29 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2016
    1. Luria also investigated the way in which the two groups went about solv­ing verbal reasoning problems. When presented with logical syllogisms, the traditional people refused to accept the system of assumptions embodied in the problems and to draw conclusions from them, while slightly educated people readily drew such conclusions.

      I wonder, what assumptions did they reject and why?

    2. In our view, cross­cultural psychological research con­firms anthropological findings of the universality of basic cognitive capaci­ties. All culture groups thus far studied have demonstrated the capacity to remember, generalize, form concepts, operate with abstractions, and reason logically.

      Also, connecting to Chomsky, all culture groups have the capacity to learn language (innate linguistic ability), which is imperative for the ability to remember, think abstractly, reason logically, etc.

    3. Every theory of educa­tion clearly requires a theory of society as a whole and of how social processes shape education. A theory of formal ed­ucation also requires a theory of how learning and thinking skills develop in an individual member of society, and how educational processes contribute to the shaping of these skills.

      This is my favorite part of studying education: thinking about society and how education shapes it.

    1. The theory's main strengths arc its recognition of the central role of cognition in development, discovery of surprising features of young chil-dren's thinking, wide scope, and ecological validity. The main weaknesses include its inadequate support for the stage notion, inadequate account of mechanisms of development, need for a theory of performance, slighting of social and emotional aspects of development, underestima-tion of abilities, and methodological and stylistic barriers. Some of these problems have been addressed by the neo-Piagetians, particularly Case and Fischer, who include the roles of capacity and cultural support in ex-planations of the variability and consistency of children's thinking. In ad-dition, Piaget himself continued to modify his theory in his later years, particularly with respect to the nature of logic and the mechanisms of development.

      Summary of strengths and weaknesses of Piaget's theory

    2. Although Piaget thought that sensorimotor be-haviors were important precursors to post"infancy development, this work on the role of gestures suggests that such behaviors may be impor-tant mechanisms of development even years later.

      How to integrate gestures into classroom pedagogy? For English, theater is an example

    3. In short, the chil-dren's level of cognitive functioning has to do with the fit between children and their environment, not the children alone.

      So when students are upset that they can't wear hoods in class or that their phone was taken away, their cognitive functioning is diminished.

    4. Kohlberg (1969) adopted Piaget's stage approach to moral judgments and expanded and modified the model considerably.

      I use Kohlberg's pyramid with my students to discuss moral agency (instead of giving them pre-generated rules). I really agree with his theories - I'd also like to read more articles exploring his work; I wonder if people critique him as much as Piaget...

    5. n a sense, emotions provide the energy be-hind cognition. For example, feelings influence the content to which structures arc applied. A child with a passion for airplanes is likely to learn a great deal about them.

      Then it's important to encourage individual student passions! How to integrate into teaching models?

    6. At the same time, al-ternative cognitive approaches were emerging, such as Noam Chomsky's transformational grammar and computer scientists' work on informa-tion processing.

      Noam Chomsky is a game-changing theory beast!

    7. Simply knowing that something is wrong does not identify the cause of the problem. Moreover, young children do not seem to be very good at detecting logical inconsistencies that might cause cognitive conflict. Not until age 6 do children see a problem with the claim that a man is both tall and very short (Ruffman, 1999).

      In my experience, this is often also true of older children as well (problems detecting logical inconsistencies, that is). Are humans inherently logical? (thinking of Kahneman's Thinking Fast and Slow, which suggests no). If humans are not inherently logical, how does that affect teaching/learning? Would love to see more articles on this!

    8. A basic issue here is how stages are related to the child's ac-tual intellectual functioning. Developmentalists disagree as to whether Piaget thought that the logical structure of each stage should lead to sim-ilarity in thought over a variety of content areas (Chapman, 1988; Lourenco & Machado, 1996). The structural model may be an idealized model of thought that differs somewhat from the psychological func-tioning of the child. Perhaps the problem of interpreting what Piaget meant is that "Piaget used too much logic for psychologists and too much psychology for logicians"

      Hmm? Meaning his theories were both too specific and too general?

    9. When Piaget's first writings on children appeared, he was appalled that people evaluated them as though they were final statements on certain cognitive problems rather than the tentative solutions he intended them to be.

      Sounds like his work was "reified"

    10. Moreover, the theory suggests that teachers should teach concepts in a particular sequence of developmental steps. In addition, for true understanding, children must learn the concepts underlying mathematical and scientific knowledge, rather than just memorize facts. Piaget would have been critical of"teaching to the test." He crit-icized typical educational assessments for focusing on correct answers rather than on children's thought processes for reaching the answers. In short, a teacher mainly provides guidance and resources so that chil-dren can teach themselves.

      Some applications of Piaget's findings. Reminds me of criticism of common core for not being "developmentally appropriate" for kindergartners.

    11. However, it is not clear whether the development of steps within the major periods occurs in an invariant sequence in all cul-tures. Even if some or all of the sequences identified by Piaget prove to be universal, we would still expect some variation in the rate of progress through the cognitive stages. This variation can arise from differences in physical maturation, physical experience, or social experience.

      These stages are not truly universal and vary according to many factors. (Are they still useful to educators/psychologists if not universal? If so, in what ways?)

    1. Systematic studies of assertive dis-cipline have not supported it or other behavioral schemes as a helpful approach to curbing most student misbehavior.

      Someone should tell this to Doug Lemov.

    2. Neither is there evidence that of the thousands trained in the method, any more than a small percentage of teachers continue to practice it.

      Interesting - I would argue that this style of teaching is still in vogue; I was taught to teach this way.

    3. The second rarely ques-tioned hallmark is that changing behavior (learning) requires conditioning through positive and/ or negative reinforcement.

      Reward/punishment is substituted for ethical agency (this also reminds me of Kohlberg's stages of moral development)

    4. However, an egalitarian and democratic society frowns on such categories and cannot tolerate categories that are permanent.

      interesting definition of the word "democratic" here.

    5. Reified ideas are not real in any material sense. Rather, they are ideas and ·abstractions about human attributes and behaviors-what social scientists call constructs.

      Reified idea/social construct: abstract ideas become common knowledge and are used as if they are true without any proof

    6. And, despite Binet's admonitions, edu-cators had worked intelligence testing into the very structure and ideology of American schools.

      Similar to how the Danielson rubric, originally intended as a teacher self-assessment tool, was implemented as a rating system

    7. Psychometrics-the mea-surement of mental traits, abilities, and processes-was applied quickly and widely throughout the country.

      Psychometrics: nineteenth century theory of systematizing intelligence, abilities, and processes to justify social class differences

    8. Merit, which provides moral legitimacy to what might otherwise appear as unfair or undemocratic, explains why some citizens and their children are so well off generation after generation.

      prosperity gospel

    9. Development refers to the relatively orderly changes everyone experiences throughout their lives.

      Development as a universal experience.

    10. Intelligence refers to mental power. The key to intelligence theories and measurements is that they try to determine "differences" among people; that is, no one is simply intelligent, he or she must be more or less intelligent than some comparison individual or group.

      Intelligence theory tries to quantify intelligence as comparative instead of intrinsic.

    11. Rather, government and educators should shift most of their teaching resources and efforts from the disadvantaged to the intellectually gifted.

      ...a justification I've heard for pulling students out of public schools for charter schools.

    12. Put bluntly, Herrnstein and Mur-ray state that the average African American is less well educated and less wealthy than the average white because he or she is not born with the capacity to be as smart. Therefore, the authors also claim, social programs that attempt to close opportunity gaps-programs such as Head Start, compensatory edu-cation, and affirmative action-are costly and useless

      Having a theory like this can drastically affect practical measures; a politician believing this would not prioritize funding these programs.

    1. Ama-zonian groups, such as the Piraha, whose languages do not include numerals above three, are worse at distinguishing large quan-tities digitally than groups using extensive counting systems, but are similar in their abil-ity to approximate quantities.

      This reminds me of a similar study on language with the Vai in Liberia (Scribner and Cole 1981) which suggests that formal literacy schooling in English does not give learners higher intelligence or better abstract reasoning skills, only the ability to talk about those skills in "contrived situations." So even though the numerical/literacy system one grows up with influences the way one thinks, it doesn't mean that one system can be prioritized over the other as "better" or "more intelligent."

    2. A 2008 survey of the top psychology journals found that 96% of subjects were from Western industrialized countries — which house just 12% of the world’s population3.

      This article assumes that the "vast majority of studies use WEIRD participants." I wonder - could it also be that top psychology journals are also primarily publishing studies from WEIRD participants (written by WEIRD researchers)? How much does selection bias play into this number?