1,135 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. Whatever may be the limitations which trammel inquiry elsewhere we believe the great state University of Wisconsin should ever encourage that continual and fearless sifting and winnowing by which alone the truth can be found.

      Sifting and winnowing -- nice turn of phrase :-)

    2. “Today we stand before you,” they said to Hutchins. “If we come to you tomorrow without tenure, we will not be standing. We’ll be on our knees.”

      It's about power after all.

    3. And let us not forget the growing ”trigger warning” movement that requires college instructors to warn students before they hear or read anything that might be traumatizing or even slightly discomforting. A student at Rutgers University recently recommended that discussions of The Great Gatsby be prefaced by a trigger warning. Now that’s a joke for Jerry Seinfeld.

      Why is speaking about our feelings a joke?

    4. Our country’s most gifted comedians won’t preform at our nation’s universities for fear of—or disdain at—being jeered, rebuked, threatened or simply misunderstood. Just ask Jerry Seinfeld, who recently told ESPN that college students are intolerant of genuine comedy, which is by necessity often politically incorrect. “They just want to use these words: ‘That’s racist;’ That’s sexist;’ ‘That’s prejudice.’ They don’t know what the hell they’re talking about.” In other words: Don’t laugh. It isn’t funny!

      Maybe the younger generation has a point?

    5. But the budget bill’s new wording would at least introduce the potential to allow the dismissal of whole departments, programs and classes of faculty

      Dismissal by who?

    6. We harbor strong concerns about Walker’s proposed tenure revisions. Without tenure protections, professors like us who fight for free speech and liberty—values Walker himself espouses—could be even more at risk of being targeted on college campuses for our beliefs.

      I hadn't thought of the parallels between unions and tenure before.

    1. In discussions about climate change, for example, ‘think tanks’ like Wisconsin’s Heartland Institute use their well-financed public relations machines to create the impression that the scientific evidence for human-caused climate change is still debated.

      Makes you wonder where these "think tanks" get their funding.

    2. This reasoning is impossible when the institutions and people charged with conducting it must be more concerned with currying political favor than searching for truth

      I know it's probably relativistic, but it seems that we should be focused on creating meaningful and beneficial change in the world with our policies rather than establishing "truth".

    3. In late 2014 the Republican-controlled House of Representatives passed a bill preventing the staff of the Environmental Protection Agency from consulting with outside experts in their fields.

      If you can't work with experts in the field when making policy decisions what the heck is going to happen?

    1. Incredibly, despite this story garnering front page stories in newspapers around the state and across the country, Walker is now arguing that records showing how the Wisconsin Idea changes were developed should be withheld, because there is "limited" public interest in these records.

      For the flip side to this request consider the recent demand by Congressman Lamar Smith that NOAA release emails related to a climate change study. This is a political technique in itself, but why is there any debate about releasing records like this? Aren't they part of the public record?

    2. deliberative process privilege

      I can't speak to the legality, but redaction and classifying information for political rather than privacy reasons is a rampant problem in archives.

      https://news.vice.com/article/the-cia-explains-what-they-redacted-from-the-senate-torture-report-and-why comes immediately to mind.

    1. Basic to every purpose of the system is the search for truth

      It's funny, as loathsome as this is I find the removal of the "search for truth" to be kind of ok, philosophically speaking.

    2. The borders of the university are the borders of the state." In short, the Wisconsin Idea is a notion of public service, including the system’s contributions to state government as well as "research directed at solving problems that are important" to citizens.

      How could a politician not like this!?

    1. Yes, professors do collaborate on projects with one another, but they often carve out distinct pieces and then work with their own students on each piece. Moreover, the incentives in academia drive everyone to build up their own personal portfolios, so long-term collaborations between peers are rare.

      This is kind of sad.

    1. That what I can do, is try to be the best whole person that I can be. And that is *not* a compromise. That *is* me giving it my very best

      Subtle and important point.

    2. I also do one "special" thing per year that might be time consuming, e.g. being on a conference senior program committee, or being on an NSF/DARPA panel, or being on a junior faculty search committee. But only 1 per year. As soon as I sign up for that one, all present and future opportunities are an automatic no (Makes you think a lot before you say "yes", no?).

      I really like this suggestion. I always say Yes, and regret it later.

  2. Oct 2015
    1. Not long after I joined Harvard in 2004, the then President Larry Summers publicly told the world his opinion of why women do not seem to succeed to the top. One of the several hypotheses he put forth was that they weren't willing to put in the 80 hours/week that was expected of faculty.


    2. They deliver you this list without annotation, a list which no single person could ever accomplish.


    3. I work fixed hours and in fixed amounts.

      This is where having outside obligations can help. It must be crazy if the PhD and Academic life can grow to fill all available space.

    4. But what is definitely true, is that we rarely talk about what we actually do behind the scenes to cope with life. Revealing that is the scariest thing of all.

      merely talking about real life is rare? yikes!

    1. Additionally, he said, it may be saying something about the overall trend in higher education toward inter- or transdisciplinarity. "While faculty may be shifting toward engaging in work with colleagues across disciplinary lines, they appear to be engaging in a majority of that work in isolation."

      Reading is an important form of communication?

    2. “Being a faculty member appears to be a lonely occupation,” Ziker says.


    3. Just 3 percent of the work-week day was spent on primary research and 2 percent was spent on manuscript writing.

      I wonder if this is seasonal?

    4. So combined, he says, 30 percent of faculty time “was spent on activities that are not traditionally thought of as part of the life of an academic.

      So meetings & correspondence with students isn't thought to be part of the life of an academic?

    5. On average, faculty participants reported working 61 hours per week – more than 50 percent over the traditional 40-hour work week.


    6. service and administrative duties

      What are these?

    7. “The ivory tower is a beacon — not a One World Trade Center, but an ancient reflection of a bygone era — a quasar,

      Uh, what?

    1. “I’m worried every day about what the Russians may be doing,” said Rear Adm. Frederick J. Roegge, commander of the Navy’s submarine fleet in the Pacific, who would not answer questions about possible Russian plans for cutting the undersea cables.

      What's going on when you drop a statement like this into the public view and then refuse to answer questions about it? It seems like a deception or distraction of some kind.

    1. The problem is that any researcher running a lab today is training far more people than there will ever be labs to run. Often these supremely well-educated trainees are simply cheap laborers, not learning skills for the careers where they are more likely to find jobs — teaching, industry, government or nonprofit jobs, or consulting.

      Perhaps it's important to learn these skills as part of a PhD? Or there should be less PhDs?

    2. But he uses none of his formal training and thinks there should be more conversations, earlier, about future careers so that people don’t spend as long honing research skills that may not prove relevant.

      This seems to highlight the danger of academic research becoming untethered from its application.

    3. a worrisome, hypercompetitive atmosphere in science and its dependence on postdocs and graduate students.

      I guess this is the picture of the unhappiness mentioned earlier.

    4. Petsko said he is the “poster child” for how the system can go wrong, by building a laboratory that leaned heavily on efficient, smart postdocs who could do science productively, rather than emphasizing their training

      How would focusing on training help?

    5. The game is changed, and what should be a wonderful time in people’s lives is, in many cases, a time of great, great anxiety and unhappiness.

      What does this unhappiness look like?

    6. She would like to run a lab small enough that she can do science, while helping prepare postdocs for their next jobs.

      What is a small lab? How is its funding different from a large lab?

    1. However, for the most part, neither the faculty nor the students are well enough informed about such careers. Nor are there clear pathways for entry.

      It makes sense right, given that the people teaching don't have that experience?

    2. to gradually reduce the number of entrants into PhD training

      But wouldn't lower numbers of researchers result in less research being done?

    3. Nevertheless, we strongly believe that increased funding would have great benefits in both the short and long run, that the remarkable opportunities in biomedical science justify enlarged budgets, and that vigorous arguments for such increases should be made.


    4. It is no surprise that extraordinarily well-trained and successful young scientists are opting out of academic science in greater and greater numbers; not because they find other opportunities so much more attractive, but because they are discouraged by the nature of their future life in academia.

      Also, I suspect there is a lot more money to be made & resources to use in corporate labs?

    5. spending far too much of their time writing and revising grant applications and far too little thinking about science and conducting experiments

      Death spiral.

    6. hypercompetition for the resources and positions that are required to conduct science suppresses the creativity, cooperation, risk-taking, and original thinking required to make fundamental discoveries.

      Science is a collaborative process, and competition works against that.

    7. The great majority of biomedical research is conducted by aspiring trainees: by graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. As a result, most successful biomedical scientists train far more scientists than are needed to replace him- or herself; in the aggregate, the training pipeline produces more scientists than relevant positions in academia, government, and the private sector are capable of absorbing.

      How vampiric.

    8. The idea that the research enterprise would expand forever was adopted after World War II, as the numbers and sizes of universities grew to meet the economy’s need for more graduates and as the tenets of Vannevar Bush’s “Science: The Endless Frontier”

      It's interesting how Bush is cited in this context, since I normally run across mention of him in information science.

    9. A central flaw is the long-held assumption that the enterprise will constantly expand

      Maybe I'm being negative, but this seems to be a general social problem that can be found in many aspects of modern American society.

    1. The board helps relate the institution to its chief community: for example, the community college to serve the educational needs of a defined population area or group, the church-controlled college to be cognizant of the announced position of its denomination, and the comprehensive university to discharge the many duties and to accept the appropriate new challenges which are its concern at the several levels of higher education.

      Strange that business doesn't seem to be mentioned here. The elephant in the room?

    2. The president should have the confidence of the board and the faculty.

      How is this confidence ascertained?

    3. The function of each component in budgetary matters should be understood by all; the allocation of authority will determine the flow of information and the scope of participation in decisions.


    4. The channels of communication should be established and maintained by joint endeavor. Distinction should be observed between the institutional system of communication and the system of responsibility for the making of decisions.

      What is the purpose of this distinction? Is it about maintaining open communication channels, but making decisions behind closed doors?

    1. For developers, the taxonomy can function as a checklist of elements to consider when creating new analysis tools.

      So this article becomes a benchmark for evaluating dataviz platforms?

    2. but if they are not “data-aware,” then they may become meaningless in the face of operations such as filtering or aggregation

      kind of a tricky problem.

    3. Finally, histories also provide a means to study analysts and model analytic processes

      I wonder why they focus on a linear presentation rather than a re-play that happens in time.

    4. Interactive histories can also capture a repeatable sequence of operations that can be named and saved as a reusable macro

      Reuse the same technique with different data.

    5. share results and discuss with colleagues

      Tools like Tableau and D3 excel at this because they are Web centered.

    6. replay the history of view construction

      replay seems like a really important feature -- perhaps that's coming up in the discussion of provenance?

    7. Though comparing multiple visualizations requires viewers to orchestrate their attention and mentally integrate patterns among views, this process is often more effective than cluttering a single visualization with too many dimensions.

      Better to compose several linked visualizations together than try to bundle too many into one presentation.

    8. A legal analyst researching for an upcoming trial may be wise to forego an overview of the entire history of U.S. court decisions.

      Great example of when an initial overview isn't useful.

    9. Common forms of selection within visualizations include mouse hover, mouse click, region selections (e.g., rectangular and elliptical regions, or free-form “lassos”), and area cursors (e.g., “brushes”4 or dynamic selectors such as the bubble cursor,18 which selects the item currently closest to the mouse pointer).

      Multi-select seems to be missing from this list.

    10. dashboards

      I wonder when the term "dashboard" was first used in HCI research.

    11. While analysts can derive new values prior to importing data for visual analysis, the overhead of moving between tools stymies fluid, iterative exploration. As a result, visual analytics tools should include facilities for deriving new data from input data.

      It can be expensive to derive data though, especially if a data point is dependent on other data points (as in the previous graph example). So I can understand why this might not always be a feature in visual analytics tools.

    12. On the left, a matrix plot of a social network conveys little structure when the rows and columns (representing people) are sorted alphabetically. Interactively reordering the matrix by node degree reveals more structure (center). Seriating the matrix by network connectivity reveals underlying clusters of communities (right).

      I really like this non-textual and non-numerical example of sorting.

    13. While systems based on formal grammars are both fluent and expressive, users need to understand the underlying generative model, which imposes a steeper learning curve than the more familiar chart typology.

      What is a generative model?

    1. The Web dwells in a never-ending present. It is—elementally—ethereal, ephemeral, unstable, and unreliable.

      This is one of the best one sentence descriptions of the Web I've seen.

  3. Sep 2015
    1. So a major challengefor future research is to investigate the use of task analysis techniques in context, assessing theefficiency and effectiveness of these techniques for particular tasks, situations, design problems and organizational structures

      Nice, so there's no single answer -- but these are a palette of techniques that are available, and how to use them.

    2. Empirical evidence is crucial here, but this research is still nascent, as many techniques have been proposed with littleempirical evaluation.

      A hint at further work?

    3. Usability engineers already rely on simple techniques such as cognitive walkthroughs andheuristic evaluation,but these approaches sacrifice the richness of true task analysis

      Is it unfair to criticize them introducing usability here without contextualizing it like other ideas in the paper?

    4. toolittle is beingsaid about the use of cognitive task analysis products in discussions of cognitive task analysis


    5. For task analysis to realize itspotential, researchers must improve its usabilityand degree ofintegration.

      Ok, this is good -- I kind of wish it was mentioned in the abstract and/or introduction -- or was it?

    6. HCI research has evolvedover the past fifty years from focusingon technical (ergonomic) aspects, to conceptual (information-processing) models, towork-process (contextual) models (Kuutti and Bannon, 1991; Grudin, 1990).

      I hope the whole paper so far been a regurgitation of Kuutti and Bannon.

    7. Activity theory anticipates and can help to model contemporary ecological approaches to cognitive psychology, such asdistributed cognition(Hollan et al., 2000)

      Distributed cognition sounds like a really interesting idea -- in the context of the distributed work of archivists.

    8. ctivities are not seen in isolation. They are under continuous development, so their historyaccumulates and serves to inform their evolution. This is possible because of the presence of artifacts. Artifacts carry culturein the form of “historical residue,” delivering the lessonsof the past to the future, mediatingbetween different elements of an activity, and enabling the coordinationof complex actions.

      Love this notion of activity and artifacts: it seems relevant to the information science, specifically with regard to materiality.

    9. Compared toHTA or cognitive modeling,CTA has increasedunderstanding of many important cognitive aspects ofmodern task environments. However, it is unclear how effective CTA techniques are in representing these aspects in a systematic and usefulway (Shepherd, 2001).

      This seems contradictory: how can it have increased understanding, but not been useful?

    10. CTA requires “making explicit theimplicit knowledge and cognitive-processing requirements ofjobs” (Dubois and Shalin, 2000:42)

      Importance of documentation again.

    11. GOMS analysis produces a descriptionof a task, often in the form of a hierarchical plan similar to those produced byHTA. However,while HTA generally describes high-level activity, GOMS typically works at the keystroke level. This low-levelfocus arises fromthe requirement that the lowest-level operators in a taskhaverigorousestimates of execution time.

      Do they mean keystroke in the way that it suggests ehre?

    12. HTA recognizes the responsibility of the operator (user) to planthe use of available resources to attain a given goal, but ittreats the operator’s cognitive processes as a black box: “howbehavior is actually organized is a question for cognitive psychology” (Shepherd 2001:16).

      This is an interesting disciplinary move here.

    13. The strengths and weaknesses of HTA flow from its strong system-centric stance

      Global view, rather than user view.

    14. HTAbreaks tasks into subtasks and operationsor actions

      The much feared GANTT chart.

    15. Task analysis nowincludes a range of techniques aimed at obtaining descriptions of what people do, representing those descriptions, predictingdifficulties, and evaluatingsystems against functional requirements(Jordan, 1998)

      The importance of documentation.

    16. failed to fully integrate technology with user needs to improve the tasks being performed

      What does this mean?

    17. analyzing the movement of individuals or material, theinteraction between human and machine, and body movement

      HCI and Materiality

    18. oncluded that performance was influencedmore strongly by the attention givento workers during the studies thanbyenvironmental effects such as lighting

      Observer effect at work :-)



    1. Bodystorming therefore seems usefulfor the design of context-sensitive computing applica-tions.

      Eventhough the study doesn't seem to confirm or deny it?

    2. Bodystorming sessions were considered, however, morememorable and inspiring.

      How was this ascertained?

    3. Secondly, it was hypothesized that body-storming would provide more accurate understanding ofcontextual factor

      This also seems like a worthwhile research question, although the importance of context to design is implied & referenced rather than discussed here.

    4. We hypothesised, first, thatbeing physically present in the ‘real’ environment savestime from the design group in studying user data.

      One of the research goals, which seems useful: to save the time of design.

    5. partici-pants were different

      Were they entirely different, or partly different? How could there be memory of one situation in another if they were entirely different?

    6. Enacting activitiesis known to facilitate later recall [23].

      Hold on, were the same people involved in all these scenarios?!

    7. interactional plausibility

      What is this?

    8. In contrast to the bodystorming sessions,however, design questions were not given, but partici-pants themselves had to find interesting patterns fromthe stories.

      Again, this seems like it is changing the mode of inquiry (brainstorming/bodystorming) while also changing the documentation included.

    9. This time, however, storieswere not enclosed with questions. Only two designquestions were included in this session.

      It seems like they are changing both the location and the documentation (user stories/questions) that are included on the site? Isn't this changing two variables at once?

    10. o practice acting in the guidance of aprofessional actor. Participants also felt that the methodof ‘forced innovation’ (requiring participants to come upwith new technological solutions) was exhausting,especially when it required imagining some aspects ofour world as unexisting.

      Again this idea of exhaustion ...

    11. The editorial office was, however, not accessible to agroup of 12 outsiders.

      Body storming on location is not always possible.

    12. Data were collected in a series of focus groups,photo diary review sessions, interviews, and participa-tory observations conducted during summer 2001. Allobservations were documented in astory format(fol-lowing Erickson [20])

      I wonder how much like User Stories these are? Did the idea for them develop in practice before being used in academic research?

    13. Within these mod-els, the quality of design ideas crucially depends uponthe quality of the documents

      It's interesting to consider how these are like user stories.

    14. Data collectionmethods typically draw from anthropological and eth-nographic research orientations (e.g. Emerson et al [9]),whereas documentation methods can range from story-like descriptions of actions (e.g. Cooper [7]) to system-atic turn-by-turn ethnographic transcriptions of theevent (e.g. Hutchby and Wooffitt [10]) to box-and-arrowdiagrams depicting different aspects of the activity (e.g.Beyer and Holtzblatt [5]

      Some good stuff to follow up on to see how anthropology is used in HCI.

    15. Emerson RM, Fretz RM, Shaw LL. Writing EthnographicFieldnotes. University of Chicago Press, 1995

      This one might be good to follow up on for ethnographic research.



    1. Second,we considered the paper’s 10th-percentilezscore.The left tail allows us to characterize the paper’smore unusual combinations, where novelty mayreside.

      The highest value in the lowest 10% of z-scores in the article.

    2. First, to characterizethe central tendency of a paper’s combinations, weconsidered the paper’smedianzscore

      Median z-score: the middle z score for all the journals cited in the paper. I wonder why median?

    3. Zscoresbelow zero indicate pairs that appear less oftenin the observed WOS than expected by chance,indicating relatively atypical or“novel”pair-ings.

      Interesting! So the more random the pairing appeared the more novel the original paper was deemed to be?

    4. In this study, we examined 17.9 million re-search articles in the Web of Science (WOS) tosee how prior work is combined. We present factsthat indicate (i) the extent to which scientific pa-pers reference novel versus conventional combi-nations of prior work, (ii) the relative impact ofpapers based on the combinations they drawupon, and (iii) how (i) and (ii) are associated withcollaboration

      This is a tall order!

    5. In hisPrincipia,Newton presented his laws of gravitation usingaccepted geometry rather than his newly de-veloped calculus, despite the latter’s impor-tance in developing his insights (22)

      The importance of framing your work in work that has already been done.

    6. The highest-impact science is primarily grounded in exceptionallyconventional combinations of prior work yet simultaneously features an intrusion of unusualcombinations

      It will be interesting to see how they measured this in so many articles.



    1. I share that bizarre thought with you because it underlines how difficult it is to decode imagery createdbya vanished culture.

      Reminds me of Gaiman's story about preserving the warnings about nuclear waste in Yucca Mountain, in his How Stories Last LongNow talk. In the end, the recommendation was to invent a culture.

    2. Attempting to read even the most seemingly obvious of these signs can lead us astray.

      Reminds me of the stories about Picasso and Lascaux.

    3. So, how can yougroup the symbols of a culture that no longer exists?

      The implication here is that they symbols do not meaningfully exist outside of culture?

    4. We, however, can change rapidly, through invention,discovery, and communication

      There's a lot bundled up in these words: invention, discovery and communication.



    1. #0847175
    2. They are also, however, the field’s key site of novelty and invention. Some of these emerge as elements of voice and style: for example, where new jazz styliststurn to standards to demonstrate thenovelty and valueof a ‘new sou

      The standard serves as the site for innovation.

    3. An outside example of this may be found in thesignificantlydifferent relationship between standardsand innovation to be found in the interactive systemof jazz

      Wow, this is an interesting thing to throw in at the end. Jackson is keeping the reading on his/her toes.

    4. Reflective consideration of the numerous tweaks, breakdowns, and departures from standards (including in the systems we build) may support a more thoughtful, creative, and resilient engagement with standards over time

      This sounds like "fit" or the "fitness" of things. I'm not sure where that leads in the literature though.

    5. New and perhaps especially integrative design efforts must negotiate with what may be very old standards that structure work and interaction in the settings they cover and in part constru

      There is no "green field" in standards work?

      In the case of TBL and the development of the Web I am reminded of how HTML used the existing existing standards: SGML, the Domain Name System and TCP/IP. Also, I wonder when the browser started to allow for invalid SGML: so called Tag Soup?

    6. constant work needed to update, maintain, and work around the problems and gaps that standards, as practiced in this domain, inevitably leave

      Repair & maintenance.

    7. changes which can thenbe incorporated into the living body of the

      It is a living standard, reminds me of HTML5 :-)

    8. Humans can be flexible, contextually aware, and creative, applying discretionary judgment in appropriate and science-saving ways when breakdowns and unexpected situationsarise

      Slavish following of the Protocol can itself lead to errors, just as following it squashes errors.

    9. a great deal of the standards actionat Northern Station resides in training and apprenticeship: periods of collaboration, teaching, and practice in the field through which procedures are taught and corrected, discretionary skill and judgment is built, and basic understandings of standards and the broader objectives behind them are share

      Apprenticeship is a theme with Jackson.

    10. do. This structure is designed to pull out similarities and differences in problems of standardizationand design ininteractive systemsdevelopment at scales both local and global in nature

      They picked two environments to try their grounded theory approach in, in order to see what they have in common and what they don't.

    11. an 2000 pages of transcript d


    12. Since 2010, we have interviewed over 150 ecologists and conducted participant observationsacross more than a dozen centers of ecological researc

      That's a lot of work!

    13. standards are a key mechanism by which problems and questions at the margins of systems can be made to disappea

      It's interesting how standards make these issues dissappear -- much to learn about here!

    14. and its tendency to ‘reappear’ (or return to conscious reflection) upon breakdown [4,34].

      Follow up on these readings.

    15. hed [30]. Separate work by Star and Griesemer [33]and Star and Strauss [35]identify standards as integrally connected to the sorts of “boundary objects” and “articulation work”that supportcollaboration across complex and heterogeneous landscape

      This stuff looks like it is important to read.

    16. allowingcomplex interactive systems to learn, grow, and change over

      plus they are a way of surfacing that growth ... making it visible

    17. how actors work across the gaps that standards leave to produce more effective forms of practice and desi


    1. 12 different PhDs on a faculty of 21

      Kind of surprised it's not more.

    2. In the parlance of interdisciplinary advocates, universities are organized around disciplines; problems are not.

      This is true of all disciplines, not just information studies?

    3. pressing intellectual problems by their nature will cross existing disciplinary boundaries

      Similar to Ito's point about the need to be antidisciplinary.

    4. To be an iSchool is to place greater emphasis on broader human activities over these concerns with the specific agency or organizational form wherein the information practices occur.

      Study of information is not constrained by the physical site, e.g. a library or archive.

    5. concern that technology was just being treated as a tool for demonstrating academic relevance rather than as a genuine basis for disciplinary identity

      Is he saying here that the interest in technology was shallow and superficial?

    6. More importantly, by placing emphasis on human activities mediated by information and technology, this articulation shifts the field's focus from agencies of collection such as libraries or archives, which more typically are invoked when describing subject coverage in schools of library and information science, to the contexts in which people, information and technology interact

      Reminds me of Bates' following the "red thread" of information.

    7. the term information was taken to represent either a greater emphasis on people (in the case of computer science) or on technology (in the case of librarianship)

      Information was used as a glue word.

    8. I argue that iSchools are distinctive from other LIS programs less for their subject emphasis or methodological approaches than for their orientation to the study of information beyond agencies, their commitment to multidisciplinary work, and a formal emphasis on research productivity.

      information beyond agencies (outside of the library, archive, etc) multidisciplinary, research productivity (publishing)

    9. Texas

      Where the author is from.

    1. The crisis we face is less to make research more relevantto local concerns of practitioners, or to revamp once more a set of coreclasses or accreditation standards, but to demonstrate our authority as aprofession in dealing with information issues at both theoretical and practi-cal levels, within academia and beyond.

      Don't you need to demonstrate this in the context of the local needs of practitioners?

    2. overly concerned with influencing professionals ratherthan other faculty

      How about influencing students. Heresy, I know.

    3. This lack of attention to quality considerations runs deeper than manywould admit.

      The whole topic of quality seems so contentious. Why even bring it up?

    4. While accreditation is considered the bulwarkfor ensuring standards, there exist significant discrepancies between thequality of research and educational experiences offered across accreditedprograms. Similarly, there exist considerable discrepancies in quality ofstudents admitted to and graduated from LIS programs. It is difficult toquantify these issues, however, since discussions of quality and admissionsstandards are among the most divisive topics raised in faculty deliberationsor practitioner discourse, and there is almost no vehicle for their formaltreatment in the literature and conferences of the field.

      So now Dillon gets off the empirical train and starts acting like Gorman? What's going on here?

    5. the formal positioning oflibraries apart from information science is a rhetorical displacement activ-ity, taking our attention from the important issues and into an argumentover labels.

      Well said!

    6. step was to determine if a conceptual core of knowledgeand skills existed for the field.

      Reminds me of what we were talking about in the context of DH In MITH's classes.

    7. educators were out of touch

      Dillon was arguing earlier that they needed to be a bit out of touch to keep their academic prestige.

    8. The implication is that females are contributing to the development of LISeducation by teaching both library science-oriented courses and inforina-tion science-oriented courses

      Well, that's interesting. Are they needing to do this because if they don't they're out?

    9. To explore the magnitude of gender division within curricular offerings,we sampled and evaluated the male to female teacher ratio of a collection ofcourses categorized as either male or female in their orientation. Thecourses chosen reflect only conventional assumptions and findings re-ported by Hildenbrand on course-gender relations, cross-referenced withGorman's article and a review of curriculum components we conducted in2004.27

      I don't really understand what this means.

    10. Notwithstanding any possible glass ceiling effects,we anticipate that greater equalization of gender at all ranks should occurover the next decade

      I wonder if this has come to pass.

    11. educe scholars to consultants and threaten the status of LISschools in the eyes of the academy

      I wonder, would it threaten academic status to show that your research is being used in the world? If that's the case it's a pretty sad critique of academia.

    12. It is the latterthat is often labeled 'information science' and assumed (mistakenly) to reston an analysis of technological conditions.

      The assumption that tracking information flows is technical and doesn't involve looking at people.

    13. Thiscasting of the field into two divided camps is nothing new, but it is no longerclear that this division reflects the reality of many LIS programs."

      Reminds me of Saracevic's two camps: systems oriented, human oriented.

    14. Yet, these developments have oc-curred, and people's information-seeking behaviors have altered in a man-ner which suggests strong support for seamless and self-sufficient access toinformation beyond the walls of traditional physical libraries.

      physicality again is important.

    15. The argument is based on a belief that the field hasshifted from a focus on libraries as spaces, where ordered collections areoverseen by skilled professionals who serve as guides to users, to a focus oncomputational aspects of retrieval, where digital access interfaces peopledirectly, and remotely, with unfiltered information.

      Again the physical space is important for the argument.

    16. For present purposes wewill treat librarianship as being a commonly understood label for the workof credentialed practitioners involved in management and provision of ser-vices within a library or similar setting.

      Interesting use of "within" here ; if it wasn't there there would still be question of what a library is. But since it is within we know it is people within something, presumably a physical building of some kind that houses a collection.



    1. An antidisciplinary project isn't a sum of a bunch of disciplines but something entirely new - the word defies easy definition.

      Newness ends.

    2. Antidisciplinary

      This piece is related to this excellent TedTalk by Ito called Want to innovate? Become a "now-ist".

    3. higher missio

      Save the planet! Save ourselves. Find happiness and fulfillment. Don't starve. Create the future that we want.

    4. I think this philosophy of working together on big projects will help bring researchers together across disciplines - creating a single science instead of fragmented disciplines.

      Wow, a single science!

    5. deploys in the world

      Love this idea of research being part of, not apart from The World. This can be done without opening a McDonalds in the Ivory Tower, right?

    6. Everything we do should have impact.

      Is negative impact ok? How do you measure impact? Do you need to?

    7. The kind of scholars we are looking for at the Media Lab are people who don't fit in any existing discipline either because they are between--or simply beyond--disciplines

      It's interesting that we've been doing so much reading in INST888 about what defining the field.

    8. There is a great deal of research showing that rewards and pressure can motivate people to "produce," but creative learning and thinking requires the "space" that play creates. Pressure and rewards can often diminish that space, and thus, squash creative thinking.

      Reminds me of Dan Pink's TedTalk: The Puzzle of Motivation

    1. The list of journals was compiled from the Nisonger and Davis study and Journal CitationReports in an attempt to avoid bias; yet some respondents objected to the composition of thelist.

      I wonder if there could be some observer effect going on with all these studies!

    2. Publish-ing in journals highly rated by peers can engender respect from colleagues. Journal rankings arealso used in academic institutions as an indicator of journal quality when judging faculty pub-lications during tenure and promotion decisions.

      Isn't this kind of study a bit self-perpetuating? It helps create the conditions that it is studying?

    3. In this study, three journals were in the topfive in the mean and mode rankings, as well as inthe topfive responses to the open-ended question about the most prestigious journals for ten-ure and promotion.

      Were these the top five from the original study?

    4. examined the consensus among respondents bysumming the highest number of responses in two adjacent ratings and dividing by the totalnumber of respondents.

      I don't really understand this.

    5. mode calculation of the rating

      most common rating

    6. survey

      Check for non-response bias?


    1. people able to laugh atthemselves

      It is laughable if this is considered unique to information science!

    2. Librarianship, in contrast, follows a more service-ori-ented and empowerment-oriented value system.

      Makes me think how Shilton's work on social values in design, which feels scientific to me.

    3. one must be at least comfortable with both sides of this dualtradition

      this seems interesting - inter-disciplinarity is at the core of information science

    4. hree Big Questions can be identified within the aboveframework: (1) the physical question: What are the featuresand laws of the recorded-information universe? (2) Thesocial question: How do people relate to, seek, and useinformation? (3) The design question: How can access torecorded information be made most rapid and effective?

      This covers quite a bit of ground, and isn't that stifling.

    5. We ask what kinds of information people pre-fer to communicate through this or that new channel ofinformation technology. We always follow the information.

      So does HCI and design not fit within Bates definition of information science?

    6. Information science has a distinct universe that it studiesalso—the world of recorded information produced by hu-man agency. We can imagine all the human activities instudying the above natural, social, and artistic universesthemselves producing information entities— books, articles,databases, data files, etc.—thus creating a fourth universe,that of recorded information.

      Wait, so information science is distinct from the natural sciences, social sciences. arts and humanities? This is a bold claim.

    7. We are interested in information as a social and psycho-logical phenomenon. The information we study generallyoriginates from human agency in some way, whether it isthe data beamed down from a satellite or the text of a bookon Immanuel Kant’s philosophy. Our primary, but not solefocus, is onrecordedinformation and people’s relationshipto it.

      people are central ; but aren't people central to all study, ultimatey? Isn't that what Kuhn taught us about Physics?

    8. Llewellyn C. Puppybreath
    9. In my 1980 study of citations in informationscience, Chomsky was the single most cited individual.

      Wow. Speaks to the importance of structure. I wonder what the most cited Chomsky was...

    10. form and structure

      I like it when she focuses on what the profession actually does, rather than staking out boundaries between the disciplines. Reminds me of Kirschenbaum's conclusions in What is digital humanities and why are they saying such terrible things about it.

    11. Other fields with which informationscience might have been thought originally to have much incommon, such as computer science, cognitive science, com-putational linguistics, or artificial intelligence, did not, infact, prove to be good matches.

      Oh really? Good matches for who? How is this justified? Get off my lawn, etc. No wonder other professions are put off.

    12. It is what thenewcomer or outsider does not understand

      If newcomers can't understand it, no wonder there is uncertainty about what the profession is about.

    13. My litmus test for the newcomers who are now interestedin information work is whether I can observe evidence thatthey have gone through the transformation of becoming aninformation expert.

      Drink the Kool Aid. No thanks.

    14. f you want to portray a doctor, you have to be agood actor, not a doctor; if you want to work with infor-mation organization and retrieval, you have to be a goodinformation person, not a subject specialist without infor-mation training.

      Ironically, Bates seems to be overlooking the entire genre of documentaries, where doctors do play themselves, and to great effect.

    15. features that matter to the organization and retrievalof it

      These are two purposes - are there more?

    16. as good a job

      How convenient! I wonder if the doctors agreed!

    17. Creating databases and catalogs in-volves creating representations of forms of information. Theskill a reference librarian or information specialist developsalso involves representation—figuring out how to concep-tualize and represent a user’s query, then in turn, translatingthe query (representing it) into a form an information sys-tem uses, which in turn arises from the representations ofdocuments in the information system.

      Interesting that representation is such a central component to this.

    18. A talented actor, without a day’s experi-ence in medical school, can do a much better job.

      Makes me think of reality TV :-)

    19. The answer here is that although the physicians know themost about medicine,portrayinga physician is differentfrombeinga physician. Portraying a physician requires adifferent body of talents than being a physician does. Oc-casionally, some people have both types of talent, but usu-ally not. Actors, with little or no medical knowledge, butwith experience portraying a variety of characters

      The big assumption here is that the actors are portraying medical professionals and not performing a drama that uses the setting of the hospital as a backdrop. What is "better" in this context?

    20. The Ph.D. arthistorian who gets a job working with art history informa-tion out of a love of the subject matter eventually finds him-or herself working with the core questions of informationscience, not of art history.

      Interesting progression from studying the content to studying content about content. But what content is not about other content, really? Hmm

    21. The average person,whether Ph.D. scholar or high school graduate, never no-tices the structure that organizes their information, becausethey are so caught up in absorbing and relating to thecontent. And, in fairness to them, they are not interested inthe structure.Weare interested in the structure

      Reminds me of infrastructure studies - how certain features slip into the background.

    22. rhetorical character in the broadest sense, that is, by theirselection, design, and objectives

      this is interesting ... it's the purposes that matter most -- pragmatism

    23. professional activities involving the manipulation andtransmission of knowledge

      So it is more practice oriented? Don't Art Historians have professions too?

    24. retrieval

      There's a whole lot bundled up in this one word. I'm not sure it fits.

    25. Paisley has made a similar distinction by contrastingbehavioral science “level fields” and “variable fields.” Hedefined the former as disciplines that study human behaviorat different levels of organization—psychology at the indi-vidual level, sociology at the group level, and anthropologyat the culture level (Paisley, 1972, p. i). Paisley states thatvariable fields, on the other hand, look at one variable acrossall the conventional levels. For example, political sciencelooks at political behavior across the several levels.

      This idea of level fields and variable fields makes it clearer.

    26. Art historiansfocus on the study of art; information scientists, on the otherhand, take art information as but one slice of the full rangeof information content with which we deal. Likewise, arteducation is but one part of education, etc.

      Wait, so does that mean Art History is a sub-discipline of Information Science?

    27. Borko, 1968, p. 3

      We read this last week.

    28. behavior of information

      It's so startling to see this idea that information has a behavior, seemingly independent of people.

    29. Information sci-ence is the study of the gathering, organizing, storing,retrieving, and dissemination of information.


    30. At this historicaljuncture, information scientists need to become more con-scious of the thought world we are operating out of, so thatwe can communicate it more rapidly and effectively to largenumbers of new people, and so that we can continue toinfluence the future of information in the 21st century.

      A same argument could be made that perhaps information science itself is going through a paradigm shift? In which case it behooves us to understand what the shift is, rather than trying to reshape it in our own image only to be left behind.

    31. Currently, the wheel is being reinvented every day onthe information superhighway

      Reminds me of Eggers thoughts about the importance of recreating wheels.



    1. while the collectors of live specimens— the branch most remote from document collecting— are not included at this time.

      It's strange to me that the characteristic of living is what is used to distinguish what is covered and what is not. I can see why they need to scope things for their Encyclopedia, but should this be a general theory of information sciences? Don't living and non-living systems interpenetrate each other?

    2. socially mediated

      What's going on here in this little phrase?

    3. I have not the space to make the case fully here, but I argue that a document, above all, contains "recorded information," that is, "communicatory or memorial information preserved in a durable medium"

      So the intent to communicate is key for Bates. It might be useful to read (Bates 2006) to see what's going on here.

    4. that distinction has been fading a bit, because increasing portions of museum collections are being digitized, placed on websites, and made viewable and searchable online

      Interesting explanation for the existence of GLAM movement. Digitization of museum objects have increased the number of documents they must manage.

    5. we research the universe of living too— but always in relation to the universe of documentation

      Ok, so there is interaction there between both universes.

    6. All the other humanities and sciences study the universe of living; the biologist and the bird-watcher alike both study the bird; we study the documentation associated with the bird.

      This is a succinct and useful description.

    7. That product of the doctor visit now exists in the universe of documentation.

      But doesn't that universe of documentation get used by the universe of living. For example patient records are generated by the visit to the doctor, but they are used (in the Universe of Living) in subsequent visits, and it is in this use that the system of documentation is defined.