . "

      The originality requirement is the touchstone of copyright protection today.

    4. I n B u r r o w - G i l e s , t h e C o u r t d i s t i l l e d t h e s a m e r e q u i r e m e n t f r o m t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ' s u s e o f t h e w o r d " a u t h o r s . " T h e C o u r t d e f i n e d " a u t h o r , " i n a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s e n s e , t o m e a n " h e t o w h o m a n y t h i n g o w e s i t s o r i g i n ; o r i g i n a t o r ; m a k e r . " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 ( i n t e r n a l q u o t a t i o n m a r k s o m i t t e d ) . A s i n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , t h e C o u r t e m p h a s i z e d t h e c r e a t i v e c o m p o n e n t o f o r i g i n a l i t y . I t d e s c r i b e d c o p y r i g h t a s b e i n g l i m i t e d t o " o r i g i n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r , " 1 1 1 U . S . , a t 5 8 , a n d s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e q u i r i n g a n a u t h o r w h o a c c u s e s a n o t h e r o f i n f r i n g e m e n t t o p r o v e " t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h o s e f a c t s o f o r i g i n a l i t y , o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n , o f t h o u g h t , a n d c o n c e p t i o n . " I d . , a t 5 9 - 6 0 .

      In Burrow-Giles the court defined authors, in a constitutional sense, to mean "he to whom anything owes its origin, originator, maker" and emphasized the creative component of originality.

    5. I n T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , t h e C o u r t a d d r e s s e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s c o p e o f " w r i t i n g s . " F o r a p a r t i c u l a r w o r k t o b e c l a s s i f i e d " u n d e r t h e h e a d o f w r i t i n g s o f a u t h o r s , " t h e C o u r t d e t e r m i n e d , " o r i g i n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d . " 1 0 0 U . S . , a t 9 4 . T h e C o u r t e x p l a i n e d t h a t o r i g i n a l i t y r e q u i r e s i n d e p e n d e n t c r e a t i o n p l u s a m o d i c u m o f c r e a t i v i t y : " [ W ] h i l e t h e w o r d w r i t i n g s m a y b e l i b e r a l l y c o n s t r u e d , a s i t h a s b e e n , t o i n c l u d e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s f o r e n g r a v i n g , p r i n t s , & c . , i t i s o n l y s u c h a s a r e o r i g i n a l , a n d a r e f o u n d e d i n t h e c r e a t i v e p o w e r s o f t h e m i n d . T h e w r i t i n g s w h i c h a r e t o b e p r o t e c t e d a r e t h e f r u i t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l a b o r , e m b o d i e d i n t h e f o r m o f b o o k s , p r i n t s , e n g r a v i n g s , a n d t h e l i k e . " I b i d . ( e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) .

      In The Trade-Mark Cases the Court addressed the constitutional scope of writings saying for a particular work to be classified "under the head of writings of authors," the Court determined, "originality is required"; independent creation plus a modicum of creativity.

    6. O r i g i n a l i t y d o e s n o t s i g n i f y n o v e l t y ; a w o r k m a y b e o r i g i n a l e v e n t h o u g h i t c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s o t h e r w o r k s s o l o n g a s t h e s i m i l a r i t y i s f o r t u i t o u s , n o t t h e r e s u l t o f c o p y i n g . T o i l l u s t r a t e , a s s u m e t h a t t w o p o e t s , e a c h i g n o r a n t o f t h e o t h e r , c o m p o s e i d e n t i c a l p o e m s . N e i t h e r w o r k i s n o v e l , y e t b o t h a r e o r i g i n a l a n d , h e n c e , c o p y r i g h t a b l e .

      See Sheldon v. Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Corp., 81 F. 2d 49, 54 (CA2 1936)

    7. O r i g i n a l i t y i s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t . T h e s o u r c e o f C o n g r e s s ' p o w e r t o e n a c t c o p y r i g h t l a w s i s A r t i c l e I , § 8 , c l . 8 , o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h a u t h o r i z e s C o n g r e s s t o " s e c u r [ e ] f o r l i m i t e d T i m e s t o A u t h o r s . . . t h e e x c l u s i v e R i g h t t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e W r i t i n g s . " I n t w o d e c i s i o n s f r o m t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y — T h e T r a d e - M a r k C a s e s , 1 0 0 U . S . 8 2 ( 1 8 7 9 ) ; a n d B u r r o w - G i l e s L i t h o g r a p h i c C o . v . S a r o n y , 1 1 1 U . S . 5 3 ( 1 8 8 4 ) — t h i s C o u r t d e f i n e d t h e c r u c i a l t e r m s " a u t h o r s " a n d " w r i t i n g s . " I n s o d o i n g , t h e C o u r t m a d e i t u n m i s t a k a b l y c l e a r t h a t t h e s e t e r m s p r e s u p p o s e a d e g r e e o f o r i g i n a l i t y .

      This Court defined the crucial terms authors and writings.

    8. T h e k e y t o r e s o l v i n g t h e t e n s i o n l i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h y f a c t s a r e n o t c o p y r i g h t a b l e . T h e s i n e q u a n o n o f c o p y r i g h t i s o r i g i n a l i t y . T o q u a l i f y f o r c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n , a w o r k m u s t b e o r i g i n a l t o t h e a u t h o r . S e e H a r p e r & R o w , s u p r a , a t 5 4 7 - 5 4 9 . O r i g i n a l , a s t h e t e r m i s u s e d i n c o p y r i g h t , m e a n s o n l y t h a t t h e w o r k w a s i n d e p e n d e n t l y c r e a t e d b y t h e a u t h o r ( a s o p p o s e d t o c o p i e d f r o m o t h e r w o r k s ) , a n d t h a t i t p o s s e s s e s a t l e a s t s o m e m i n i m a l d e g r e e o f c r e a t i v i t y . 1 M . N i m m e r & D . N i m m e r , C o p y r i g h t § § 2 . 0 1 [ A ] , [ B ] ( 1 9 9 0 ) ( h e r e i n a f t e r N i m m e r ) . T o b e s u r e , t h e r e q u i s i t e l e v e l o f c r e a t i v i t y i s e x t r e m e l y l o w ; e v e n a s l i g h t a m o u n t w i l l s u f f i c e . T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f w o r k s m a k e t h e g r a d e q u i t e e a s i l y , a s t h e y p o s s e s s s o m e c r e a t i v e s p a r k , " n o m a t t e r h o w c r u d e , h u m b l e o r o b v i o u s " i t m i g h t b e . I d . , § 1 . 0 8 [ C ] [ 1 ] .

      The sine qua non of copyright is originality.