212 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2024
  2. Dec 2023
    1. you do need people who would take the discoveries and findings of Science and translate them into terms that will be accessible to the vast 00:54:05 majority of of the public and again if you don't have any scientists who tell the history of humanity then you will have people who have no regard for to 00:54:17 for science whatsoever doing I think a much much worse job telling the history of humanity
      • for: academic communication - need to translate to lay audience, science communication - need to translate to lay audience
  3. Oct 2023
    1. Alter knows it ain’t Jesus.

      The colloquial use of the word "ain't" here very specifically pegs James Bruce, the author, as writing his argument for an audience of Christians in the Southern part of the United States. It's even more stark as most of his review is of a broadly scholarly nature where the word "ain't" or others of its register would never be used.

      How does the shift in translation really negate room for Jesus? If it was a truism that it stood for Jesus, then couldn't one just as simply re-translate the New Testament to make sure that the space for him is still there? Small shifts in meaning and translation shouldn't undermine the support for Jesus so easily as Bruce suggests, otherwise there are terrible problems with these underpinnings of Christianity.

      If one follows Bruce's general logic, then there's a hell of a religion based on Nostradamus' work we're all going out of our way to ignore.

      What would historical linguistics have to say about this translation?

    1. the philosopher by pointing to experiences that are common to all.

      This definition common "to all" presupposes an audience here, thus different cultures with different viewpoints are very likely to have radically different philosophies.

  4. Aug 2023
    1. Diller says that she always let the audience do the editing of her material for her. If people didn't laugh, or get it right away, the joke didn't survive. "You never blame the audience," she says. Thus, her advice to aspiring comics: "Go out and try it, and if you find out from the audience that you're not funny, quit."
  5. May 2023
    1. It was her greatest desire to eat some of the rapunzel

      5 -- Assess Audience Expectations

      In many other versions, the rapunzel vegetable is referred to as rampion or lettuce. Rapunzel stories often incorporate cultural references that are familiar and relevant to their target audience. These references can include traditions, customs, folklore, or popular cultural icons that resonate with specific cultural or regional contexts. By doing so, the adaptations make the story more relatable and enhance the audience's connection to the narrative. It means that Rapunzel is a timeless tale that allows for changes in cultural signifiers but that doesn't change that Rapunzel has remained consistent in nuances and general story progression that it is its own genre.

    2. I shall die.

      5 -- Assess Audience Expectations

      While reimagining Rapunzel for contemporary consumption, it's imperative to use a distinct style tailored to each intended reader group. For instance, younger audiences require lighthearted, easy-to-follow language that speaks directly to their level of comprehension whilst ensuring an enjoyable experience without confusion. In contrast, mature readers may enjoy a more elaborate expression using advanced literary techniques and intricate dramatization techniques synonymous with different variations of Rapunzel.

  6. Apr 2023
    1. I like to reinforce words being said with motion graphics, especially when someone is listing things in interviews

      This has a higher rate of capturing your audience's attention, especially during presentations (which most videos are). If your audience is not paying attention to what you're saying, they can always view it.

  7. Mar 2023
    1. TheSateliteCombinationCard IndexCabinetandTelephoneStand

      A fascinating combination of office furniture types in 1906!

      The Adjustable Table Company of Grand Rapids, Michigan manufactured a combination table for both telephones and index cards. It was designed as an accessory to be stood next to one's desk to accommodate a telephone at the beginning of the telephone era and also served as storage for one's card index.

      Given the broad business-based use of the card index at the time and the newness of the telephone, this piece of furniture likely was not designed as an early proto-rolodex, though it certainly could have been (and very well may have likely been) used as such in practice.


      I totally want one of these as a side table for my couch/reading chair for both storing index cards and as a temporary writing surface while reading!


      This could also be an early precursor to Twitter!

      Folks have certainly mentioned other incarnations: - annotations in books (person to self), - postcards (person to person), - the telegraph (person to person and possibly to others by personal communication or newspaper distribution)

      but this is the first version of short note user interface for both creation, storage, and distribution by means of electrical transmission (via telephone) with a bigger network (still person to person, but with potential for easy/cheap distribution to more than a single person)

  8. Feb 2023
    1. To cover my knowledge management process would distract you from what works for you. Your question needs more context to be actionable.TL;DR; Whichever knowledge management system gets you paid.I've got 13 notes with the term "knowledge management," 15 with "information gathering," and 7 with "strategic intelligence." Without finishing a MOC, here's off the top of my head:Have a purpose or reason for learning.Ask helpful questions that solve problems.Answer questions as stand-alone notes.Learn from primary sources. Even boring ones.Take notes for your intended audience.Serve a specific audience (get paid.)Write about what people care about.Become a subject matter expert in target areas.Deliver what you know as a service first.Build on your strengths. Knowledge is cheap.It's not a process. More like tips. If demand exists, I'll write a book on the topic in a few years. Might be a good podcast topic.“No man but a blockhead ever wrote, except for money.” -- Samuel Johnson, The Life of Samuel JohnsonRemember, there is no shortage of knowledge. Managing information is like masturbation; it feels good but doesn't do much. Focus on making information drive goal achievement.

      Some useful and solid advice here.

  9. Jan 2023
    1. Mailgun is primarily a developer’s tool so the best way use Mailgun is through our APIs.

      developers first API first

    1. NYT and NYT online are well-respected left-center publications. They are known for their factual reporting and variety of topics. The NYT op-eds are known to lean a little more left than NYT news, mostly due to editorial topic selection. This leads me to believe that the intended audience is the average American, particularly those with a left lean. The author writes in relatively simple terms that are easily read by the audience.

  10. Dec 2022
    1. But there's another side to this playlistification of feeds: playlists and other recommendation algorithms are chokepoints: they are a way to durably interpose a company between a creator and their audience. Where you have chokepoints, you get chokepoint capitalism: https://chokepointcapitalism.com/

      Massive social media networks using algorithmic feeds and other programmatic and centralizing methods to interpose themselves between people trying to reach each other, often in ways which allow them to extract additional value from the participants. They become necessary platforms which create chokepoints for flows of information which Cory Doctorow and Rebecca Giblin call "chokepoint capitalism".

  11. Nov 2022
    1. In this article, I am going to explain my adapted version of the notecard system.

      Note that he explicitly calls out that his is an adapted version of a preexisting thing--namely a system that was taught to Ryan Holiday who was taught by Robert Greene.

      Presumably there is both some economic and street cred value for the author/influencer in claiming his precedents.

      It's worth noting that he mentions other famous users, though only the smallest fraction of them with emphasis up front on his teachers whose audience he shares financially.

  12. Oct 2022
    1. Perhaps in large part because of his narrow local audience of amateur historians, Goutor's detailing of note taking method included several pages on early research preparation before taking any notes at all. Some of this was to ensure that extant potential materials for one's subject actually existed, in cases where a researcher might run into issues of availability. It also took into account the public audiences they might be serving and what those audiences would expect in terms of level of detail, resources, photos, maps, charts, etc. (p 9-11)

      This is in marked contrast with the broader audiences of writers like Eco and Ahrens who presumed either extended research needs for either masters or Ph.D. theses, or, in Ahrens' case, life long researchers at universities or journalists, though Eco did make a nod in this direction at the end of his work. With a broader area of applicability, one's collection of notes might also help to guide their particular interests into a variety of tangential or related areas. Goutor either didn't see this longer term value, or curtailed his efforts here because of the scope of his audience.

  13. Sep 2022
    1. Originality has three dimensions: new sources, new arguments, and/or new audiences.

      Originality has many facets including:<br /> - new arguments - new sources - new audiences

      What other facets may exist? Think about communication theory to explore this.

      I particularly like the new audiences aspect as there are dramatically different audiences for different pieces. (Eg: academic articles, newspapers, magazines, books, blog posts, social media, etc.) A plethora of audiences may be needed to reach the right audiences.

      Compare this with Terry Tao's list of mathematical talents which includes communication.

    1. As for the public, which reads the works of histo-rians, is it not desirable that it should know howthese works are produced, in order to be able tojudge them better?We do not, therefore, like Professor Bernheim,write exclusively for present and future specialists,but also for the public interested in history.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. equal suffrage for women

      This is something she is trying to prove and explain to the audience throughout the entire address.

  14. Aug 2022
  15. Jul 2022
    1. ven if that reader is just future-you –and this is one of the benefits of making notes your futureself can read!
    2. I suspect, however, that noteveryone is as excited about the details of PKM as I havebeen. Many people want to invest their time actuallylearning new things rather than trying new apps. Manystudents want to get better at remembering andunderstanding the things they’ve learned — and yes,writing papers about them. If you’re one of these people,this book is for you.

      The explicit audience for this book.

    1. “replace ‘algorithm’ with ‘audience.'” Instead of positioning videos to perform well for an algorithm, how can they perform best with an audience?
  16. Jun 2022
    1. You might have arrived at this book because you heard about thisnew field called personal knowledge management, or maybe whenyou were trying to find guidance in how to use a cool new notetakingapp. Maybe you were drawn in by the promise of new techniques forenhancing your productivity, or perhaps it was the allure of asystematic approach to creativity.

      The broad audiences for this book.

      This may have been better place in the introduction to draw these people in.

    1. But in our quest to find causal roots for the issues our children face, we should stop making video games a scapegoat and start looking at the ways these issues are baked into our society.

      Referring to Audience

  17. May 2022
    1. And it’s easy to leave. Unlike on Facebook or Twitter, Substack writers can simply take their email lists and direct connections to their readers with them.

      Owning your audience is key here.

  18. Apr 2022
    1. But in thinking about providing a permanent home for my writing on the web, this kind of chronology isn’t very useful. Who cares that I wrote this post in 2015, and this one in 2017? Organizing posts that way is only useful if someone is reading along as the collection is being written. For a permanent writing home, with writing from a year ago as well as writing from ten years ago, chronological order isn’t that useful. Who’s going to sift through a hundred pages of old posts?

      Part of the question about the ordering of posts on a website comes down first to what the actual content is. Is it posts, pages, articles about particular topics, short notes?

      Most blogs typically default to a particular time ordered display, but also provide search and archives for content by topical headings (tags/categories) as well. Digital gardens and wikis are set up with no particular hierarchies and one is encouraged to wander. Most social media notes and photos are created in a time only order.

      There aren't enough online zettelkasten yet to look at what that might entail, though affordances there are likely to be similar to that of digital gardens which let you pick out something via keyword and then follow links from one thing to the next.

      These are interesting questions for publishers as much as they are from anticipating what one's intended or imagined audience might be looking for.

    1. The historian in me always wants to look back at how this sort of media control has played out historically, so thinking about examples like William Randolph Hearst, Henry Luce, David Sarnoff, Axel Springer, Kerry Packer, or Rupert Murdoch across newspapers, radio, television, etc. might be interesting. See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_proprietor

      Tim Wu's The Master Switch is pretty accessible in this area.


      On the intercultural front, the language (very careful public relations and "corporate speak") used in this leaked audio file of the most recent Twitter All Hands phone call might be fascinating and an interesting primary source for some of the questions you might be looking at on such an assignment. https://peertube.dk/w/2q8cdKR1mTCW7RyMQhcBEx

      Who are the multiple audiences (acknowledged and unacknowledged) being addressed? (esp. as they address leaks of information in the call.)

    1. This opening paragraph doesn't sound like a typical research paper. It shows me that the author is addressing a more casual audience--maybe college students rather than their professors.

    1. Ton has asked some good questions about social annotation using @Hypothes_is. I've annotated with some of my ideas. I'm also curious what others' practices look like.

      https://twitter.com/ton_zylstra/status/1513219186524368896

      Come give your answers in the margins: https://via.hypothes.is/https://www.zylstra.org/blog/2022/04/three-questions-about-annotating-in-hypothesis/


      syndication links: - twitter - zylstra.org

    2. 2. What influence does annotating with an audience have on how you annotate? My annotations and notes generally are fragile things, tentative formulations, or shortened formulations that have meaning because of what they point to (in my network of notes and thoughts), not so much because of their wording. Likewise my notes and notions read differently than my blog posts. Because my blog posts have an audience, my notes/notions are half of the internal dialogue with myself. Were I to annotate in the knowledge that it would be public, I would write very differently, it would be more a performance, less probing forwards in my thoughts. I remember that publicly shared bookmarks with notes in Delicious already had that effect for me. Do you annotate differently in public view, self censoring or self editing?

      To a great extent, Hypothes.is has such a small footprint of users (in comparison to massive platforms like Twitter, Facebook, etc.) that it's never been a performative platform for me. As a design choice they have specifically kept their social media functionalities very sparse, so one also doesn't generally encounter the toxic elements that are rampant in other locations. This helps immensely. I might likely change my tune if it were ever to hit larger scales or experienced the Eternal September effect.

      Beyond this, I mostly endeavor to write things for later re-use. As a result I'm trying to write as clearly as possible in full sentences and explain things as best I can so that my future self doesn't need to do heavy work or lifting to recreate the context or do heavy editing. Writing notes in public and knowing that others might read these ideas does hold my feet to the fire in this respect. Half-formed thoughts are often shaky and unclear both to me and to others and really do no one any good. In personal experience they also tend not to be revisited and revised or revised as well as I would have done the first time around (in public or otherwise).

      Occasionally I'll be in a rush reading something and not have time for more detailed notes in which case I'll do my best to get the broad gist knowing that later in the day or at least within the week, I'll revisit the notes in my own spaces and heavily elaborate on them. I've been endeavoring to stay away from this bad habit though as it's just kicking the can down the road and not getting the work done that I ultimately want to have. Usually when I'm being fast/lazy, my notes will revert to highlighting and tagging sections of material that are straightforward facts that I'll only be reframing into my own words at a later date for reuse. If it's an original though or comment or link to something important, I'll go all in and put in the actual work right now. Doing it later has generally been a recipe for disaster in my experience.

      There have been a few instances where a half-formed thought does get seen and called out. Or it's a thought which I have significantly more personal context for and that is only reflected in the body of my other notes, but isn't apparent in the public version. Usually these provide some additional insight which I hadn't had that makes the overall enterprise more interesting. Here's a recent example, albeit on a private document, but which I think still has enough context to be reasonably clear: https://hypothes.is/a/vmmw4KPmEeyvf7NWphRiMw

      There may also be infrequent articles online which are heavily annotated and which I'm excerpting ideas to be reused later. In these cases I may highlight and rewrite them in my own words for later use in a piece, but I'll make them private or put them in a private group as they don't add any value to the original article or potential conversation though they do add significant value to my collection as "literature notes" for immediate reuse somewhere in the future. On broadly unannotated documents, I'll leave these literature notes public as a means of modeling the practice for others, though without the suggestion of how they would be (re-)used for.

      All this being said, I will very rarely annotate things privately or in a private group if they're of a very sensitive cultural nature or personal in manner. My current set up with Hypothesidian still allows me to import these notes into Obsidian with my API key. In practice these tend to be incredibly rare for me and may only occur a handful of times in a year.

      Generally my intention is that ultimately all of my notes get published in something in a final form somewhere, so I'm really only frontloading the work into the notes now to make the writing/editing process easier later.

  19. Mar 2022
    1. Each highlighted statement expresses political talking points aligned to induce trump-like support.

      Trump introduced new marketing and strategy, formulated using concepts and metrics mastered by Reality TV and Hollywood and then paired with advertising propaganda and "selling" techniques to create a "Brand". This is after-all Donald Trump, this is what he does, has done and is the only way he has found to make money. Trump built the "brand" (just barely) while teetering on self destruction.

      His charismatic persona became "the glue" that allowed creative narratives to stick to certain types of people in-spite of risk. Trump learned OTJ how to capture a specific type of audience.

      The mistake people make about Trump is assuming his audience to be "Joe Six-Pack", redneck's with limited education! This assumption does not have merit on its own.<br /> * There is a common "follower" theme among his audience that is exploited by those who: * Bought the "licensing rights" to the master-class Trump "how-to" course.

  20. Feb 2022
    1. Newsletters are an imperfect antidote to that, allowing writers a closer relationship with a more focused audience.

      The ultimate value of newsletters is their more direct connection to a specific niche audience for which they curate news or content. The value they provide readers is as a filter of their area with some some useful analysis and perspective.

  21. Jan 2022
  22. Dec 2021
    1. John Donne

      John Donne is known to be a "coterie poet" who wrote poems for small groups of people of his acquaintance. The strategy of reading the poem might vary according to the audience. The tone and voice used to read it to Anne More(Donne's beloved wife) would differ from how it was read in front of his friends and patrons.

      Possible Tones

      • Exuberant
      • Introspective
      • Philosophical
  23. Oct 2021
  24. Sep 2021
    1. R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E

      Found on Wiley Journals Audience: Wiley Open Access journals are supported by a network of authoritative journals and societies as well as internationally renowned editorial board members. All research articles published in Wiley Open Access journals are immediately freely available to read, download and share. Wiley Open Access publishes a number of online journals across biological, chemical and health sciences.

    Tags

    Annotators

  25. Aug 2021
    1. provoking discussion on where audience puts faith/belief/investment in the future (digital / NTF or physical.

  26. Jul 2021
  27. May 2021
    1. They're less rigid, less performative, and less perfect than the personal websites we're used to seeing.

      Is this also because they have inherently different audiences?

    1. This is the final inversion of blogging: not just publishing before selecting, nor researching before knowing your subject — but producing to attract, rather than serve, an audience.

      This is much better than simply building a brand or a platform.

    1. A tyrannical few deny their writer-serfs bylines, ensuring that the value from every article accrues to the brand and not the author.
    2. Some newspapers, most recently the New York Times, have forbidden writers from launching personal newsletters without permission.

      Using their platform to build your own platform apparently isn't kosher any more?

  28. Apr 2021
    1. Not really sure who the audience is... the puzzles are a bit too difficult for kids but won't tax adults very much at all--some bare bones hidden object, match-3 and peg hopping.
  29. Mar 2021
  30. Feb 2021
    1. Poverty and affluence make a mockery of our system of justice.

      This is a strongly worded sentence with an almost angry tone. This kind of intense diction would most likely appeal to most Americans in the audience as well as law enforcement and politicians since the justice system is integral to their lives.

    1. And if all this takes eliminating the filibuster,” Obama concluded, “then that’s what we should do.”

      This word filibuster is talked throughout the essay and how it is an impedance to enacting a law or right quickly. The author senses that the person reading this article is educated about political terms and therefore does not feel a need to clarify the term. Also, using previous knowledge, filibusters are one example of what the Congress uses to drag on the bill without coming to a solution. Therefore, the readers are aware that the author is taking a criticizing perspective on either the Congress or parts of the congress.

    1. No one has requested it before so it's certainly not something we're planning to add.
    2. I'm sure there will be a few other people out there who eventually want something like this, since Interactions are actually a great fit for enforcing consistency in data structures when working with a schemaless NoSQL store, but obviously it's still a bit of a niche audience.
    3. To give a little more context, structures like this often come up in my work when dealing with NoSQL datastores, especially ones that rely heavily on JSON, like Firebase, where a records unique ID isn't part of the record itself, just a key that points to it. I think most Ruby/Rails projects tend towards use cases where these sort of datastores aren't appropriate/necessary, so it makes sense that this wouldn't come up as quickly as other structures.
    1. Everyone has their own background and context that they overlay on top of what they hear. It’s our jobs as communicators to consider that perspective and to adjust the way we communicate accordingly. If we do, we stand a better chance of persuading them to agree with our point of view.
    1. People often hear what they think should be said, not the words that are actually spoken. This comes from the tendency of people to think faster than they talk. A listener makes assumptions about what they expect because their minds race ahead. This can be especially problematic when you misinterpret what your boss said. 
    1. But I don’t think about other people when I’m adding something to my website. My audience is myself.
  31. Jan 2021
    1. Systemd problems might not have mattered that much, except that GNOME has a similar attitude; they only care for a small subset of the Linux desktop users, and they have historically abandoned some ways of interacting the Desktop in the interest of supporting touchscreen devices and to try to attract less technically sophisticated users. If you don't fall in the demographic of what GNOME supports, you're sadly out of luck.
    1. I've already said this, but if you think the average desktop computer user thinks a sentence beginning "I just make a chroot..." makes any kind of sense, you haven't been paying attention to the level of intelligence of the general public.
    2. Well, that user can safely stay with Windows. Hiding these things from me makes wish that.
    3. Linux on the desktop won't take off until it is equally easy. Snap may be dumbed down, restricted and all the rest of it, but for ordinary users it's easier - and more secure - than the alternative.
    1. Most users frankly don’t care how software is packaged. They don’t understand the difference between deb / rpm / flatpak / snap. They just want a button that installs Spotify so they can listen to their music.
    2. In addition, PPAs are awful for software discovery. Average users have no idea what a PPA is, nor how to configure or install software from it. Part of the point of snap is to make software discovery easier. We can put new software in the “Editor’s Picks” in Ubuntu Software then people will discover and install it. Having software in a random PPA somewhere online is only usable by experts. Normal users have no visibility to it.
    3. While you may have some objections due to your specific setup, please consider you’re not the usual use case. Most people install Ubuntu on a single drive, not separate /home, and not multiple disks. Most are quite happy with automatic updates - in line with how their phone is likely setup - both for debs (with unattended-upgrades) and snaps (via automatic refresh in snapd). Experts such as yourself are capable of managing your own system and are interested in twiddling knobs and adjusting settings everywhere. There are millions of Ubuntu users who are not like that. We should cater for the widest possible use case by default, and have the option to fiddle switches for experts, which is what we have.
    1. In this example, we’re changing the name of a podcast episode to something that makes sense when downloaded to the user’s device, while maintaining something that makes sense to the podcast’s producer:
  32. Nov 2020
  33. Oct 2020
    1. the book “Ego is the Enemy” by Ryan Holiday.

      Ryan Holiday's Ego is the Enemy . . . and use links to give us more info . . .

  34. Sep 2020
  35. Aug 2020
    1. I have over 689 hours into this game and would like to talk about the changes made to the Exploration. In my opinion the Exploration which made this game amazing now stinks!. You know longer need a ship to hit the islands. The exploration has pretty much been removed. One of the things that made this game so amazing was grinding to make your ship and heading out to Explore and find the other islands. Now all the islands are really close to the spawn point, there are not that many and well they stink. There is no reason or need to make a ship because you can easily reach all the island with a raft.
    1. Stack Exchange does not divide up by topic, it divides up by readership. This is something that people stumble over, but if you look at all of the site descriptions in the drop-down list of "Stack Exchange communities" at the top of this very page you'll see that all of the communities are described in terms of the people that read and write the questions and answers, not in terms of the subject matters. It takes a while to spot this, especially if one has a background in the likes of CompuServe, Fidonet, Usenet, I-Link, and so forth, which did divide up by topic, and whose FAQ documents did as well. But it is how things are structured by the company that runs the sites, and is the methodology that one can see all the way back to 2009 (where the question was "Which community do you consider yourself a part of?") if one goes and looks.
    2. Knowing that there's wacky semantics to the (Linux) settimeofday() system call that make the system time jump around at bootstrap is something that concerns users, especially when it affects things like filesystem checks (c.f. https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/600490/5132). But whether one can pass a time_t to settimeofday() is a question for programmers (c.f. https://stackoverflow.com/q/3374659/340790). It's the same system call, but two different readerships.
    3. There is an observable widespread tendency to give an awk answer to almost everything, but that should not be inferred as a rule to be followed, and if there's (say) a Python answer that involves less programming then surely that is quite on point as an answer for a readership of users.
  36. Jul 2020
    1. "Other office suites are focusing on the 'power user' which is a valuable market, for sure, but the real power and range for an open-source office suite alternative is the vast majority which is the 'rest of us. Sometimes we all forget how empowering open source is to the entire world."
    1. "If you live in an area in cities that is seeing more extreme heat days, but you don't have tree cover to cool down your neighborhood, that can literally be a life or death issue," says Daley.

      the audience are people.

  37. Jun 2020
    1. Creating your digital profile

      I recommend moving this out of the principles module. This is deep into application territory. These activities only seem relevant to people who engage in scholarly publishing. We have defined our audience more broadly than that.

    2. your CV

      Our audience as we have defined it includes people who don't have a CV.

    3. statistically illiterate

      Our audience as we have defined it includes people with no background in statistics.

    4. impact factor

      Need more explanation for a general audience.

    5. wizards

      Figurative language like this is not recommended when writing for a global audience where English is often not the first language.

    6. Set up a personal profile for defining your impact

      I recommend moving this outcome to another part of the MOOC. This outcome is more applied than would typically be included in a principles course. Also, this objective is not relevant to the entire broad audience we have defined for Module 1.

    7. Melanie Imming, & Jon Tennant. (2018, June 8). Sticker Open Science: just science done right. Zenodo. https://zenodo.org/record/1285575#.XDebSM17lPY

      Add alt-text to images to make them accessible to people using screen readers.

    8. You have probably landed here because you have a nagging feeling that something about the way modern research is conducted and shared is not quite right.

      Do we want to make this assumption about the audience?

    1. The aging of the population is an inexorable change that challenges governments and societies in every developed country. Based on clinical and empirical data, social isolation is found to be prevalent among elderly people, and it has negative consequences on the elderly’s psychological and physical health. Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms.

      The language is technical so the audience should have similar background with the author's to understand the content.

    1. - AAA battery- Six super disc magnets 10 mm in diameter- A brass washer 10 mm in diameter- 0.9 mm copper wire- A marker pen- Wooden battensMotor manufacturing

      Technical language is another factor as the audience is professional and industry-focused.

  38. May 2020
    1. However, distributing such Ruby apps to inexperienced end users or non-Ruby-programmer end users is problematic. If users have to install Ruby first, or if they have to use RubyGems, they can easily run into problems. Even if they already have Ruby installed, they can still run into problems, e.g. by having the wrong Ruby version installed. The point is, it's a very real problem that could harm your reputation.
    1. All of the features of NLS were in support of Engelbart's goal of augmenting collective knowledge work and therefore focused on making the user more powerful, not simply on making the system easier to use.
  39. Mar 2020
    1. a good and competent man named Ralph (I am sucking up here) who at the moment is dealing with frantic distress calls from pretty much every generator owner in the greater Florida-Georgia area.

      Another relatable anecdote that connects Barry to his audience by admitting that he will be nice and complement someone in order to get what he wants, a common human act.

    2. one of the things we Floridians do in this mode is go to Publix and get in long lines to buy mass quantities of things we will never eat.

      The audience is people living in Florida, made obvious by Barry's direct acknowledgement of his readers as "Floridians" (Barry). The pronoun "we" is used by Barry to connect himself to his audience and provide validity to his portrayal of Floridians due to the fact that he too lives in Florida.

    1. No, I’m not crying. I just stepped on a Lego.

      Uses humor to keep his audience grateful for what they have as parents and grandparents instead of focusing on time and age

    2. Rob was tired, too, his face showing the weariness that comes from a couple of months without more than two consecutive hours of sleep.

      Rleates to audience of parents.

    3. How will you get down there? ▪ How long will you stay? ▪ What if, while you are on the floor, an emergency arises, such as the phone rings or God forbid you have to go to the bathroom? ▪ How will you get back up?

      These questions are relatable to many elderly people, and further connects Barry to his audience by understanding and acknowledging their struggles.

    4. The floor is not a friendly environment for older people. For us, the floor is like Europe: You do not go there on the spur of the moment.

      Because Barry uses the word "us," it can be concluded that his audience is older people, primarily grandparents.

    5. Dylan, who is 5 years old, and whose career objective, when he grows up, is to be a ninja. ▪ Kyle, who is two months old going on three months old (They grow up so fast!) and who, when he is not sleeping, eating, pooping or spitting up, spends his time staring up at the world with a perpetually startled expression, as if to say: “What the HECK?”

      Barry describes the children to build a connection with the audience by relating to them with the hilariously true descriptions of his young grandchildren. Therefore, it can be discerned that the audience is parents and grandparents.

    6. I assumed it was imaginary, like Shrek, or Customer Service.

      References to atruggles and descriptions that adults can relate to further supports that the audience is adults, specifically parents and grandparents.

  40. Feb 2020
    1. Except I don’t want my weekends back. I want to keep spending them on the sidelines with my fellow soccer parents, watching our daughters play a truly great game.

      Barry reveals that soccer dads don't entirely support their girls at games out of total selflessness, they also do it because they love being able to spend time with their daughters and other supportive parents. This is an idea that most dads of children who play sports can relate to. Barry takes this moment to add a bit more emotion and depth to his article, which reveals his own struggle with seeing his daughter grow up, ending his time as a soccer dad.

    2. we have one quality that every soccer team needs: a willingness to try, against all odds, to erect the team tent.

      Barry presents soccer dads as necessities to any soccer team, but provides a funny and simple example in order to remain light and not get too deep and emotional. This stays in line with Barry's method of discussing meaningful or serious things in a humorous way to keep the audience happy and entertained versus depressed or emotional.

    3. We parents

      Barry is trying to relate to his audience, make all soccer parents feel included in his message.

    4. Sophie has always been a cautious, meticulous person; she hates to do the wrong thing.

      Barry uses his daughter as an example of how some children can be overly cautious and may need help getting out of their comfort zone, but he portrays this idea in a more humorous way to lighten the seriousness of his message. This helps the audience accept what he is saying while not feeling depressed or hopeless about it.

    5. my primary responsibility as a soccer dad was to stand on the sideline with the other parents and shout “Sophie, kick the ball!” several hundred times per game.

      Barry develops a sort of hyperbole effect by making his position as a parent on the sidelines sound more important and arduous than it really is. This humor is poking fun at soccer parents, but also builds an understanding between Barry and his audience.

    6. I am one.

      Readers can predict that Barry will write to soccer parents in a relatable and understanding way. Barry also can be considered biased on the subject since he is a soccer dad, and may advocate more strongly for their recognition and support.

    7. This Father’s Day I want to sing the praises of soccer dads

      Barry introduces this article by acknowledging Father's Day, which reveals that this article is written for dads and their children, specifically children who play soccer. The basic subject is soccer dads.

  41. Jan 2020
    1. with the most memorable performance coming from a team of athletes led by swimmer and rocket scientist Ryan Lochte competing in the Four-Man Gas Station Wall Pee.

      Topics consist mostly of politics and pop culture. Who does this target for the audience?

    2. were basically as secure from prying eyes as a neon beer sign.

      Imagery relatable to audience.

  42. Dec 2019
  43. Oct 2019
    1. Like all great cops, Sergeant Martinez is a sneaky fucker. He’s also a master of inflection and narrative voice.

      The author answering the questions she proposed to the reader in a very harsh and memorable way, immediately draws the audience's attention no matter their background or age due to the fact that curse-words are not typically used in academic writing.

    1. …it is not only necessary to consider how to make the speech itself demonstrative and convincing, but also that the speaker should show himself to be of a certain character…and that his hearers should think that he is disposed in a certain way toward them; and further, that they themselves should be disposed in a certain way towards him.[1]

      Credibility or "ethos," per Aristotle.

  44. Sep 2019
    1. “students will write differently, you know, if they know it’s not just going to their professor.

      Changes the audience and gets students to think about writing for a larger, perhaps more general audience. This is an important aspect if we want to have, say, highly technical disciplines, like sciences, learning to engage more broadly with the public. Having learners understand the importance of writing for an audience that is more general could become an important open pedagogy principle for disciplines that want to have their work have a broader impact with the general public.

    1. . i have my foot on the pedal

      This is meant to say that he is the person that takes charge of his life and no one else. Also, by not using capital letters at the beginning of the sentence(s), it allows it to seem more intimate and less professional, scripted.

  45. Apr 2019
    1. The primary benefit of this would be to make the Hudson River and Public Square park areas more easily accessible to everyone who lives and works east of Hudson Yards. Opening 10th avenue to street facing retail, turning the six lane street two-way, and adding bike lanes would also make it more forgiving.

      Concluding appeal and explanation of the author's call to action. Considering the lack of walkability and limited potential use, they suggest a new design that will maximize access. This also has the benefit of altering the public's sense of that the space is exclusive.

  46. Feb 2019
    1. Firmness and strength of Mind ·,_ 1 • ..will carry us thro all these little persecutions,, ..... ..-orrt ... • h' h . r • • w 1c may create us some uneasiness 1or a.. .t...t 0r while, but will afterwards end in our Glory and-....:� Triumph.

      I think it's important to note that the words Astell is using are not unusual or incredibily difficult to understand -- they are, in fact, pretty conversational, and don't seem pretentious or alienating. She's working with her audience.

    2. it is not because you mm! but because you will.

      This is awesome. It's confrontational but also empowering -- definitely keeping her audience in mind.