337 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2023
    1. The dimension of the configuration space is the smallest number of parameters that have to be given to completely specify a configuration. The dimension of the configuration space is also called the number of degrees of freedom of the system.4

      Definition of degrees of freedom of a system

    2. The parameters used to specify the configuration of the system are called the generalized coordinates.

      Definition, generalised coordinates

    3. f. The same as e, but not axisymmetric.

      Here too since the body is a rigid one, even if it not axisymmetric, we would be still able to specify its orietation with one angular coordinate.

    4. e. A top consisting of a rigid axisymmetric body with one point on the symmetry axis of the body attached to a fixed support, subject to a uniform gravitational force.

      The fixed support will not allow the bpdy to do translatory motion, it is free to rotate about its axis. This can be specified with just one angular coordinate.

    5. d. A point mass sliding without friction on a rigid curved wire.

      Since the curve is already specified in the form of rigid curved wire and the point mass is sliding on this, we just need one coordinate on the wire to fix its location.

    6. c. A spherical double pendulum, consisting of one point mass hanging from a rigid massless rod attached to a second point mass hanging from a second massless rod attached to a fixed support point. The point masses are subject to the uniform force of gravity.

      This system will have four degrees of freedom, two for the first pendulum and two for the second one.

    7. b. A spherical pendulum, consisting of a point mass (the pendulum bob) hanging from a rigid massless rod attached to a fixed support point. The pendulum bob may move in any direction subject to the constraint imposed by the rigid rod. The point mass is subject to the uniform force of gravity.

      Let us consider the mean position of the rod. Any deviation from this mean position can be located by two angular coordinates. So dof is two

    8. a. Three juggling pins.

      Each pin will have six parameters if considered independently three pins will require 18 dof. If we are considering the three pins together which are constrained (not independent of each other) we will require have lesser dof depending on how constrained they are.

  2. Mar 2022
    1. Certainly we are not our name. However, we are not our appellations either – because, as we have seen, appellations can and do become names. We are, rather, our past, present and future – our experiences, attitudes, and aspirations – our deeds, beliefs, and dreams. We are the memories in other people’s minds.

      Names are just a label perhaps?

    1. Nationalism is not to be confused with patriotism. Both words are normally used in so vague a way that any definition is liable to be challenged, but one must draw a distinction between them, since two different and even opposing ideas are involved.

      This is what is confounding in the words. The two are not same, yet people think they are. And that is one of the root causes of the problems I think.

    2. Nomenclature plays a very important part in nationalist thought.

      Language imposition leads to imposition in ways of thinking

    3. If the chosen unit is an actual country, such as Ireland or India, he will generally claim superiority for it not only in military power and political virtue, but in art, literature, sport, structure of the language, the physical beauty of the inhabitants, and perhaps even in climate, scenery and cooking.

      Pakistan or China for Indians

    4. Obviously there are considerable resemblances between political Catholicism, as exemplified by Chesterton, and Communism.

      The horse shoe theory. So is in current day India betweel political hindutva and communism.

    5. Political or military commentators, like astrologers, can survive almost any mistake, because their more devoted followers do not look to them for an appraisal of the facts but for the stimulation of nationalistic loyalties

      This is true for most of the societies based on cult followings

    6. Nationalism is power hunger tempered by self-deception. Every nationalist is capable of the most flagrant dishonesty, but he is also – since he is conscious of serving something bigger than himself – unshakeably certain of being in the right.

      This rings so true. Fake it till you make it to power

    7. but their existence can be seriously questioned, and there is no definition of any one of them that would be universally accepted.

      So is Hinduism.

    8. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power.

      And it is no wonder most of the nationalists are trying to get to power by any means

    1. Yet the obvious irony of Montessori’s crusade on behalf of the poorest and least powerful in society is that its most visible legacy is selective private schools for the élite.

      This rings a bell, while the elite system of education has adapted the best of, the public one remains at the mercy of dishonest intellectuals who cannot change their ways of thinking

    1. it is the liberals who fear liberty and the intellectuals who want to do dirt on the intellect:

      This is a good take on intellectuals..

    2. If liberty means anything at all it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear.

      Exactly this

    3. The enemy is the gramophone mind, whether or not one agrees with the record that is being played at the moment.

      This is a nice analogy

    4. But where had these people learned this essentially totalitarian outlook? Pretty certainly they had learned it from the Communists themselves! Tolerance and decency are deeply rooted in England, but they are not indestructible, and they have to be kept alive partly by conscious effort. The result of preaching totalitarian doctrines is to weaken the instinct by means of which free peoples know what is or is not dangerous.

      Freedom and tolerance

    5. The most ardent Russophile hardly believed that all of the victims were guilty of all the things they were accused of: but by holding heretical opinions they ‘objectively’ harmed the régime, and therefore it was quite right not only to massacre them but to discredit them by false accusations.

      discrediting the believer instead of arguing

    6. In other words, defending democracy involves destroying all independence of thought.

      Ministry of truth

    7. The ordinary people in the street-partly, perhaps, because they are not sufficiently interested in ideas to be intolerant about them-still vaguely hold that ‘I suppose everyone’s got a right to their own opinion.’ It is only, or at any rate it is chiefly, the literary and scientific intelligentsia, the very people who ought to be the guardians of liberty, who are beginning to despise it, in theory as well as in practice.

      The so called intellectuals self censor certain things, and so do their coutnerparts on the other side of the divide

    8. and it was considered equally proper to publicise famines when they happened in India and to conceal them when they happened in me Ukraine.

      Hmm, similar episodes happening in India now

    9. Stalin is sacrosanct and certain aspects of his policy must not be seriously discussed.

      Cult following of a strong man is behind such an approach

    10. Unpopular ideas can be silenced, and inconvenient facts kept dark, without the need for any official ban.

      And this is how it is mostly done

    11. In this country intellectual cowardice is the worst enemy a writer or journalist has to face, and that fact does not seem to me to have had the discussion it deserves.

      This seems to be the general problem that still haunts us

    12. Obviously it is not desirable that a government department should have any power of censorship (except security censorship, which no one objects to in war time) over books which are not officially sponsored.

      This should be true regardless of state of war

  3. Sep 2021
    1. Intelligence is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for happiness, kindness, self-worth, or worldly success—in fact, when one’s relationship to it is unhealthy, as mine has often been, it can be detrimental to all of these.

      so what role does intelligence play?

    2. The only value intelligence has is in the pleasures it offers: the ability to become totally absorbed in the world and to be completely transported from it. Intelligence does not give life meaning; without a healthy relationship to it, as Wittgenstein could tell you, it is nothing but a curse.

      role of intelligence

    3. Euthyphro dilemma: you find most things your child does lovable precisely because it is your child doing them.


    4. In other words, what we call language is not a system by which propositions picture the world, but a loose network of games.

      A perspective on language

    5. elides


    6. imperfect pragmatism over useless perfectionism


    7. Explanations come to an end somewhere.

      Hmm, right. What type of explanation are you satisfied with

    8. But spelling is an entirely conventional activity. It gives standardized visual form to spoken language.


    9. “We have got on to slippery ice where there is no friction and so in a certain sense the conditions are ideal, but also, just because of that, we are unable to walk. We want to walk: so we need friction. Back to the rough ground!”

      we don't need and certainly dont have ideal conditions in the real world

    10. Teachers always learn more from their students than their students learn from them,

      Good teachers that is,

    11. He did not suffer fools gladly, and he considered almost everyone a fool.

      we perhaps everyone in front of him was

    12. sub specie aeternitatis

      "from the perspective of the eternal".

  4. Aug 2021
    1. A baby grows to adult size, after which growth goes to maintaining stability, homeostasis, balance. Growth much beyond that leads to obesity. For a baby to grow endlessly bigger would be first monstrous, then fatal.

      Growth has a limit dependent on the nature of the system

  5. Jul 2021
    1. The act of creation causes imagination, not the other way around.

      This a nice way to look at it

  6. Apr 2021
    1. It compels us to understand that not every acceleration results from a universal force and this is the essential idea of the first law.

      the conclusion

    1. agents

      'In The Emotion Machine Minsky uses the term resources, as the term agent has an active/conscious meaning attached to it

  7. Feb 2021
    1. Ideology isn’t the driver of our lived experiences, but the product of them. Our ideological commitment to work is the result of incessant and repeated activity – literally doing our jobs day in and day out.

      ideology and life

  8. Jan 2021
    1. As the woman who presented the “show” noted, after cautioning everyone in the room to turn off their cell phones, this gender neutral look was appropriate, as the robot was supposed to approximate Avalokiteśvara, a Bodhisattva who can appear as male or female (or even an animal or something inanimate) depending on the viewer and who can travel through time and space. 

      this is close to your own enlightenment

  9. Oct 2020
    1. Society as a whole has made a four-year university degree a necessary condition for dignified work and a decent life. This is a mistake. Those of us in higher education can easily forget that most Americans do not have a four-year college degree. Nearly two-thirds do not.


    2. We have cast universities as the arbiters of opportunity. We have assigned them the role of allocating credentials and defining the merit that the wider society rewards — economically, but also in terms of honor, recognition, and prestige. ADVERTISEMENT Being cast in this role has enlarged the economic and cultural importance of universities. But we’ve paid a price for it. For one thing, support for higher education has become a partisan matter.

      What is the role of market requirements in all this? After all, pragmatically if the markets don't hire that said elite, they will not have that value anymore

  10. Jul 2020
    1. a mass that could only be primordial

      Below the Chandrashekhar limit

    2. Black holes can form even in the absence of any matter, from large enough distortions of spacetime that curl up into a singularity.

      But what can be possible causes for such distortions other than matter?

    1. It’s important to pay attention to who decides which phenomena to study, which research earns major government grants, which big experiments get funded, who gets speaking opportunities at scientific conferences, who is media savvy, who wins prominent fellowships and awards, and who gets promoted to high-profile faculty positions. Different choices sometimes can shape the future trajectory of science. And when choices by theorists and experimentalists coincide symbiotically, Pickering argues, it can be challenging for an upstart theory – such as modified gravity – to get a fair hearing.

      Established theories in science

    1. Illustrations of the natural world in regions inaccessible to observers need to be understood on their own terms: not as decoration or fantasy, but as information that is assembled as – and functions as – a diagram.

      function of a graphic object

    2. Our initial emotional responses to woodcuts of marine animals don’t constitute evidence-based analysis: they are value judgments based on responses to stylistic and diagramming conventions from another era.

      situated knowledge

    3. Species don’t come into being when they’re published in a scientific journal. But publication is when they come into being as a scientific object.

      making it part of systemic classification

    1. Scientists don’t have a special reason to moan; in fact, it’s really quite remarkable how many people are interested in subjects as blazingly irrelevant to practical life as dinosaurs, the Higgs boson and cosmology.

      immediate benefits vs long term

  11. Apr 2020
  12. plato.stanford.edu plato.stanford.edu
    1. In other words, the mental representation itself is just another item whose significance bears explaining.

      the problem of circularity comes in full force

    2. The mental representation view of concepts is the default position in cognitive science

      So mostly education takes this perspective.

    1. There’s something else that the Space Age did for our civilization: it unified the sciences in a way that was actually necessary. Because it wasn’t until Sputnik and the space missions that followed that the wall between the scientific disciplines came down.

      the launch of the Sputnik is one turning point in the history

  13. Mar 2020
    1. The continents and seas and isles on this map were not those of the world I knew; and their names were written in heteroclitic runes of a lost alphabet.

      stranger in a strange land indeed

    2. There was a spell of perpetual quietude upon the air, and never the slightest rippling of leaves or water; and the whole landscape hung before me like a monstrous vision of unbelievable realms apart from time and space.

      the feeling of too large things to be seen

    1. When analysing people, numbers present an illusion of precision and accuracy. 

      Modeling introduces simplification

  14. Dec 2019
    1. a download does not translate to a lost sale.


    2. I do not pretend that uploading or downloading unpurchased electronic books is morally correct, but I do think it is more of a grey area than some of your readers may.

      hmm, good point

    3. But he’s also uploaded hundreds of books to file sharing sites and he’s downloaded thousands.

      very much like the others

    1. The two graphs were completely different, implying that to ignore the extreme cases is to ignore reality. "I'm extremely visual," Mandelbrot said. "Often the pictures suggest the deeper truth underlying the formulas."

      graphicacy. and in social dynamics too,

    1. internalize the norms of this institution and expect the wider society to operate in accordance with these norms;

      materialists are more idealists than idealists

    2. the more its female intellectuals will exhibit the same disproportionate anti-capitalism its male intellectuals show.

      hmm, interesting prediction..

    3. the society seems to announce that

      seems to... are the key words

    4. If you were designing a society, you would not seek to design it so that the wordsmiths, with all their influence, were schooled into animus against the norms of the society.


    5. the norms within schools will affect the normative beliefs of people after they leave the schools.

      and this alos does depend on the type of school

    6. For distribution in a centrally planned socialist society stands to distribution in a capitalist society as distribution by the teacher stands to distribution by the schoolyard and hallway.

      nice analogy

    7. deemed that philosophers should rule

      philosopher kings

    8. Indeed, there need not be any pattern of distribution a society is aiming to achieve, even a society concerned with justice.

      This would be very artificial indeed, and the resources spent to achieve this will be far larger than that saved

  15. Nov 2019
    1. If the experience of the English is typical, heavy tea-drinking will produce English moral philosophy, a tendency toward a pale complexion, hypocrisy and backbiting.

      take that tea drinkers

    2. This coffee falls into your stomach,

      i want such coffee

    3. Connoisseurs pursue coffee drinking the way they pursue all their passions; they proceed by increments, and, like Nicolet, move from strong to stronger stuff, until consumption becomes abuse.

      glad i restrcited to once per day

    4. Many people claim coffee inspires them; but as everybody likewise knows, coffee only makes boring people even more boring.


    1. The miracle of the finite but universal library is a mere inflation of the miracle of binary notation: everything worth saying, and everything else as well, can be said with two characters.

      Yes or No

    2. Numbers are cheap.

      Yes they are. As much in academics as in real world

    1. The view from the parapet was vertiginous, but in time one gets used to anything.

      Of course one can.

    1. The point of poetry is, in a sense, to reveal the deep twining of language and meaning. At least it was for Brodsky (when I audited his poetry seminar in Ann Arbor). To really register this power takes time.

      does it come to you when you give it enough time?

    2. using the right (not as opposed to left, but as opposed to wrong) part of our brains to do so.


    3. In general, cronopios are depicted as naive and idealistic, disorganised, unconventional and sensitive creatures, who stand in contrast or opposition to famas (who are rigid, organised and judgmental if well-intentioned) and esperanzas (who are plain, indolent, unimaginative and dull).

      hmm, strange indeed what are these in human terms

    4. In my experience, especially now that we are fully enrolled in the digital way of things, most of the day’s reading is a grasshoppering from here to there, and sometimes back again.

      same happens with me too - nice phrase for reading multiple things at the same time - grapsshoppering

    5. missionary position’ of reading. A book or text is engaged from its beginning and tracked through to conclusion, chapters being the mile-markers.


    6. ‘I photograph to see what things look like photographed.


    7. When I like how something looks, I take a photograph.

      I mean why would you otherwise? Do you take photographs of things you don't like? A professional photographer is a different case, but you get the point.

    8. But even more chilling is her observation that her own face looks at her. She does not see herself.

      we don't see back our life story, we look at it..

    9. Wisdom, said William James,Is learning what to overlook. And I am wiseIf that is wisdom.

      to Overlook is to learn? - can be connected to the notion of negative expertise by minsky

    10. No, there’s always a large measure of serendipity in the mix. Where are you reading? When? What time of day, or night? Who is with you? What are you drinking? Most importantly, what are you thinking, what are you going through? Why are you reading?

      pertinent questions

    11. I can’t remember a word of it, a sentence of it. A whiff of Paris, of young people, of jazz. But I remember it.

      so many things like this.. they are left like a faint memory, like a faded perfume still lingering like a ghost in the air as if it is almost not there while its wearer has long past gone that space which the traces of the perfume occupy now...

    12. the war photographer taking images of suffering and death without stepping into the fray

      Taleb would say - no skin in the game for the photographer

    13. The Creative Process (1985), edited by Brewster Ghiselin.

      A good reference

    1. A zero-percent body fat person may be in either a low or high quality body state depending on whether they are starving in the desert, or an athlete in training, with a well-stocked fridge.

      Hmm, it is subjective and subject to environmental aspects

    2. High-fat, high-excellence is high quality.

      operationally defining

    3. Fatness is embodied abundance. Or if you like clever lines: Fatness is future-fitness.

      fat is future-fit? this was perhaps indicated by some during the Bengal famine of the 1940s. Apparently many those who survived were the ones who were fatter than their less fortunate counterparts who perished

    4. Excellence is synonymous with quality only under behavioral regimes governed by an optimizing sensibility, operating on a closed and bounded notion of what the kids these days seem to be calling fitness-to-purpose.

      is it subjective then?

  16. Oct 2019
    1. When important events take place now, commercial news outlets instantly slice up the facts and commoditize them for consumption by their respective political demographics. We always had this process, to some degree, but it no longer takes days to sift into the op-ed pages.

      media these days, is the american one taking hints from indian one?

    1. Went was so often willing to consider what most scientists dismissed, and this permitted him to pioneer new fields of inquiry, rather than to move into fields opened up by others.


    2. He also believed that photosynthesis does not control plant growth; rather, plant growth controls photosynthesis.

      this is an interesting point, what do others believe?

    1. “I may be right, I may even know that I am right, but I am never sufficiently ruthless and effective to force other people to believe that I am right and to act accordingly. All this was so unnecessary: it all could have been avoided if people had not thought that my objections were just theoretical and statistical and that they were practical people and need pay no attention to them.”

      aptly put

    1. “The butterfly, in effect, was therefore ‘invented’ by the bat,” she wrote.

      origin of butterflies

    2. But about 98 million years ago, some of them became active in the day, and gave rise to the butterflies—a group that Barber wryly describes as “an uninteresting diurnal group of moths.”

      the origin of butterflies

    1. Even more fundamentally, indigenous people were just too different: Their skin was dark. Their languages were foreign. And their world views and spiritual beliefs were beyond most white men’s comprehension. To settlers fearful that a loved one might become the next Mary Campbell, all this stoked racial hatred and paranoia, making it easy to paint indigenous peoples as pagan savages who must be killed in the name of civilization and Christianity.

      Us and them..

    1. The essential point is that genes are IFs rather than MUSTs.

      hmm, so there is a chance rather than certainity

    2. at heart they are merely specializations on a universal cellular theme.

      variations on the theme - form and function

    3. animal breeders know that shaping the bodies of animals often leads to correlated changes in behavior

      this one i need to know more

    4. he brain’s capabilities, like those of other organs, emerge from its physical properties.

      Thales principle

    5. brain is drastically different from other physical systems

      holy ghost

    6. Yet 2,000 years of thinking of the mind as independent from the body kept people from appreciating the significance of this seemingly obvious point.

      counter intuitive - from spirit and matter

    7. preformationism


    8. It is certainly true that the number of genes is tiny in comparison to the number of neurons, and that the developing brain is highly plastic. Nevertheless, nature—in the form of genes—has an enormous impact on the developing brain and mind.


    1. Although teacher quality certainly matters, most of the variance in student achievement is associated with factors outside the classroom.

      this is a rather strange remark..

    2. . The highly publicized "pay gap" that dominates news headlines is the product of a simplistic methodology that, when universally applied, suggests that nurses, firefighters, and other professionals are dramatically overpaid.

      another case of "intellctual phase lock"

    1. Never say that you’ll give a talk unless you know clearly what you’re going to talk about and more or less what you’re going to say.

      true that!

    2. It is very dangerous to have such a policy in teaching—to teach students only how to get certain results, rather than how to do an experiment with scientific integrity.

      yes this is exactly what happens, publish or perish

    3. Next time they try it they don’t get it any more.  And now you find a man saying that it is an irrelevant demand to expect a repeatable experiment.  This is science?

      problem of statistical significance being overrated in behavioral and educational research

    4. In fact, he discovered all the things you have to do to discover something about rats

      what is the equivalent for educational research?

    5. because there wouldn’t be any new result.

      isn't this assumed to be the case for all other experiments? would you go back to justifying every result you use in your experiments?

    6. it seems to have been the general policy then to not try to repeat psychological experiments, but only to change the conditions and see what happens.

      so with educational research as well. apples and oranges really

    7. If your answer happens to come out in the direction the government or the politicians like, they can use it as an argument in their favor; if it comes out the other way, they don’t publish it at all. 

      interesting in the context of present political scenario in India

    8. If you’re representing yourself as a scientist, then you should explain to the layman what you’re doing—and if they don’t want to support you under those circumstances, then that’s their decision.

      lot of programmes should be shut, they do not contribute anything significant to our knowledge

    9. We’ve learned those tricks nowadays, and now we don’t have that kind of a disease.

      the intellectual phase lock..

    10. Other experimenters will repeat your experiment and find out whether you were wrong or right. 

      and they might be disillusioned to get the result which is needed, only after a time has passed it might reveal the correctness and not at that time

    11. scientific integrity,

      how does one define this?

    12. then you must also put down all the facts that disagree with it, as well as those that agree with it. 

      but do even scientists do it all the time?

    13. For example, if you’re doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid

      this is a normative view of science

    14. So I call these things Cargo Cult Science, because they follow all the apparent precepts and forms of scientific investigation, but they’re missing something essential, because the planes don’t land.

      this is a good analogy

    15. So we really ought to look into theories that don’t work, and science that isn’t science.

      The problem is that many are driven by ideological commitments

    16. There are big schools of reading methods and mathematics methods, and so forth, but if you notice, you’ll see the reading scores keep going down—or hardly going up—in spite of the fact that we continually use these same people to improve the methods. 

      Much of the educational research would fit into this category of description

    1. Privacy does not mean stopping the flow of data; it means channeling it wisely and justly to serve societal ends and values and the individuals who are its subjects, particularly the vulnerable and the disadvantaged.


    2. After all, those who know about us have power over us. They can deny us employment, deprive us of credit, restrict our movements, refuse us shelter, membership, or education, manipulate our thinking, suppress our autonomy, and limit our access to the good life.


    3. Obfuscation assumes that the signal can be spotted in some way and adds a plethora of related, similar, and pertinent signals — a crowd which an individual can mix, mingle, and, if only for a short time, hide

      a defintion

    4. A life lived in social isolation means living far from centers of business and commerce, without access to many forms of credit, insurance, or other significant financial instruments, not to mention the minor inconveniences and disadvantages — long waits at road toll cash lines, higher prices at grocery stores, inferior seating on airline flights.

      a mendicants life

    5. But if we are nearly as observed and documented as any person in history, our situation is a prison that, although it has no walls, bars, or wardens, is difficult to escape.

      the post truth/democracy condition

    1. “These results together corroborate the idea that … nonhuman animals have a theory of mind and do not simply rely on behavior rules to interpret and anticipate others’ actions,” they write.


    1. Schoolchildren were simply told not to write in books. But this also has to do with a kind of post-romantic belief that the reader should be receptive rather than active—that the book should change us, rather than us changing the book. But if you look at earlier copies of printed books, it’s almost a kind of collaborative effort where the printed book is raw material that the user could make his or her own. This could even take the form of literally tearing apart the book and recycling the pages.

      about books

    2. What stands in the way of our reading great literature is almost never the medium; it’s almost always time. It’s about what other activities we need to give up in order to read.

      access vs. time. So much to read so little time

    3. One function of a history of reading is to serve as a corrective to nostalgia, for a path that was limited to a few decades.


    4. We kid ourselves if we think that the presence of printed books would magically make us more attentive and more focused.

      reading is more now? because of the access?

    5. One is the death of a particular kind of object that looks and feels and smells a certain way. And the other is a set of practices or activities, which that object has sometimes prompted.

      this is true for technology, the form and function, forms may change function perseveres

  17. Sep 2019
    1. Why not consider that plants have been doing the same for far longer than we have been around, with an intelligence that is radically different from ours?

      a deeper question perhaps? are we asking the right questions?

    2. Instead, they accost the viewer with nature’s power and its fragility.

      hmm, how would we otherwise see the narrative?

    3. Nearly every appeal to nature, however, evokes only a sense of alienation. The older people fawning over their favorite trees come off as fanatics with hyperniche interests, and the installations showing the human impact on the environment are so distressingly common that it’s difficult to engage with them as if for the first time.

      so true

    4. The common understanding of “intelligence” would have to be reimagined; and we’d have missed an entire universe of thought happening all around us.

      the definition is operational

    5. The idea of a “plant intelligence”—an intelligence that goes beyond adaptation and reaction and into the realm of active memory and decision-making—has been in the air since at least the early seventies.

      what is intelligence after all?

    6. “Trees do not have will or intention. They solve problems, but it’s all under hormonal control, and it all evolved through natural selection.”

      is having will or intention akin to having intelligence?

    1. The idea of a joint stock company was one of Tudor England’s most brilliant and revolutionary innovations.

      the start of corporate limited company

    1. With cancer we see uncontrolled cellular division and the spread of cancer cells throughout the body, and in depression we see the workings of neurotransmitters and how molecules affect mood.

      similarities, patterns...

    2. And while his first suicide attempt was about the fear of never finding love, his second fear, equally unwarranted, was that he was a complete failure as a provider.

      things others may not understand

    1. We are prone to see consciousness in puppets and other, even less likely objects.

      How does Turing test fare here

    2. Attention, therefore, is the name of the game for a visual predator.

      selection pressure?

    3. Insects are brainier than people think.


    4. This signal enhancement is a direct consequence of neurons inhibiting their neighbors, a process called lateral inhibition.

      inhibition and selectiveexcitation

    5. A nerve net doesn’t process information—not in any meaningful sense

      Hmm, is there a threshold?

    6. 200 feet per second

      order of magnitude estimate

    1. there is a publication bias that favors papers that successfully reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, scholars have both substantial and practical incentives to prefer statistically significant results.

      So there is subjective reason

    2. here are situations where interpretation of the p value requires caution and we suggest four warnings: (1) scholars must always graphically analyze their data before interpreting the p value; (2) it is pointless to estimate the p value for non-random samples; (3) the p value is highly affected by the sample size, and (4) it is pointless to estimate the p value when dealing with data from population5.

      so how is it being used for non-randow samples? like in an experimental classroom?

    3. Statistical significance testing has involved more fantasy than fact.

      good quote to begin with

  18. Aug 2019
    1. What else is there? Sex and physics.


    2. Einstein had this deep-seated need to be an outsider.

      parallel or against the flow?

    3. And it probably made him a little too cocky about the power of pure thought.

      rationalism much

    1. “What matters is how the parts affect each other, not what is inside them.”

      the functional aspect

    2. . Other construction materials will have their own basic components and ways to be put together. Most of the powerful ideas are in the designs of the combinations.

      the sum of parts

  19. Jul 2019
    1. The illusion had to be created that diamonds were forever -- "forever" in the sense that they should never be resold.

      and added to that movies which perpetuated this mythology

    2. Both women and men had to be made to perceive diamonds not as marketable precious stones but as an inseparable part of courtship and married life.

      Freudian principles at work?

    3. The diamond invention is far more than a monopoly for fixing diamond prices; it is a mechanism for converting tiny crystals of carbon into universally recognized tokens of wealth, power, and romance.

      selling by creating artificial value.. marketing at its best, tulip mania 2.0 ?

  20. Jun 2019
    1. This is just the same old story where top-down expectation meets incoming sensory signals with a balance that is determined by how confident you are in either the sensory signals or your top-down predictions.

      this is an interesting point to make about cognition and things that we know and can predict

    2. We very much expect, given a certain bit of face information, that the rest of that information will specify a convex, outward-looking face.

      connecting the dots, filling in the missing data

    3. The nature of intelligence looks very different when we think of it as a rolling process that is embedded in bodies or embedded in worlds. Processes like that give rise to real understandings of a structured world.

      can there be intelligence which is without form?

    4. how we can get something like a quantifiable grip on how neural processing weaves together with bodily processing weaves together with actions out there in the world.

      what sort of experiments will give us evidence for this ?

    1. Stories contrast with other forms of discourse, in other words, with other ways of organizing thought. There’s description, a state of affairs in space or time. Like a map or a schedule. Descriptions don’t have a prescribed order, a beginning, middle, and end. Explanations do. They also add causality. You start one place, something happens, and you end up somewhere else.

      what makes stories different?

    2. we could change your memory in real time by the perspective we gave you to recollect them.

      so memories can be relied on?

    3. Stories of course are another kind of structure the mind uses to organize events in time or place.

      this has good educational implications. any good learning will have good stories

    4. The brain doesn’t only predict what will happen next as we act in the world. It also stores information, puts stuff into categories and themes and hierarchies and more, often information that has no immediate use and may never have a use.

      a lot more happens than just the output which is observed

    5. one-bit thinking in a two-bit world.

      :) use it somewhere

    6. spatial thinking is the foundation of thought. Not the entire edifice, but the foundation.

      spatial thinking as the fundamental mode of thinking - both reality and abstraction

    7. Modes of perception and action also guide our mental as well as worldly representations of those spaces, how we think about them, how we think with them, how we communicate them.

      does it mean that certain actions will not be possible by people who lack those modes of perceptions?

    8. cognitive tools, like maps and abacuses and diagrams and sketches, but also gestures.

      what other cognitive tools are there

    9. I thought, what about faces? We recognize thousands of them in a split second but we are hard put to describe them precisely enough for others to pick them out. Spatial thinking is prior to language, I thought, both developmentally and evolutionarily. Spatial thinking must have its own logic, not necessarily that of language. If anything, language had to be built on spatial thinking, not the reverse.

      this is an interesting point indeed

    10. how or whether propositions could account for memory for the visual-spatial world.

      a question to ponder

    11. There’s aesthetics too. Some people like curves, others like lines.

      Hmm curvy

    12. categorical associations were more sophisticated than thematic ones.

      thematic may need a more basal approach

    13. If it’s in the brain, it must be real.

      this is an interesting way to define reality

    1. So many people today – and even professional scientists – seem to me like somebody who has seen thousands of trees but has never seen a forest. A knowledge of the historic and philosophical background gives that kind of independence from prejudices of his generation from which most scientists are suffering.

      a nice way to put it

    1. . A map is in its essence an analog device, using a picture to represent another picture.

      map is a meta-picture

  21. May 2019
    1. If a restaurant has a one-page menu that's usually a pretty good sign, it means their line cooks have become specialists and can usually nail all the dishes listed.Conversely, if a restaurant has a giant, multi-page menu that's a gigantic red flag. The longer the menu the better the odds that you're paying to eat a boiled bag frozen meal.

      pro tip really

    1. How could you communicate with the future?

      this becomes tricky as the present itself is unavailable to you

    2. To mark the paper was the decisive act.

      so will be to type a letter in the current era...


      becomes easier with connected devices

    4. there was no way of shutting it off completely.

      same with social media and smart phones

    5. This was not illegal (nothing was illegal, since there were no longer any laws),

      neither are there any systems

    6. It was partly the unusual geography of the room

      hostile architecture

    1. It is an unbreakable cipher, yet it could be mastered by children.

      i want to make one

    2. Its inscriptions had the force of magic, but their meanings were not in themselves sacred.


    3. The written word was a conduit of magical power, which could be harnessed for various ends.

      indeed it is