44 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2022
    1. Malthusianism

      The view that without ‘moral restraint’ the population will increase at a greater rate than its means of subsistence, as proposed by the English economist and clergyman Thomas Robert Malthus

    2. use-value

      Marx emphasizes that the use-value of a labour-product is practical and objectively determined; that is, it inheres in the intrinsic characteristics of a product that enable it to satisfy a human need or want.

    3. surplus value

      Surplus value is defined by Marx as the difference between the value that living labor creates in production and value paid by the capitalist to the worker in the form of wages.

    4. labour-power is effectively'paid for at its price'.

      Marx makes the transition from the sphere of circulation to the sphere of production by deducing that the origin of surplus-value lies within the realization of the use-value of labor-power. In the process, he examines briefly both its exchange-value and its use-value. By focusing on the specific use-value of labor-power as source of surplus-value, he highlights its central value to capital.

      Marx distinguished between the capacity to do work, labour power, from the physical act of working, labour.[1] Labour power exists in any kind of society, but on what terms it is traded or combined with means of production to produce goods and services has historically varied greatly.[citation needed]

      Under capitalism, according to Marx, the productive powers of labour appear as the creative power of capital. Indeed, "labour power at work" becomes a component of capital, it functions as working capital. Work becomes just work, workers become an abstract labour force, and the control over work becomes mainly a management prerogative.

    5. The sphere of circulation or rather the exchange of commoditieswithin the limits of which moves the purchase and sale of labourpower, is in reality a veritable Eden of the natural rights of man.There reigns only Liberty, Equality, Property, and Bentham. 13

      Within the sphere of circulation, capital abides as commodity-capital and money-capital. Its two processes of circulation consist in its transformation from the commodity-form into that of money and from the money-form into that of commodities.

    6. sphere of circulation

      At its core is the notion that capital is circulated within or among places through three primary circuits: the circuit of money capital, the circuit of productive capital and the circuit of commodity capital.

      ...There is the Marxist tradition in which social classes are determined by the relations of production, by the ownership/non-ownership of the means of production, by productive and unproductive labour, and, in certain formulations, by the functions of supervision and management.

    7. process of capitalvalorisation

      In Marxism, the valorisation or valorization of capital is the increase in the value of capital assets through the application of value-forming labour in production. Capital successfully "self-valorizes" when it is able to juggle/manage the class relationships at all points sufficiently to achieve the expanded reproduction of those relationships.

    8. primitive accumulation

      Primitive accumulation is the process by which precapitalist modes of production, such as feudalism and chattel slavery, are transformed into the capitalist mode of production.

  2. Apr 2022
    1. Senator Breaux, from Point Coupee and the Felicianas, who left the Republican Senate, has been sworn into the Democratic Senate.


  3. Sep 2020
    1. the development of state victim compensation plans is crucial to the victims' well-being, especially that maj()rity who are poor

      Critical: Solutions

  4. May 2020
    1. Nothing is subtracted from a score if you answer a question incorrectly. Therefore, to maximize your scores on the Verbal Reasoning and Quantitative Reasoning measures of the paper-delivered test, it is best to answer every question

      ANSWER EVERY QUESTION for these sections

    2. Questions for which you mark no answer or more or fewer than the requested number of answers are not counted in scoring.

      For Verbal and Quantitative Reasoning sections

  5. Apr 2020
    1. If I learn to appreciate something, then it better allows me to understand someone else’s culture.

      Not relevant, but cool anyway.

    2. People don’t even know where their food comes from, and that is a metaphor for a lot of our problems.

      Our existential/economic food (workers, etc)

    3. What could be better?

      Important paragraph

  6. Mar 2020
    1. Initial data show that the coronavirus is deadlier. In the U.S., seasonal flu kills 1 in a thousand people (0.1%) who get sick from it — the death toll last season was more than 34,000. Worldwide, an estimated 300,000 to 650,000 people die from flu each year. By contrast, COVID-19 is currently estimated to kill at least 10 people per thousand infected (1%). "It's about 10 times more lethal than the seasonal flu," said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, in congressional testimony on March 11.

      Referemce that COVID-19 is deadlier than the flu

    1. expect to see more support from Democrats, Republicans, academics and diplomats for the notion that government has a much bigger role to play in creating adequate redundancy in supply chains
    1. The main forces that restricted public health police powers were: (1) the advent of civil rights jurisprudence; (2) the rise of patient autonomy and the rapid expansion of state personal health services expenditures; and (3) federal encroachment on state authority.
    2. Historically, the communitarian bases of the American legal system supported the subordination of individual rights when necessary for the preservation of common good. Quarantine measures were subjected to a deferential review supporting the states' right to substantially limit individual rights for the community's benefit.
    3. The treatment of quarantine reflects the latter. Courts and academics rarely expressed doubt about the validity of quarantine regulations, since the courts presumed that actions taken under the police power were constitutional.10,11 Challenges to the Fourteenth Amendment, usually successful when governmental intervention interfered with individual liberties, were not well received by the courts when communicable disease regulations, including quarantine, were involved.
    4. State police power was validated for the first time a few years after the end of the Revolutionary War, when Philadelphia was isolated to control the threat of yellow fever.
    5. Fourteenth Amendment

      nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

    6. The legal principles employed to sustain state public health police power were sic utere tuo ut alterum non laedas (use that which is yours so as not to injure others) and salus publica suprema lex est (public well-being is the supreme law).12 The principle of sic utere describes the power of the state to prevent or prohibit “the use of private property or the commission of private acts in a manner harmful to others.”15 The principle of salus publica, on the other hand, recognizes police power as a means to “prevent or avoid public harm even if the action has not harmed others.
    7. Generally, the courts reviewed police power measures only when the degree of restriction of personal liberty was found to be unconscionable.
    8. Remedies included regulation of private property and behavior and the power to detain and hold individuals without pre-intervention review
    9. communitarian philosophy underlying this approach was carried into later judicial holdings, further consolidating states' exercise of public health police power.


    10. quarantine was already a well established form of public health regulation, and was considered proper exercise of the police power of the states; the Supreme Court, in its affirmation of this power, noted that the state had the power to quarantine “to provide for the health of the citizens.”10,11 The uncontrollable nature of epidemic diseases moved the Supreme Court to uphold such extreme measures on the basis of the defense of the common good.8
    11. Police powers of the states are an expression of civil authority, i.e., the state's ability to control, regulate, or prohibit non-criminal behavior.6 Health officials may use these powers to compel treatment, prohibit or direct a particular conduct, or detain and isolate in a quasi-criminal nature
  7. Aug 2019
    1. Facebook generates almost all revenue (98.5%) from ads


    2. ad revenue (via Google, YouTube, Google Maps, Google Ads, etc.) still drives 85% of revenue for the company


    3. $136.8 billion


    4. Microsoft has the most diversified revenue of any of the tech giants


    5. the Big Five tech giants combined for just over $800 billion of revenue in 2018, which would be among the world’s 20 largest countries in terms of GDP. More precisely, they would just edge out Saudi Arabia ($684 billion GDP) in terms of size.

      the extension is broken so leaving an annotation is the only way I can highlight things, referred to heretoforth as a;h

    6. Apple generates a staggering 62.8% of its revenue from the iPhone


    1. In the ten years ending in 2018, murderers motivated by far-right ideology took the lives of 124 people in 62 incidents, according to the U.S. Extremist Crime Database, a collaboration of criminal justice researchers from multiple universities.

      In the ten years ending in 2018, murderers motivated by far-right ideology took the lives of 124 people in 62 incidents, according to the U.S. Extremist Crime Database, a collaboration of criminal justice researchers from multiple universities.

  8. Jun 2019