1,134 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2017
    1. BearmanandLytlearguepersuasivelyfortheuseoffunctions,especiallyfordescnptlvepurposes.

      Could be interesting to look at this work by Bearman.

    2. rofessionalsasdIverseasanthropologists,sociologists,andbusinessmanagersusefunctionalanalysisasadescriptivetechniquetofacilitatetheexaminationofpatternsacrossstructuresandcultures.

      Interesting to see the explicit connection to anthropology and sociology.

    3. HughTaylorandTerryCook,whosuggestthat“thefocusofappraisalshouldshiftfromtheactualrecordtotheconceptualcontextofItscreation,fromthephysicaltotheintellectual,frommattertomind.

      So Samuel's work on Documentation Strategies was done in light of Cook's macro-appraisal work?

    4. whattheinstitutiondoes

      Seems like good work for an anthropologist or sociologist.


    1. eliberately seeks to give voice to the marginalised, to the‘other’, to losers as well as winners, to the disadvantaged and underprivileged as wellas the powerful and articulate, which is accomplished through new ways of lookingat case files and electronic data and then choosing the most succinct record in thebest medium for documenting these diverse voices

      Is this a liberal view, or is it just a holistic view? It speaks back to power, rather than simply re-inscribing power.

    2. The macro-appraisal model, although developed first to appraise the records at thelevel of the nation state (the Government of Canada), finds sanction for archivalappraisal ‘value’ of determining what to keep, and what to destroy, not in the dictatesof the state, as traditionally with Jenkinson and his followers, nor in following thelatest trends of historical research with Schellenberg and his many more followers, asmore recently, but rather in trying to reflect society’s values through a functionalanalysis of the interaction of the citizen with the state.

      It's interesting that macro-appraisal is almost like a research method, but one that has a more sociological bent than a historical bent.

    3. acro-appraisal is thus a provenance-basedapproach to appraisal, where the social context of the record’s creation and contem-porary use (not its anticipated research use) establishes its relative value.

      This distinction is key, it is focused on things that can actually be determined in the present -- no divination or prognostication required.

    4. Then, matching information from the known record-keeping universe for all systemsand all media, the archivist decides which registries, systems and media collectionswill likely have the best records to provide ‘sufficient evidence’ of the function andcitizen’s interactions with it.

      Here, we see the old focus on evidence come into play.

    5. The point is to identify other narratives or stories within the records,where these exist, so that we as archivists may present to posterity a fuller series ofcompeting ‘truths’ about the past that researchers then may weigh for whateverpurposes, rather than our usual predilection in appraisal for preserving the dominantor ‘winning’ voices from the past

      Interesting parallels to Verne Harris' ideas of telling stories. The difference here is that the stories are already told, and need to be located?

    6. When the macro-appraisal functional analysis is completed, the archivist should beable to form a set of hypotheses regarding the appraisal work lying ahead, whereactual records are checked to validate or modify the hypothesis.

      Ah, so the hypothesis formed during the functional analysis is proved by examining records.

    7. acro-appraisal hypothesis

      And how is this hypothesis tested?

    8. the structural site(s)

      Materiality is important here.

    9. he object of the macro-appraisal and records disposalproject

      How is this object identified?

    10. onlythoseOPIs that best and most centrally reflectthe programme’s own functioning, its wider impact and citizen interaction with it.

      What are ways of determining citizen interaction? I'm reminded of the role that the news played in the work of some web archivists I talked to.

    11. Macro-appraisal in short putsprovenance-based context back into appraisal, and pays much less attention to thesubject content of records. Yet as seen, that provenance-based context is not thetraditional one of linking records to their ‘office of origin’, but rather to the complexorganisational culture in which record-creating and record-keeping takes place inmodern institutions.

      I like the sound of this approach, but it is somehow unsatisfying -- how is organizational culture different than the organization?

    12. he theoretical focus remains societal, that is,to appraise (or identify) those records providing evidence of the greatest impact of thegovernment on society (and on government itself)

      How do we measure or even begin to think about what the impact on society is?

    13. These two questions suggest a third: whichrecord creators or ‘functions’ (rather than which records) are the most important?

      Isn't this just a rephrasing of the first question? What functions should be documented?

    14. Suchvalue-based questions are essentially philosophical, for when we ask what givessomething value, what makes it worth preserving and remembering, we are essentiallyasking the age-old question: what is the good?

      I like this tie between appraisal and philosophy.

    15. Appraisal is inevitably a subjective process

      This seems like an important point to stress -- that documentation is not a scientific process.

      What are the best ways of describing this subjective process?

    16. ppraisal theory has no direct relationship with archival theory: indeed, they maybe seen as opposites

      Wow, I thought appraisal theory fit within archival theory generally?

    17. crisis of preserving electronic records

      What is the crisis - that they aren't in archives?


    1. A caller to the (New Zealand) Electricity and GasComplaints Commissioner’s Office is complaining that the electricity company is not supplyingenough power to heat her bathwater.

      Where does this data come from?!


    1. each of the positions at which repair DOES get initiated is a position at which repair CAN get initiated.

      What does this mean?!


    1. the conversation analyst must collect multiple instances of a phenomenon in order to discern the generic, context - independent properties of a practice — the proper-ties, that is, which are independent of some particular instantiation of it.

      I get why you need multiple instances -- but is context independence ever really achieved for an analysis based on language?

    2. Like the cartographers of the 18th century who mapped large sections of the globe,

      Is it interesting that the mechanics of imperialism was chosen as a metaphor for conversation analysis?

    1. Maybe community usage requires different principles — less emphasis on citation and disambiguation and more emphasis of integration into people’s every day lives.

      I think there are strong parallels here with how social media integrates with people's lives. In what ways can the archive participate in this sort of interactive space?

    2. Maybe we need a multiplicity of ways of engaging the past, and bring people in.

      I think this point is really important. How can we tell the story of provenance without having a single driving narrative?

    1. n most cases, property and copyrights are transferred to the Regents of the University of Minnesota on behalf of the Charles Babbage Institute, however, the agreement does not affect the copyrights to previously published works. Transferring copyrights enables CBI to grant researchers permission to quote from the collection.

      What the heck does this mean?

    2. CBI does not collect obsolete product manuals, three-dimensional materials or other artifacts.

      They say what they don't collect.

    1. Ordinary citizens across the Middle East expressed solidarity with Ferguson’s unhappy residents. In particular, Palestinians expressed their support – and even offered handy tips as to how protesters might best deal with attacks by cops using tear gas. @MariamBarghouti advised:

      An example of how protestors around the world were able to communicate with protestors on the ground in Ferguson.

    1. he Chinese students' responses, moreover, wereoften incomprehensible or unforthcoming, suggesting that they wereperhaps unable or reluctant to be aligned with ancestor worship throughincense-burning, and thereby potentially positioned as Asian, alien, non-Christian, and so on.

      Or that the observer didn't understand?

    2. also revealed the pervasiveness ofdisgruntled and alienated studentsÐindividuals and groups who perceivethemselves to be disenfranchised, unvalued, and di€erent from the seeminglymore popular, celebrated, and powerful mainstream.

      Doesn't this require a citation of some kind?


    1. Thissuggests that repositories might be posting collecting polices on the Internetprimarily for potential donors. If this is the case, it is possible that the documentthat is designated as a collecting policy on the repository’s web site is not thedocument that is used for internal decision-making but an abbreviated versioncontaining the information that program staff believes would be most usefulto potential donors. Are these “collecting policies” actually public relations doc-uments rather than policy-making documents? If so, what assumptions do theyreveal about the types of information that archivists believe the public is inter-ested in seeing? In a larger study, it would be informative to contact reposito-ries to ascertain whether the Web version of the policy is the actual documentused to guide selection decisions.

      Who is the audience for the document. This could be interesting to look at from a discourse perspective.

    2. these documents must be suf-ficiently specific to allow for application in practice, that they must be tailored tothe individual repository, and that they must be living rather than static documentsthat are periodically updated to account for collection growth and changing

      Interesting that Ham was so insistent on them needing to be actionable. This is basically what I was looking at in my interviews with web archivists.


    1. Part, but certainly not all, of the success that I had collecting the papersof African American women in Iowa and authors can be attributed to mybeing an African American woman myself. The identity I share with po-tential donors helps to establish rapport and trust, two elements that aregenerally crucial to fostering good donor relations but have been particu-larly important to me as I built the number of collections practically fromscratch. The “insider” perspective often enables me to understand nu-ances specific to African American culture that may appear both in myconversations with donors during field visits and in the papers them-selves.

      This does seem like a crucial element. It almost reminds me of action research.

    2. nce I discovered that the collection’s greatest strengths lie in litera-ture and literary history, it became clear that documenting the lives andexperiences of black authors and other individuals involved with theAfrican American literary scene (such as editors, publishers, book col-lectors, librarians, reviewers, and book club members) was the logicalniche to develop.

      Makes me wonder how DocNow could help assist with this process. Perhaps looking at other media produced by the user, or examining their profile and homepage url?


    1. Registration requests should be sent to the wellknown-uri-review@ietf.org mailing list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request for well-known URI: example").

      How to register a wellknown-uri

    1. For instance, technological prowess cannot be acquired second hand; it requires personal investment in time and effort to convert external wealth into an integral part of the person

      This section says a lot about problems inherent in the Digital Humanities.


    1. Theawakening of class-consciousness is often bound up within a process of rehabilitating andrebuilding self-esteem, and reaffirming cultural dignity (Freire, 1970; Giroux, 1983; Hooks,2000). It is transformative in that it inculcates the habitus by forcing the agent to criticallyreflect upon arbitrariness of the symbolic power being exerted upon them. Agents can thenresist this symbolic power, and begin to find ways of using ICT to support the issues that areimportant to their social life situations such as employment, housing, environmental, safety andtransportation.

      This is how the Internet can help with survival.

    2. What does the Internet mean for oursurvival?

      Awesome quote!

    3. WorldGate,the company that served as the ISP ceased to offer its service and the City of LaGrange did nothave an alternative supplier that could provide the service over the same infrastructure. Whilemost residents view the programme as a gift, a few are bitter that the programme has ended.

      dang, wtf!

    4. Toget the ‘free’ system, one must already have or be willing to pay for basic cable TV at a costof $8.70 per month

      It's a way to get people to consume.

    5. You know how a baby has to be breastfed milk. He can’t eat food? Well that’s how I feel. Theyare giving us milk, and this is not enough to feed us. We need to be able to eat food if we wantto get jobs.


    6. city officials, citizens and business owners. In addition, telephone inter-views were conducted with representatives from the cable operator (Charter Communications)and the internet service provider (ISP, WorldGate) to obtain the perspective of these stake-

      No interviews with actual users of the service?

    7. So, ina sense, we are examining social agents who have chosen to learn about ICT and believe inthe ideology of ICT as an enabler of life chances; and while they clearly exercise humanagency, this seems more like an act of assimilation rather than an act of resistance

      While I get this, I wonder if it might be painting with a broad brush. I think an argument could be made that there are liberatory online spaces that people can participate in.


    1. Mypointsofaristhatanalystsdonotneedtoinvokemotivations,intentionsandothermentaleventsfortheanalysisofspeechactsininteraction.Instead,theadvocatedanalyticalpolicyistopaycloseattentionto(a)whereanactionisplacedinthesequentialstructureand(b)howtheturnthathousestheactionanditsimmediatelyprecedingandfollowingturnsarecomposed.

      This reminds me of Wittgenstein (and Rorty's) position concerning internal states and word meaning. Instead of understanding the meaning of words to reflect internal states, the meaning can be found in how the words are used in a particular context, or language game.

    2. Inverybroadterms,speechactpragmaticsexplainshowanutterancewasrespondedtoaccordingtowhattheutterancemeant.Conversationanalysisexplainswhattheutterancemeantaccordingtohowitwasrespondedto.

      This is an interesting way of looking at it. The sequencing is different, but the things are the same: meaning of utterance and response. In speech act theory you define the response in relation to the meaning of the utterance. But in conversational analysis you understand the meaning of the utterance in relation to the response. The dependency is flipped.


    1. What is the purpose of making and keepingrecords? Why do people want them? What will they do with them? What will they dowithout them? Who else besides the formal creators needs the records and why?

      These seem like pragmatic goals.


    1. concepts that served needs of a particular people at a particular moment in time.

      Yes, I like this point.

    2. If the NationalArchives (as well as every state archives) were obliterated tomorrow, the perpetual memoryand public faith inherent in the American legal system would not be affected.

      What is this faith in the American legal system? Aren't Boles and Greene reinscribing a nationalistic formulation of the archive?


    1. Perhaps the truth lies somewhere betweenJenkinson and Schellenberg, with a realization that appraisal must be based onthe needs of the creator in fulfilling their own administrative and legal func-tions, but that an archives which preserved only those records created by gov-ernmental or organizational bureaucracies would fail to meet our expectationsof the role which archives have come to play in providing a sense of nationaland cultural history.

      That about sums it up.

    2. The need for the archivist’s intervention in an electronic environmentis essential, for passivity in this respect may well result in records either notbeing preserved at all, or if preserved, being technologically irretrievable.

      This is a super important point. What do these interventions look like though? Could it be interventions into the operation of the software itself: archival functions being built into tools like Facebook, Twitter, ArchiveSocial, etc?

    3. The archivistmust not, however, act as creator or historian, for as Jenkinson repeatedlywarns, archives are valuable precisely because they have not been created forposterity.

      The idea that the archivist cannot be a creator is at odds with Harris' idea of the archivist as storyteller.

    4. archives: records emerge often by “pure chance” from “a kindof cocoon stage”of neglect, after which, “if they survive,” they reach a point wherethey are once again consulted and “their value for the purposes of Research isrecognized and becomes the governing factor in their preservation.

      This doesn't work so well with electronic records because of their volatility.


    1. Manuscripts are the natural, un-self- conscious, impartial, interrelated

      what could be more self-conscious than selecting material to donate to an archive for the future?

    2. exacerbated in the last two decades by the freedom of infor- mation movement

      I can almost hear the sneer in this.

    3. It is quite clear that, if what qualifies documents as archival is their nature - as Jenkinson believed - the idea of attributing values to them is in profound conflict with archival theory

      aren't there values implicit in jenkinson's ideas about archival nature?

    4. Then he presented the con- cept of evidential value as an exclusive concern of secondary users. By so doing, he prepared the path for the complete di- vergence of American archival practice from that of the rest of the Western world

      How is evidence different from authenticity?

    5. the two fundamental method- ological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance

      Is this two? How is function different than use?

    6. In fact, the task of the archivist is to be the servant of truth, of the simple truth, not of that truth which can please certain persons or serve the views of the one or the other school of thought

      Again the dispute about what constitutes truth. This is the positivist claim.

    7. but for an Adminis- trative body to destroy what it no longer needs is a matter entirely within its competence and an action which future ages . . . cannot possi- bly criticize as illegitimate or as af- fecting the status of the remaining archive

      This imbues the state or institution with impeccable virtue. These organizations are people too!

    8. Therefore, the attribution of value uses as the primary basis of judgment an element, content, that is in contrast with the proce- dural and formal neutrality of the archival whole, and in so doing it undermines the im- partiality and authenticity of its meaning

      so appraisal is anti-archival?

    9. The fact that archival doc- uments are not contrived outside the direct requirements of the conduct of affairs - that is, that they accumulate naturally, pro- gressively, and continuously, like the sed- iments of geological stratifications24 - provides them with an element of sponta- neous yet structured cohesiveness

      But what affairs are worth paying attention to? How do you decide what sediments are of value?

    10. truth

      This conception of truth is where the postmodernists part ways.

    11. Jenkinson, Cencetti, Brenneke, Bautier, and the many others who have enriched the European ar- chival literature of our times.

      She is establishing a lineage here.

    12. The absence of proper care eventually made the documents in the archives-sediment disappear, victims of natural events or human vicissitudes, while those in the archives-treasure re- mained as continuing proof of events past.

      archives sediment vs archives treasure

    13. Rather, the traces of all facts were preserved, their intensity as profound as the effects of those facts had been at the time of their occurrence

      Is this fact or fiction?

    14. Private persons began to deposit false doc- uments in public archives to lend them public faith.

      And the institutions didn't?

    15. As a consequence, not every entity could have an archives; only the persons or corpora- tions invested with sovereign power had the right to establish one in their own ju- risdiction (jus archivi or archivale).

      The archive is linked to power.

    16. Rather, the link was with ideas of continuity (or absence of interruptions), stability (or absence of change), and endurance (or absence of known term)

      How are those ideas different from the eternal? Do they express more of a process?

    17. the fundamental con- cepts of archival theory are rooted in concepts embedded in Roman law, which have lingered for centuries and are so in- grained in our Western culture that we keep perpetuating them even when we can- not remember the reason for doing so.

      err, ok?

    18. quasi-complete silence on the subject in all the other Western countries


    19. In the former case, we have appraisal for selection. In the latter case, we have ap- praisal for acquisition

      I don't understand this distinction.


  2. Jan 2017
    1. A second, related, contribution to come from the analysis of grammar ininteraction is the recognition that grammar is knowledge of how to dothings(Bybee, 2002b) and how to do things together(Clark, 1992, 1996) – that is, it issharedknowledge in a very literal sense of the word.

      If you are studying interaction between people isn't this a given? What would the study of interaction look like if there was no sharing of knowledge?


    1. The image of anarchivist as an Indiana Jones-type character, hunting outthe treasures of the past in exciting pursuits, is romanticbut inaccurate; rather, archivists are flawed humanstrying to develop clear and reliable methods for identi-fying records that should beacquired by archives.

      Isn't recognition of these flaws, and working with the, rather than daydreaming about systematic standards for eradicating them, part of the way forwards?

    2. Others have made similar pleas for a socialsensitivity in appraising and collecting,[180,182]but the un-inhibited human nature of collecting works against anykind of uniform approach for dealing with such matters.

      What does this even mean?

    3. It has long been recognized that one of the greatestchallenges is the lack of a national system in appraisingand acquiring records, leading to some early calls forbetter communication about appraisal decisions.

      Would such national standards actually help? What are the pitfalls of expecting there to be such standards?

    4. In themid-1990s a national conference on the appraisal of Ameri-can business records tried to deal with the myriad challengesposed by corporate records, but whether or not it reallyhelped get any closer to developing workable solutions isunclear.

      What is a "workable solution" in this context? What is the problem that Cox has identified? Is it even real?

    5. e do not createthe past like an artist creates a work of art; rather we aim tocontrol the past, or more accurately, to control the docu-mentation of the past, like a systems methodizer, balancingaims, objectives, resources and demand.

      What is the difference between controlling the past compared to creating the past?

    6. The stress between pri-vate and institutional collectors is somewhat modified bythis relationship. Private collectors often create trends incollecting or have the financial resources to build collec-tions; it is often up to institutional repositories to housethem and make them available for researchers.[101]It isprecisely at this intersection between private collector andinstitutional repository that the most dramatic aspects ofthe psychological nature of collecting are seen.

      Why is this individual/institutional distinction so important? Aren't institutions made up of individuals?

    7. “Strict objectivity, totalindifference to partisan issues on the site of collecting,and an unmitigated passion for identifying the truth arethe hallmarks of the collector’s trade

      An archival myth, if there ever was one.

    8. Such stories are often amain attraction for individuals to become professionalarchivists and manuscripts curators.

      How bitter.

    9. Now archivistsare developing methodologies to help them identify cri-teria for dealing with ephemera and other nontraditionalrecords

      Like what?


    1. Itisimportanttodistinguishbetweenmeanings(includinggoalsandintentions)inferredbyobserversandmeanings(includinggoalsandinten­tions)inferredbyparticipants.Analysingdiscourseisoftenmakinginfer­encesaboutinferences.

      Is the researcher herself an observer?

    2. functionalanalysis

      What is language doing. Performative.


    1. Canadian archivists are not contentsimply to discuss the subject of appraisal. They put into practice and test theirideas.

      This is what makes archival science a science!

    2. Luciana Duranti, who believes that it is important to appraiseusing a scale of values contemporary to the period when the documents werecreated

      Isn't this similar to Booms?

    3. n addition, to avoid overly theoretical or disconnectedappraisals, and ones marginal to the administrative needs of an organization,archivists in Québec have established a relationship between appraisal andneeds assessment.

      Who are the people who need something? Archivists, researchers, administrators, all of the above? Whose needs matter?

    4. Must we reject one in favour of the other? Should we not attempt to makethese objectives complementary?

      Such a simple idea, not slavishly following a particular model, but embracing the composition of values and approaches.

    5. For example, Terry Eastwood, professor of archival science at the Univer-sity of British Columbia (UBC), insisted on the need to base an appraisal onthe use of archives.

      Use of the archives as a measure of what should be kept. It's hard to argue with this approach.

    6. Cook advances “macro-appraisal”: appraisingcreator institutions before appraising their documents

      Of course there is still the problem of appraising the institution. But it does seem important to link the record creator with the records.

    7. In 1986, Helen Samuels expanded on this concept byestablishing a clear relationship between archival acquisition and archivalappraisal

      It's hard for me to think of appraisal separate from acquisition, but it's interesting to see that this was a fairly recent discovery.

    8. it is hard to determine whether the authors areactually describing the same realities

      maybe they aren't?

    9. must ultimately offer comprehensive evidence ofsocietal actions and conditions

      Evidence, in the form of more documentation?


    1. cancerous silences

      Did he know he had cancer?

    2. One example, very reminiscent of the oral-history enthusiasm of the 1960s to 1980s,is seeing established archives harvesting significant parts of the Internet, especiallysocial networking applications for various targeted groups in the ‘community’demographic.

      This is the lineage that DocNow is part of.

    3. Communities give themselves the chronicles they need in order to understand theworld, just as individuals create for themselves the stories they need in order tosurvive with a sense of self. . . .A nation that does not take into account themultitude of suppressed memories of the majority of its people will always be weak,basing its survival on the exclusion of dissent and otherness. Those whose lives arenot valued, not given narrative dignity, cannot really be part of the solution of theabiding problems of our times

      I love how this quote connects the individual story with the community and state.

    4. I believed this over 20 yearsago when conceptualizing the citizen–state relationship as the heart of macro-appraisal, and I believe it is even more relevant now for our digital age, when suchengagement is all the more possible technologically and expected socially.

      I'm just noticing now that Cook wrote this just 3 years before he died of pancreatic cancer....

      I think we are still figuring out what the Web means for citizen-state relationship -- the relationship itself is being transformed.

    5. Engaging the citizen

      Citizen still thinks of the individual in relation to the state. But what of engaging people, on the periphery of the state, as they collapse?

    6. we may not, even in a pan-national collaborative network,always acquire them, save as a last protective resor


    7. Only after this inter-related ‘whole of society’ or ‘total archive’ landscape is knowncan the archivist target realistically the actual records or series of records likely tohave greatest potential archival value, in a complementary, holistic, integration of thepublic and private, the centre and the regions, the well-articulated voices and themissing voices, for the human or organizational functions or activities under studyduring the appraisal process.

      This sounds like a documentation strategy?

    8. Of course, private-sector appraisal decisions would complement this public-sectoror institutional macroappraisal within a truly integrated ‘total archives’ framework.

      Having his cake and eating it too...

    9. Governance emphasizes the dialogue and interaction of citizens and groups withthe state as much as the state’s own policies and procedures; focuses as well ondocumenting the impact of the state on society, and the functions and activities ofsociety itself; encompasses all media rather than privileging written text; searches formultiple narratives and hot spots of contested discourse between citizen and state,rather than accepting the official policy line; and deliberately seeks to give voice to themarginalized, to losers as well as winners, to the disadvantaged and underprivilegedas well as the powerful and articulate, which is accomplished through new ways oflooking at case files and electronic data and then choosing the most succinct record inthe best medium for documenting these diverse voices.

      Is this focus on the state a bit outdated now. Think of the impact that corporations are having on our lives, societies and planet. Do we just let the off the hook?

    10. Booms suggested that archivists should studysociety directly through reading and viewing evidence of public opinioncontemporary to the records being appraised,

      Again, the lure of Documenting the Now.

    11. Here, archivists try toreflect society (and its values) through appraisal not by gaining some comprehensiveunderstanding of the specific ‘reality’ of what society’s values were and then searchingfor records to represent these values proportionately, which is an impossible task.

      It would be interesting to explore how this is impossible.

    12. If there is indeed anything or anyone qualified to lend legitimacy toarchival appraisal, it is society itself, and the public opinions it expresses – assuming,of course, that these are allowed to develop freely.

      How do we listen to society? I hear America singing.

    13. The focus of archivists shifted from being centered around archives as‘truth,’ evidence, authenticity, defending the integrity of the record, to archives asstory, as narrative, as part of a societal and governance process of remembering andforgetting, of concern about power and margins, in which the archivist consciouslyembraced a more visible role in co-creating the archive, not just being the curator ofwhat was left over.

      A shift from archives as evidence to archive as process.

    14. allowing the creator to determine ‘value’ privileges the powerful and the institutionalin society over the private and the personal, corporations and governments overcitizens and communities, upper-level policy makers over lower-level workersinteracting daily with citizens, those, in short, who have the resources andinfrastructure and continuity and time to create and manage records in an orderlyway, and preserve them over centuries – no mean feat, and increasingly so with vastamounts of digital data – and who have the motivation to do so as a means ofnaturalizing and legitimizing their own on-going hegemony as historically sanctionedin the past and thus validated for the future.

      interesting to consider how this position shifts when creators of social media content are empowered to control how their content is used. Citizens and communities are present in social media, and should be empowered, whereas large organizations are also present, and perhaps should not.

    15. This neo-Jenkinsonianism echoes as well in reactions I receive from someparticipants in appraisal workshops that, with the costs of digital storage shrinking,and the capacity of digital storage expanding exponentially, maybe now we can keepit all, and allow various combinations of software search engines, metadatadirectories, and archival description to separate the 1 or 2 per cent of digital wheatfrom the 98 or 99 per cent of cyber-chaff.

      Reminds me of Vint Cerf's idea of the accidental archive, and how a total archive on the Internet is within grasp.

    16. his idea of appraisal as the missing piece of the archival puzzle evokes, itseems to me, three issues that we need to confront if we are to have a usefuldialogue about appraisal: first, the Jenkinsonian legacy, if I may be so bold beforea United Kingdom audience, that archivists should not do appraisal at all, that itis un-archival; secondly, the related but separate notion that the archivist shouldbe positioned as an objective curator, passive and neutral, rather than asconscious mediator, activist and subjective; and, thirdly, that archival work,including appraisal, may be reduced to a series of processes and procedureswithout attention to the theoretical or philosophical core centered around values

      Three core positions about appraisal to be critiqued.

    17. co-creating archives

      Possible parallels with Jasanoff's coproduction?

    18. ‘by taking upparticular tools we accede to desires and we manifest intentions.

      I should follow up on this quote, since the idea of appraisal tools hits very close to home in the work I'm doing with Documenting the Now.


    1. Custom content library - do all this with your video assets... not just Trump

      Makes sense that you would need to pay to create your own archive.

    1. ## To configure a dynamic IP address auto eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp ## Or configure a static IP auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address gateway netmask network broadcast

      Maybe this will work?

  3. Dec 2016
    1. The question,then, is not so much one of finding the fundamental technical characteristic of amedium so as to draw some essential cultural characteristic, but to examine itstechnical formation in genealogical terms. As the “network” approach developedby ANT suggests, there is a need to problematize the description of the Web aslayers of technical processes. That is, it is necessary to investigate not only whatforms those layers of hardware and software, but also how they are related to eachother and how they potentially influence each other.

      Nice description of why ANT is important here.

    2. Dematerialization can be taken as problematic and paradox-ical, in that it does not mean the absence of material supports for representation,but rather points to the new material relationships that are established betweencontent and hardware. Computing dematerializes representations through a seriesof calculations in order to make them readable on a range of devices (computers,PCs, or Macs, PDAs, et cetera). A digital picture, then, is not something producedby a camera through chemical processes, but a representation that samples the“real” and that can be easily manipulated.

      This idea of dematerialization could be interesting to put into dialogue with Kirschenbaum's critique of the ideology that digital is ephemeral and fleeting.

    3. Picturing the Web not only as a hypermediatednetwork, but also, and more importantly, as a site of interrelated social and tech-nical processes, opens the way for both an exploration of not only the surface ofthe Web — what appears on our computer screens — but also for a deeper multi-level analysis.

      Nice description of why it's important to look at the processes at work in the architecture of the Web.

    4. To assess the cultural importance of the Web as a medium, it is neces-sary to examine what kind of actions and cultural possibilities are embedded inthose layers, how they influence each other, and how, especially with the rise ofautomated, dynamic, and adaptive forms of communication, they give rise toagents that regulate the discursive possibilities of the Web

      Web as a medium. I was four years late writing Web as a preservation medium it seems :-)

    5. The technicalassemblage that forms the Web is only felt when communication breaks down,when the server is not working, or the browser is not capable of decoding a newlanguage



    1. Careful logging of algorithm executions will alsohelp. These detailed logs, such as those collected byaircraft flight data recorders, will enable National Al-gorithm Safety Board investigators to study exactlywhat happened. As best practices for logging in eachindustry become widely accepted, reviewers will beable to more reliably assign responsibility for failureswhile making compelling evidence-based recommen-dations for improvements (20).

      It's interesting to think about what guidelines or best practices for such a logging might look like. I suspect it could potentially border on conversations about data provenance?

    1. If you provide Content to third parties, including downloadable datasets of Content or an API that returns Content, you will only distribute or allow download of Tweet IDs and/or User IDs. You may, however, provide export via non-automated means (e.g., download of spreadsheets or PDF files, or use of a “save as” button) of up to 50,000 public Tweets and/or User Objects per user of your Service, per day. Any Content provided to third parties via non-automated file download remains subject to this Policy.

      This is why tools for hydrating tweet identifiers back into the JSON data are important.

    1. I refuse to entertain my students with mummified ideas and abstract forms of philosophical self-stimulation. What leaves their hands is always philosophically alive, vibrant and filled with urgency. I want them to engage in the process of freeing ideas, freeing their philosophical imaginations. I want them to lose sleep over the pain and suffering of so many lives that many of us deem disposable. I want them to become conceptually unhinged, to leave my classes discontented and maladjusted.


    1. To discover hidden gems in existing stores of human knowledge, Swanson wrote in his 1986 essay, we would need a massive thesaurus—one that describes “all relationships that people know about and then determine, for each search, which among those relationships” are actually relevant. “To build such a universal thesaurus entails no less than modeling all of human knowledge,” he wrote. It would be an impossible task—not least of all because, “to use such a thesaurus, one would have to retrieve relevant information from it, so a second universal thesaurus would be needed as a retrieval aid to the first, and so on ad infinitum. The builder of a thesaurus is, in principle, lost in an infinite regress.”

      This is a satisfying description of language too.

    2. Surviving artifacts, especially anything made from bronze like the mechanism, are even harder to come by. Many such objects were melted down to make weapons and ammunition.

      A grim & necessary thought: how many cultural artifacts have been lost to the machinery of war.

    3. If there is any hope of finding new information about the Antikythera Mechanism—or, for that matter, any additional devices like it—it is likely that machines, working alongside human researchers, will play a pivotal role.

      Alongside, or one inside the other--interpenetrating. Can we imagine our current way of life without the Internet and computerized telecommunications? What would life look after the Internet? We assume a headlong trajectory forward, but perhaps there will be slippage? Some things we have now will be forgotten. What if we cede the open space of the Web to heavily corporatized smart phone spaces. What if we give up computers that run on elbow grease with ones that require a vast network of energy that is destroying the planet?

      Sorry, negative thoughts.

    4. The web was built to be explored not just by people, but by machines. As humans surf the web, they’re aided by algorithms doing the work beneath the surface, sequenced to monitor and rank an ever-swelling current of information for pluckable treasures.

      Lovely description of the sociotechnical space that is the Web, where software processes, infrastructure and people mingle.

    5. “Think how many other types of technology there must have been that we don’t know about,” she added. “What I find fascinating is this: We see this ancient technology and initially it seems it was lost, and we’re like, ‘Where did it go?’ But then you look and you see the threads, connecting it through history—of a sundial or the 13th century astrolabe. So it survived and played a key role in stimulated the tech we take for granted. The way different cultures use things in different ways, technology can become almost unrecognizable, but the kernel of that technology lives on.”

      Love this description of how reuse is central to knowledge.

  4. Nov 2016
    1. In response, Barad (2003) argues for a performative metaphysics that shifts the focusaway from ‘independent objects with inherent boundaries and properties’ topractices,matters of doings/actions that perform particular phenomena. Phenomena, on thisaccount, are ‘ontologically primitive relations—relations without preexisting relata’ thatare enacted in material-discursive practices (Barad, 2003, p. 815). From such a performa-tive perspective, technologies have no inherent properties, boundaries or meanings, but arebound up with the specific material-discursive practices that constitute certain phenom-ena.

      What are the 'doings' in archival appraisal? There could be an opportunity to see how web archives are constructed by examining the doings of researchers, who interact with the content.

      It would be interesting to tease out the doings of archivists at places like the University of Michigan, who seek out web content, with the doings of bots and automated processes at the Internet Archive. How are they different, how are they the same...how do they relate to each other? That feels like it could be the central core of the paper.


    1. The researchers used Internet analytics tools to trace the origins of particular tweets and mapped the connections among social-media accounts that consistently delivered synchronized messages. Identifying website codes sometimes revealed common ownership.

      What does this actually mean?

    1. During the British campaign, they discovered that a family of bots that had been tweeting around Israeli-Palestinian issues for three or four years had suddenly become pro-Brexit.

      It hadn't occurred to me that bots, once identified, could exhibit trends in content that would reflect the shifts in how they are being paid for.

    1. The millions of files that are currently without any status in the archive will join the millions that do have easy playability. Old or obscure ideas will rejoin the conversation. Forgotten aspects will return. And VLC itself, faced with such a large test sample, will get better at replaying these items in the process.

      I hope this virtuous circle comes to be.

    1. We all need to be able to see who wrote this story, whether or not it is true, and how it was spread.

      Providing provenance is key.

    2. This is not a technological problem.  We are social beings and so we will naturally look for ways to socialize, and we will use technology to socialize each other.  But technology could be part of the solution.  A not-so-radical redesign might occasionally expose us to new sources of information, or warn us when our own social networks are getting too bounded.

      Love this idea of warning when networks get too bounded.

    1. But how many of these are bots? According to Sam Woolley, a researcher from Oxford University’s Project on Computational Propaganda (which has not been peer reviewed), about 50 to 55 percent of Clinton’s Twitter activity—the likes, follows, and retweets she gets—is from bots, which is typical for high-profile public figures. But Trump’s automated Twitter activity, according to Woolley, is a much higher 80 percent.

      These are astonishing numbers, but It's kinda weird to see the likes, follows and retweets lumped together here like this.

    1. Much of the resources of digital preservation have been devoted to preparing for formats to go obsolete and require migration. I’ve been arguing for a long time that this isn’t a good use of resources. Before the web, formats used to go obsolete quickly, but since the advent of the web in 1995, it is very hard to find any widely used format that has gone obsolete. The techniques we have had for a long time, such as open source renderers and emulation, work well enough to cope with format obsolescence if and when it eventually happens; further work in this low-leverage area is a waste of resources. The most important aspect of the way that format obsolescence became not worth working on is that digital preservation had nothing to do with it. Formats stopped going obsolete for very fundamental reasons, not because digital preservation prevented it. Virtual machines and open source became part of mainstream IT for reasons that had nothing to do with preservation.

      Open Source considered helpful for digital preservation...at least for rendering.

    1. A model gives us acommon language to talk about the world.

      Is language a model?


    1. They are, in Pickering’s sense, part of the mangle.

      Who is this Pickering character?

    2. he concludes: “Realism is not about repre sen ta-tions of an in de pen dent reality, but about the real consequences, interventions, creative possibilities, and responsibilities of intra- acting within the world”

      Seems to have a lot in common with pragmatism.

    3. arad turns to the work of Niels Bohr. Bohr’s theoretical position is centered around what he calls “agential reality.”

      The ultimate model :-)

    4. austo- Sterling argues for sci-entifi c analysis that can answer the question how does the social become mate-rial? The strength of her perspective is revealed in her insightful analysis of what may seem an unlikely topic: bones.



  5. Oct 2016
    1. Index contains more than a billion terms collected from over 400 billion hyperlinks to the homepages of websites

      If I'm reading this right it seems that they indexed all the text of hyperlinks that points at the base URL for a website?

    1. Uber has heretofore effectively controlled its workforce without necessarily being responsible for them in the eyes of legal and regulatory authorities

      Control without responsibility.

    2. Drivers risk “deactivation” (being suspended or removed permanently from the system) for cancelling unprofitable fares.

      Wow, I had no idea that drivers had no choice in who they pick up...

    3. Yet in the Uber system, the labor drivers do is actually shaped by two primary factors: the employer’s use of surveillant practices to effect “soft control” (Deleuze, 1990; Boltanski & Chiapello, 2007) over otherwise flexible independent contractors, and corresponding practices of resistance developed by those workers in the system (Ball, 2010; Levy, 2014).

      Interesting to see the connection to Deleuze here.

    4. Griswold, 2014; Hill, 2015; Hockstein, 2015; Johnson, 2014; Porter, 2015; White, 201

      All of these are Uber related.

    5. However, while these accounts might not describe every driver’s experience, the collected evidence nonetheless reveals several structural features of the Uber system that could potentially affect any driver employed.

      Interesting way of acknowledging limits without compromising the methodology.

    6. Approximately 1350 total archival items were collected, documenting the activities and conversations of drivers through forum posts, interviews, and other personal contacts, including email correspondence with Uber Community Support Representatives (CSRs), selected out of thousands of posts made over a nine-month period.

      How were they selected?

    7. Uber relies heavily on the evolving rhetoric of the algorithm to justify these information asymmetries to drivers, riders, as well as regulators and outlets of public opinion

      The rhetoric of algorithm is an interesting way of describing it -- it is discourse.


    1. Consider, for example, fictions whose duration is measured indecades to millennia, such as fundamental operating system design,the graphical user interface for human-computer interaction, NorthropFrye’s archetypes of literature, Galilean science, great literature and thecultural envelopes of mythology.65These, in varying ways and tovarying degrees, show the independence of the fictional in their abilityto create imaginative spaces that become the reality within whichpeople live productively and create other fictions.

      Are these fictions or are they forms?

    2. computing would furnish no more than convenient access to data andcommunication among colleagues, as ‘just a tool’

      but isn't that all a computer is? a tool?

    3. fixed structures of knowledge.

      do these even exist?

    4. Clifford Geertz’


    5. I argue here that the point of all modelling exercises, as ofscholarly research generally, is the process seen in and by means of adeveloping product, not the definitive achievement.

      Ok, a process, I'm down with that.

    6. Alan Perlis asked in one of hisdelightful epigrams, ‘that software is not like anything else, that it ismeant to be discarded: that the whole point is to always see it as soapbubble?’

      Why is this like anything else? Isn't everything really this way?


    1. Payload manifests only include the pathnames of files. Because of this, a payload manifest cannot reference empty directories. To account for an empty directory, a bag creator may wish to include at least one file in that directory; it suffices, for example, to include a zero-length file named ".keep".

      If there's an empty directory a BagIt manifest won't record it unless an intervention is made.

  6. Sep 2016
    1. er. The ethnographic seduction by victims and perpetrators of violence became, therefore, a font of, rather than an obstruction to, insi

      The seduction itself is a useful thing to analyze.

    2. The association of the words victim and seduction makes me vulnerable to the unwanted charge that I somehow imply the victim brought upon himself or herself the pain that was inflicted, while the mere proposition that victims of violence might mold what they tell us could contribute to their victimization and, ulti- mately, might cast a shadow on my moral standards. How can I question the horror stories I have bee

      showing reflexivity here


    1. It is hard to say how generalizable our findings might be.


    2. Patton (2002), for example, outlined sixteen types of purposive samples

      Wow, that's a lot of types of purposive samples!


    1. These forms of organizational cooperation, that Engeströmet al.(1999)call‘knotworking’, are based on the weaving together of different activitiesaround the emergence of a partially shared object of work which keeps themtogether while also keeping them distinct.

      ❤️ the term Knotworking .. it reminds me of Jackson and Tarleton Gillespie's "Policy Knot". I wonder what the provenance of this knot metaphor is.

    2. Activity systems are, in fact, by defin-ition internally fragmented and inconsistent. The tensions and conflictsemerging from such contradictions constitute the origin and the source of

      This fragmentation and brokenness aligns nicely with broken world thinking, repair and seems very relevant for analyzing web archive systems.

    3. post-functionalist theories ofthe social

      What is postfunctionalism here?

    4. Rather than starting with the technology and examining how actors appropri-ate its embodied structures, or starting with actors and their rules and re-sources, this view starts with human practice, thus avoiding the dualityaltogether. The aim is then to examine how the practice enacts emergentstructures through recurrent interaction with the technology at hand.

      There could be some useful lessons for the study of algorithms here.

    5. making social rules accessible through discourse requires ne-cessarily that we interpret them

      Perhaps this is where some of the controversy comes in. Whether the rules can be inscribed?

    6. The idea that actors areknowledgeable and reflexive agents is fundamental to structuration theory

      How does this mesh with Latour's idea of actants?

    7. rules describe the regularitiesand generalized procedures used in the production of social practices whichare to be expected from those involved in them

      It might be interesting to consider what rules in this sense have in common with Algorithms. Who follow the rules in each case? Do people who use algorithmic systems follow the rules without knowing them? Do the rules become visible on breakdown?

    8. The hammer as such acquires a separate‘existence’only when it breaks or islost: that is, when its unreflective use becomes problematic

      This idea that infrastructure only becomes visible in breakdown has its roots here in Heidegger?

    9. The elevation of the value of theory and contemplation are infact an expression of the will of intellectuals to preserve their position among theruling class; as such, the priority of theory is based on material reasons and thehierarchy between the two is the result of a fraud


    10. the aim of science is not that of producing theoretical knowledge butmore of obtaining practical mastery of the world in order to satisfy the practicalneeds of mankind

      This sounds like pragmatism.

    11. Within a couple of centuries of his death, the political dimension of ethics, andthe status and legitimacy that Aristotle had granted topraxiswere forgottenand replaced with an idea of knowledge and virtue as only the result ofcontemplative life.

      And perhaps scholarship? It strikes me that my interest in practice theory may stem from what I would like to do when I finish my PhD: return to practice.

    12. Nussbaum 1986, p. 395

      Nicolini is drawing heavily on Nussbaum's work here.

    13. Practices need to bestudied analytically rather than descriptively (Llewellyn 2008). Advocates ofany of the strong programmes thus look with suspicion at the idea that work,activity, and practice can be described using lay categories and withoutreference to a specific theoretical tradition.

      Description is not enough, there needs to be analysis.

    14. we thus need to take a further step and commit,in one form or another, to a practice-based ontology—that is, the belief thatmany social and organizational phenomena occur within, and are aspects orcomponents of, thefield of practices (Schatzki 2001, p. 2). We also need toconduct our analysis on the basis of such premises.

      the link between practices and social & organizational phenomena is important -- it's important to frame analyses this way -- perhaps this could be a good guiding principle for my tagging?

    15. Feldman andOrlikowski 2011, p. 1241

      Could be useful to look at, for examples of strong practice theory.

    16. While the two share an interest in the mundane and often unsungdetails of organizational life, the strong programme strives toexplainorgan-izational matters in terms of practices instead of simply registering them.

      What does it mean to explain a practice instead of merely describing it?

    17. According to Corradiet al.(2010), the starting point of the current band-wagon of practice-based organizational studies can be traced back to thecontributions of three specific research streams.

      Some of the theoretical background for practice theories use in organizational studies.

    18. Choosing one example or another is, however, highlyconsequential. Naming, defining, and exemplifying practices is already theor-izing them.

      This seems like a really important point. That the framing of a research question has a hidden theory that needs to be unearthed.

    19. Practice theories are fundamentally ontologicalprojects in the sense that they attempt to provide a new vocabulary to describethe world and to populate the world with specific‘units of analysis’; that is,practices

      Interesting use of ontology here. The units of analysis are practices.

    20. it also steers away from views thatunderstand social affairs as mere symbolic exchanges between humans (as inthe symbolic interactionism tradition)

      It's interesting to see what theoretical perspectives practice theory argues against.

    21. The contribution of a practice approach is to uncover that behind all theapparently durable features of our world there is always the work and effort ofsomeone

      Hidden work.

    22. So, staging a free election hasto do not only with ideas and principles of free choice and determination butalso, for example, with how the practice of voting is carried out and whethersuch apparently mundane things such as anonymity of the ballot, whetherpolling stations are open long enough for everyone to vote, and how the votesare counted, are guaranteed

      How ideas are enacted in activity is important. The ideas aren't enough themselves.


    1. Jeff Lemieux pointed out the single most significant factor many people point to: the surrounding roads are far too car-oriented.

      Jeff Lemieux is an avid cyclist http://greatergreaterwashington.org/jlemieux/

    1. Our mission is to really create a top university community here,” says Eric Olson, a former Prince George’s County Council member who directs the College Park City University Partnership, a town/gown group that includes high-placed university officials, the mayor, and state senator Jim Rosapepe.

      Possible people to interview?

    1. An advisor once challenged me to interrogate precisely the things that immobilize my imagination; I’ve never seen such paralysis as when we talk about assault.  Why is it that the conditions we choose are good to think with, while the things that happen to us are not?

      Choice requires power. When we are studying up things may happen to us, and these are the things that must be studied.

    2. Being watched made me watchful, obsessively engaged.  Preparing for a trial, a police report, a confrontation, I was aggressively attuned to my surroundings.  Hungry for detail, I filed facts away: the shifting clientele of downtown establishments; the quality of ice encasing different streets.  The exact setting time of the sun. 

      How is this state of watchfulness heightened. Are the ways or reasons for its heightening significant for what is observed?

  7. Aug 2016
    1. Grint, K., and S. Woolgar. 1992. Computers, guns, and roses: what's social about being shot? Science, Technology, and Human Values:366-380

      Important for the debate of social vs technical construction. Used in social informatics theory.

    2. Actor-networks reach stability when they become irreversible. Irreversibility iswhen it would be either too costly to reverse the relationships or doingso becomes improbable. Reaching network stability requires: (1) successfully negotiating the enrollment of participants,followed by the (2) translation of an (3) obligatory passage point (when the sets of relations and those enrolled become (4) irreversible)(Latour 1987). Mobilization of network members ensues as a result of irreversibility and stability where social investment in the network reaches a point at which withdrawal would be unthinkable. The durability of a network is matter of the robustness of the translation. Networks collapse or undergo changes if the translation processes whichbrought the networks to their current state can revertor if the networks cannot resist alternative translations

      This could align nicely with Latour's ideas about actants.

    3. Callon, M. 1986. The sociology of an Actor Network'in M. Callon. J. Law & A. Rip (editors) Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology. London: Macmillan

      Reminds of "assemblage" from Deleuze. This could be interesting to look at.

    4. Social informaticsis a perspective, a way of framing,the particular dynamics of IS and ICT in social and organizational worlds.

      This approach could be useful for thinking about web archiving organizations. Not simply individuals acting with technology...

    5. Orlikowski, WJ. 2002. Knowing in practice: Enacting a collective capability in distributed organizing. Organization Science13 (3):249-273.

      Practice theory!

    6. This process of making something (like a commodity technology or a particular artifact) personal is a ‘taming’ or training that take place over time. This may not lead to success (or a desired outcome) and domestication scholarship often highlights the churning or seemingly cyclical patterns of non-progress towards full acceptance/belonging. In studying this process, domestication emphasizes the relationships among the object, individuals and the larger social milieu in which this process unfolds (and often grants agency to the media messages and opinion leaders for framing the roles, uses and expectations of ICT).

      Domestication might be an interesting lens to look at web archival work & software.

    7. To date, ANT’s conceptual vocabularyand methodological demands have beenused eclectically in ISresearch(Walsham 1997; e.g., Pouloudi and Whitley 2000).Numerous case studies inspired by ANT serve as a means to improve the understanding of IS researchers of the design and use of ICT, which is of significance for IS (Hanseth, Aanestad, and Berg 2004). And, there existsa prominent and meticulous adoption of ANT in the literature on information infrastructure. The size and complexity of infrastructural technologies such as groupware, and the characteristic that they generally build upon existing technologies, make researchers direct their focus from ICT or isolated technological artifacts to a more complex notion of IT infrastructure (Hanseth, Monteiro, and Hatling 1996). Several researchers have drawn upon ANT to account for the sociotechnicalnature of the information infrastructure which not only includes artifact but also human habits, norms, and roles, that may prove its most intractable elements (Jackson et al. 2007). For example, building on ANT’s conceptual vocabulary, Hanseth and Monteiro (1996)investigate how any given elements of information infrastructure constrain others, and how these elements inscribe certain patterns of use. To do so, they identify explicit anticipations of use by various actors during use, and the way these anticipations are translated and inscribed into standards

      All these studies could be useful to look at for ANT's use in IS research.

    8. Akrich, M. 1992. The de-scription of technical objects. In Shaping technology/building society: Studies in Socioteclmical Change, edited by J. Law. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

      For a description of ANT.

    9. Rooted in a “...ruthless application of semiotics” (Latour 1999, , p. 3), ANT’s first premise isthat entities have no inherent qualities: theyacquire their form and functionality only through their relations with other entities9

      I know it's trendy, but this approach seems to have a lot of merit. I wonder what insights it could offer?

    10. The shift from technology as an embedded structure toward agency of humans reached its apex with the practice lens of Orlikowski ((Orlikowski 2000; Schultze and Orlikowski 2004). She proposes the notion of technology-in-practice, which refers to the structure of technology use enacted by social actors while they interact recurrently with a particular technology artifact. Seen this way, technology-in-practice is emergent and enacted, not embodied or appropriated

      A recommended article that crtiiques strong social constructivism. Affordances of objects are important too.

    11. Woolgar, S. 1991. The turn to technology in social studies of science. Science, Technology & Human Values16 (1):20

      Overview of STS in IS.

    12. Orlikowski, W. J. 2000. Using technology and constituting structures: A practice lens for studying technology in organizations. Organization Science11 (4):404-428.

      Used as a foundation by Orlikowski in her SCOT work.

    13. Orlikowski, W. J., and D. C. Gash. 1994. Technological frames: making sense of information technology in organizations. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)12 (2):174-207.

      A key study for the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT).

    14. To do so, researchers must pay due attention to the process and content of technology itself. Shifting away from “the impact” of technology, this body of research tends to highlight how technology is constructed during research, development and innovation phases, and how structural and political circumstances of its development are reflected in technology. Over time,STS scholars have embraced severaltheoretical approaches. Three of the most prominent are:the socialconstruction of technology (SCOT), focusing on constructs like interpretive flexibility and relevant actors; thesocial shaping of technology (SST) drawing on concepts like configurationand trajectories;and,actor-network theory (ANT) which introducesnetworks, enrollment, translation and irreversibility

      Three possible ways of looking at technology with STS.