129 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. Tal Fortgang is a freshman from New Rochelle, NY.

      In all fairness, Fortgang is considerably younger than any other author whose work I annotated. However, his work is published to be read and evaluated by whomever sees it, and he is still responsible for any stance he chooses to take on an issue.

    2. Opinion Education

      TIME is a well-trusted source across the United States and around the world. However, reading this article makes me wonder how loosely regulated the publishing process is. This article comes off largely as a complaint regarding human interaction, and less of a professional essay on privilege in America.

    3. Behind every success, large or small, there is a story, and it isn’t always told by sex or skin color.

      This excerpt is a piece of Fortgang's claim. On a broader scale, this article's purpose is to address those who attempt to remind Fortgang of his privilege and explain why those people are out of line.

    4. Perhaps my privilege is that those two resilient individuals came to America with no money and no English, obtained citizenship,

      Objectively, this article is full of evidence to support the author's claim, but all of this so-called evidence is personal information. Personal information is impossible to corroborate which leaves the reader to simply trust the author to report honestly. However, in some respects, personal anecdotes can contribute to an author's ethos and pathos. Some audiences may find the content relatable, and agree with Fortgang that privilege is something to embrace and not to be ashamed of. If a reader agrees with Fortgang's assertions, their common frustration will build trust and emotional connection.

    5. When we similarly sacrifice for our descendents by caring for the planet, it’s called “environmentalism,” and is applauded. But when we do it by passing along property and a set of values, it’s called “privilege.”

      Personally, I do not believe that I am sacrificing anything in trying to better our environment, and that makes this comparison fall short. Separately, one thing to make clear in teaching people about privilege is that no one is at fault, and having privilege is not inherently bad. This article is somewhat difficult to argue because Fortgang's understanding or description of privilege is surface level. "Property and a set of values" are arbitrary to the discussion of pervasive, institutional racism.

    6. Assuming they’ve benefitted from “power systems” or other conspiratorial imaginary institutions denies them credit for all they’ve done, things of which you may not even conceive.

      This article serves as a perfect example of what the "other side" believes about white privilege and institutional racism.

    7. Now would you say that we’ve been really privileged? That our success has been gift-wrapped?

      Fortgang has a narrow view of privilege. An audience that disagreed with the author would assert that privilege is not just freedom from oppression, it is entwined in every aspect of society. Privilege is bigger than a family name or "legacy" as Fortgang states. It is layered, and its effects seep into every level of culture, economics, law enforcement, and further.

    8. But I do condemn them for diminishing everything I have personally accomplished, all the hard work I have done in my life, and for ascribing all the fruit I reap not to the seeds I sow but to some invisible patron saint of white maleness who places it out for me before I even arrive.

      Again, a little too over-embellished, this sentence forces readers to piece things together. On another note, this sounds interestingly similar to the hypotheses of Lowery and Unzueta. When faced with evidence of white privilege and the myth of meritocracy, whites will feel their personal hardships have been downplayed and will be threatened by the thought that their accomplishments may have been handed to them because of their race.

    9. The phrase, handed down by my moral superiors, descends recklessly, like an Obama-sanctioned drone, and aims laser-like at my pinkish-peach complexion, my maleness, and the nerve I displayed in offering an opinion rooted in a personal Weltanschauung.

      Beginning the article with this statement will either hook or alienate the audience, depending on their opinions regarding these current issues of political correctness. Either way, from a writing standpoint, the casual yet dramatized tone makes for a strange introduction.

    10. Tal Fortgang

      Upon googling Fortgang's name, the first several results are articles responding and criticizing Fortgang for this very article.

    11. Why I’ll Never Apologize for My White Male Privilege

      This title certainly does not beat around the bush.

      Fortgang, Tal. "Why I'll Never Apologize for My White Male Privilege." Time. Time, 2 May 2014. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    1. Another activist went as far as to undergo the shock treatment and can be seen twitching on a hospital bed as an assistant zaps his body.

      [](https://www.hongkongfp.com/2016/09/20/gay-pride-china-activists-fight-conversion-therapy/ This is a link to an article that is about a man who went through conversion therapy in China and how he is planning to fight for it becoming banned. This helps relate this article to what it is like in another country besides America.

    2. Warning: Scenes some may find upsetting

      Https://www.facebook.com/JournalistAmyWillis. "Gay Men Still Subjected to Electric Shocks to 'cure' Their Sexuality." Metro Gay Men Still Subjected to Electric Shock Therapy to Cure Theirsexuality. N.p., 08 Oct. 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

      This is the MLA format for this source.

    3. Shen, who is deputy director of one of China’s largest gay rights groups, said often parents who are unwilling to accept their child’s sexuality may forced them to undergo the painful treatments.

      The documentary establishes pathos through talking to Chinese lgbt+ youth, as well as by showing disturbing clips of the conversion therapy process in China. The documentary does not include bias because it gives insight on what the doctors who perform conversion therapy in China believe and provides insight on what lgbt+ youth are subjected to.

    4. Shen, who is deputy director of one of China’s largest gay rights groups, said often parents who are unwilling to accept their child’s sexuality may forced them to undergo the painful treatments.

      The documentary amplifies that conversion therapy is something that Chinese parents are willing to make their lgbt+ youth go through in order to make sure that they will not shame their family. In China, it is less about the religious aspect of homosexuality and more about how lgbt+ youth affect the honor and status of the entire family. The documentary shows that the conversion therapy that happens in China is hurtful to the individuals that are forced into it by their family members to restore honor. The people who would disagree with this documentary, as to why conversion therapy is harmful, would be the families who feel that their lgbt+ youth should feel ashamed that they cannot bring future generations to their families. Personally, I think this documentary will be an excellent source to include in the future because it shows the perspective that China has on lgbt+ youth and also brings a new direction with how another country feels. Usually with the homosexuality argument and the conversion therapy debate, the opposing side is arguing due to their religion, but this debate is more about honor of a family.

    5. Unreported World, China’s Gay Shock Therapy, will air on Friday at 7.30pm on Channel 4.

      The author of this article is Amy Willis; however, she is not the person who created the documentary. She is just reporting on the documentary that the source 'Unreported World' created.

      The article appears on the internet to get the word out there that there is a documentary that will be airing live in order to show that conversion therapy takes place in more than just one country in the world.

    6. Doctors in China were secretly filmed by Channel 4 reporters selling bogus ‘conversion therapy’ treatments for homosexuality for hundreds of pounds.

      The stakeholder in this video article are the lgbt+ individuals in China as well as the viewpoints of the doctors who are subjecting these people to conversion therapy. It is reliable because they interviewed both sets of people, since it was filmed it is known that this is exactly what they said about the topic.

    1. documented health dangers

      Not very reliable since it links us to the author's own website.

    2. By avoiding GMOs, you contribute to the coming tipping point of consumer rejection, forcing them out of our food supply.

      The author's call to action to the people.

    3. GMOs do not, on average, increase yields at all.

      Interesting, since this is one of the main arguments for GMOs. I would like to look further into this for scientific proof for my paper.

    4. Attempts by media to expose problems are also often censored

      Since a lot of studies are conducted by the GMO pioneer companies themselves, such as Monsanto, it really is impossible to get diverse and unbiased information out to the public.

    5. GMOs can create unpredictable, hard-to-detect side effects.

      Such as? The author isn't a doctor and does not present his education, so I do not know where he is claiming to have gathered this information.

    6. M plant can result in massive collateral damage that produces new toxins, allergens, carcinogens, and nutritional deficiencies.

      The author is losing ethos here as he does not even have an example. These claims would have been super convincing if he had some citations to back them up.

    7. Roundup, for example, is linked with sterility, hormone disruption, birth defects, and cancer.

      Without a citation, all of the evidence he is presenting from apparently his own knowledge is hard to believe.

    8. Not only does this create environmental harm

      What does it do to our environment?

    9. GMOs increase herbicide use

      Are herbicides bad? Bad for humans, the environment?

    10. . GMO contamination has also caused economic losses for organic and non-GMO farmers who often struggle to keep their crops pure

      The only reason why this is bad is because of the possible negative effects of GMOs. If GMOs are safe then this reason would not matter.

    11. The American Public Health Association and American Nurses Association are among many medical groups that condemn the use of GM bovine growth hormone, because the milk from treated cows has more of the hormone IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1)―which is linked to cancer.

      Throughout this whole article the author is trying to convince the people who do not oppose GMOs. The "they" he is addressing is the group of people who are convinced that gm foods are safe.

    12. 10 Reasons to Avoid GMOs

      Smith, Jeffrey. "10 Reasons to Avoid GMOs." Institute for Responsible Technology. 14 Mar. 2016. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      The author's claim is in the title, he wants consumers to avoid GMOs for 10 specific reasons. And obviously this author is very biased as he is advising his readers to avoid GMOs without providing any evidence first.

    13. AAEM

      This appears to be a credible and reliable source https://www.aaemonline.org/

    14. Genes inserted into GM soy, for example, can transfer into the DNA of bacteria living inside us, and that the toxic insecticide produced by GM corn was found in the blood of pregnant women and their unborn fetuses.

      Would like a citation for this, this is too serious of a claim to not have any proof.

    1. "an incredible waste of money" and argues that "for the cost of putting a few people on a very limited set of locations on Mars we could have dozens of unmanned, robotic missions roving all over Mars."

      Some people suggests we should use robots instead of humans for our treks into space. We could send out more and they cost less, being that they don't need as much maintenance, food supply, or a way to come back to earth.

    2. there are very good reasons to stop spending billions of dollars on manned space missions

      This article suggests that space travel should be put on a temporary halt. It suggests that the space program should try to travel to space in safer, more effective, and cost less. Also, we should focus more on our oceans.

  2. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. a sexual-assault-prevention program thathas addressed students atmore than 100 high schoolsin the state. Game Change:The Patriots

      This is the claim in Kraft's article about sexual assault. He establishes his ethos by showing how this program was instituted into over 100 high schools in the state of Massachusetts.

    2. students will have participatedin the peer-traininganti-violence programs.

      This is critical for kids to undergo before their first potential attack or threat to domestic violence.

    3. It wasn’t long ago thatsmoking was tolerated as anormal behavior. Kids grew upthinking it was actually a coolthing to do. With education andlegislation, our society has amuch more informed outlookand perception of smokingnow. I hope we can do thesame to affect a generationalchange and help bring an endto domestic violence

      I agree with this point that because smoking was known to be a common behavior for many teens and kids growing up and through our education and federal laws, the perception of smoking has shifted through out the years. With the help of the Patriots participating in prevention programs and donating $1.5 million to the cause, the topic will be grater known, and hopefully can shift the commonality of sexual assault and bring it to an end.

    4. how to develop healthyrelationships and how tointervene whenever they seesigns of violence or bullying

      Very important and I agree with this statement that its important to detect signs of violence or bullying to prevent further sexual assault.

    5. We at the Patriots invested$1.5 million to work withthe Mentors in ViolencePrevention (MVP) programat the Center for the Studyof Sport in Society atNortheastern University.

      Investing any time and money into this topic helps get the word out there more and educate our society, all beneficial things to cutting down the statistics of sexual assault.

    6. one in four women has beenthe victim of severe physicalviolence by an intimatepartner and that one in threeadolescents in the United Stateshas experienced physical,sexual or emotional abuse in arelationship, you can’t ignoreit.

      Good evidence to back up his claim. Using statistics puts the problem that is prevalent into perspective for the reader. I have heard common statistics universally around searching different articles about this topic, as well as posters in the bathrooms of my college, as well as different surveys, or casual conversations among peers or family members. It is important that this topic does not slip into thin air!

    7. I had no ideahow prevalent those abuseswere in our society and localcommunities.

      It is hard to know how to prevent these things that are so common in our society today. The first step, as stated in his claim, is to educate students, teens, adults, athletes, and anyone else you can name about sexual assault.

    8. , I startedtaking our players to theannual event to help raise theawareness of the brutality thatsome women experience

      Here's what "they" are talking about what the issue is. Kraft, the writer, is ensuring that his players support the awareness of sexual assault by attending the annual event hosted in Massachusetts to represent his team as being aware of it by supporting the movement.

    9. insulated

      I myself, have grown up in an insulated world. I was very blessed to attend a high school with very little crime, but living in a college down, where University of Colorado Boulder was the major university, it was always known that sexual assault was prevalent, even though I never experienced it.

    10. Anti-ViolencePartnership has a missionof preventing violence andsexual assault through trainingand education

      I agree with this claim. The first step to preventing violent crimes such as sexual assault by acknowledging it and educating the students about it before it can become an issue for themselves.

    1. Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump could not be more different.

      The author Victor Williams writes for The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law. The main focus of the article is the Electoral College, Donald Trump and Hilary Clinton. The author is trying to prove that both candidates are very different. Williams uses facts about Trump and Clinton to support his claim. He also has facts and statistics about the Electoral college to support him. The author states that the only thing Clinton and Trump have in common is their high unfavorable poll ratings. They both are seen as unfavorable. This could be a huge reason why they attack each other during debates. They both are seen as bad candidates and there needs to be someone who looks worse. One of the opponents must look better than the other, so there can be a winner. This is an article written for the Columbus School of Law, this is very credible and would have to be to make it on their scholarly articles section of they webpage. In my opinion this article is very bias towards Clinton. It seems like the entire article is trying to make Trump look bad. The author seems to leave out details about Trump that would make him look good in this article. The article starts out by talking about Clinton’s achievements then immediately goes to criticizing Trump, calling him names like “bombastic billionaire". This would appeal to the Democratic Party because it is making Clinton look good and Trump look bad, so that people who read this will want to vote for Clinton rather than Trump. People that would disagree with this article would people the people voting for Trump because they do not want the public to think badly about Trump.

  3. Aug 2016
  4. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. question of how one should understand the normal restrictions, rules and burdens above which the privileged are placed.

      Here he is providing clarity about why privilege is so significant and how it interconnects with societal norms that are comfortable and accessible "to an exclusive subset of a given population" i.e. heterosexuals or white people.

    2. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack’,

      I am glad that he referenced Peggy Mcintosh because I referenced this particular work of hers as well for my essay. She does a great job of making it a point to speak from personal experience.

    3. The understanding of privilege that is the focus of this essay is thus like the classical definition in that it posits privileges as tied to birth, but appeals to the modern/liberal notion in claiming that such unearned privileges are illegitimate.

      Here he establishes his claim in that privilege is something that a person is typically born into, in other words, something that was earned. I am still unsure of what he means by unearned privileges that are illegitimate. Perhaps he means that they are not legally recognized.

    4. Kruks 2012: p. 94

      Much of his evidence comes from the research of others on the same topic and they are all credible sources. He uses many of them to get his point across.

    5. Rather, the problem with privilege was that it attached to birth status, rather than to individual merit.

      True of all privileges, they are not earned but something that we are merely born into.

    6. partly constitutive of what it meant to be patrician.

      This brings up a good point about privilege and identity being interconnected.

    7. he Latin etymology of the term privilege points toward the concept of a ‘private law’ that situates one outside of the laws that bind others (Bailey 1998: p. 111; Gordon 2004: p. 174; Kruks 2005: p. 180). In this original sense, a privilege is a benefit or advantage that accrues to an exclusive (usually hereditary) elite, such that the benefits and advantages are part and parcel of their status as elites.

      This is the beginning of Monahan establishing credibility for himself. He wants readers to understand the full scope of privilege by starting from the origins of the word as it pertains to modern conceptualization. I also find this interesting myself and would not have thought to look up the origins of the word as supportive evidence as language had evolved so heavily.

    8. There is male privilege, white privilege, class privilege, heterosexual privilege and ability privilege, all of which are understood in relation to some corresponding form of oppression in the form of sexism, racism, heterosexism, ableism, ageism and so forth

      This is important to note that privilege is not confined to a single identity and can be applied to each individual in a different form.

    9. South African Journal of Philosophy 2014, 33(1): 73–83Printed in South Africa — All rights reservedCopyright © South African Journal of PhilosophySOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHYISSN 0258-0136 EISSN 2073-4867http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02580136.2014.892681South African Journal of Philosophy is co-published by Taylor & Francis and NISC (Pty) LtdThe concept of privilege: a critical appraisal

      Monahan, Michael J. "The Concept of Privilege: A Critical Appraisal." South African Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 73-83. 2014. Web. 8 Aug 2016. Michael Monahan has received his degree in Philosophy and works for the department of philosophy for Marquette University.

  5. Jul 2016
    1. In summary, NASA's large expenditures of over $100 million annually for basic research alone and the stimulus provided by space exploration have dramatically transformed astronomy. It has become a more open science with more numerous facilities, research opportunities, and scientists. Younger astronomers with more diverse educational backgrounds have been attracted from other scientific fields to work in several new specialties that have developed. More complex management and funding arrangements and large project efforts demonstrate that astronomy has achieved big science status.

      Article is ended very similarly to the current Juno article I included earlier. NASA helps create a demand for scientists of diverse backgrounds in order to further advance capabilities. By doing so, more jobs are made possible, which we sorely need. This is also beneficial because it shows a specific reason that has stayed the same throughout the decades. This gives credence that benefits from the mid 1900's are the same as today. This allows us to safely argue that the benefits presented in this old article are still prevalent to today.

    2. In 1966 the relative importance of NASA purchases began to decline because of large increases in defense and commercial purchases. Demand for military aircraft rose as a result of the United States commitment in Vietnam

      This is an argument against NASA that is somewhat prevalent to our current situation. In times of war, other groups, such as the military, do more spending and boost the economy more. Since we are dealing with homeland terrorism and ISIS, it could be argued that a larger military would boost the economy more than NASA would.

    3. NASA has served as the R&D organization with the National Meteorological Satellite Program, exercising the responsibility for designing, building, launching, and testing satellites.

      The article explains that NASA is responsible for the United States' satellites that are in orbit. Reading the surrounding text, it is revealed that this means things such as our meteorological satellites, which help us predict the weather. This is an incredibly important thing we use in our daily lives, especially with disaster prevention. It is all thanks to NASA. This is another piece of evidence that can be used to show the importance of NASA, and how it goes beyond the space exploration that most Americans know them for.

    4. Second, federal space and defense programs influenced the computer and semiconductor industries by generating huge markets for such products.

      As NASA expanded its capabilities, it began to reach for further goals, which demand higher technology. They would therefore need to purchase the highest end products available, which would also help to stimulate the economy.

    5. The birth and rapid expansion of the U.S. semiconductor and computer industries during the late 1940s and 1950s were greatly aided by government space and defense programs.

      Very specific example of where NASA allowed considerable growth for the economy. It helped create a booming industry that allowed the eventual creation of a large portion of the technology that we use today, such as our phones, computers, televisions, etc.

    6. MRI concluded that the $25 billion (1958) spent on civilian space R&D during the 1959-69 period returned $52 billion through 1970 and will continue to stimulate benefits through 1987, for a total gain of $181 billion.

      This appears to be an older paper as well. Based off its content, it appears that it was published around the 70's or 80's. However, the information given is still factual and can be used to support current times. The Midwest Research Institute studied the effects that NASA seemed to have on the economy. As seen, the MRI indicated that NASA had turned a massive profit for the economy. Technological advancement groups create products or develop techniques that can advance civilization. When this happens, our capabilities increase. NASA has demonstrated that it created this type of advancement. For every dollar that they had been given, they were able to create advancement that allowed twice as much money to benefit the economy within a decade.

    7. The Economic Impacts of the U.S. Space Program

      Schnee, Jerome. "The Economic Impacts of the U.S. Space Program." NASA. Web. 10 July. 2016.

      This is a detailed account as to how NASA and their projects have impacted the United States. It is a highly credible source, written by a government agency, and published by NASA itself. Jerome is degree backed through Rutgers University, and the article he has written is credible, as shown by the plethora of bibliography entries on the article itself. The only possible case against credibility is the lack of a publication date. However, since this appears to be a database entry, it is understandable why there is not a publication date. As for the audience, this article is most likely for those concerned with budgeting NASA, as well as government transparency.

  6. Mar 2016
    1. David R. Thompson1& Keith C. Hamer

      Throughout the journal the authors do a good job of remaining objective while presenting credible and relevant information to support their claim. They present the view of the stakeholder position of environmentalists and researchers.

    2. instance mean surface air temperature ispredicted to increase by 2–6C during summer andby 8–12C during winter in the Barents Sea regionof northern Europe


      The link above is an article that discusses acidification and global warming. Although the two are slightly different they are both similar in the way that they are caused by the emission of CO2. Plastic products are known to release CO2 into marine environments. This scholarly journal also discuses the carbon cycle and how plastics are responsible for some of the excess CO2 being released (http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048/science/article/pii/S092181810800012X). Plastic also releases CO2 into the atmosphere. This is a major cause of global warming as well. Because of the CO2 emitted by plastic in both marine ecosystems and into the atmosphere, the Thompson and Hamer discuss how it is also a main stressor present in seabirds and how it is negatively affecting these organisms.

    3. in a study of plastics in seabirds from the tropicalPacific over an eight year period,

      This also increases the authors' credibilty. Here they discuss an experiment that took place over an eight year period of which seabirds in the tropical Pacific stomachs' were examined to see exactly what kinds of plastics were being digested and how the birds were being affected by it.

    4. (Laist, 1987),

      The authors increase their credibility (ethos) by citing information from other scholarly articles and researchers. This also allows the authors to further support their claim with relevant and reliable information suggesting that plastics are a main stressor to the seabirds.

    5. Stress in seabirds: causes, consequences and diagnostic value

      Thompson, David R., and Keith C. Hamer. "Stress In Seabirds: Causes, Consequences And Diagnostic Value." Journal Of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress & Recovery 7.1 (2000): 91. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2016.

      This is a scholarly article written by two credible authors, one from the University of Durham and one from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. The title indicates that the article will be discussing the causes, consequences and diagnostic values of stress present in seabird. I believe that the claim of this scholarly journal is that, seabird are a very important part of the marine ecosystem, however the amount of stress present in these birds is increasing due to various stressors that are being introduced into their environment.

      The authors argue that a big misconception about ocean pollution is that is only affects the organisms that live beneath the surface. They state that while that statement is somewhat true, ocean pollution also affects the organisms that feed off of other species such as fish.

    1. Meanwhile, the support for Kesha has created a PR nightmare for Sony, which maintains that it cannot interfere with Kesha and Luke's contract.

      In the other popular article, the author said Sony could put an end to this. I responded by saying I was confused as to why Sony would want the bad publicity and this sentence backs that up.

    2. Former Runaways bassist Jackie Fuchs, who alleged in July 2015 that she was drugged and raped by then-manager Kim Fowley in 1975

      I am curious to know how this case ended.

    1. A Message to Our Customers

      Apple.com is not regarded as a popular, reliable source, except for in this case. Because this letter to Apple customers came directly from Tim Cook himself, this makes this the strongest source regarding Apple's stance on the case.

    2. The implications of the government’s demands are chilling. If the government can use the All Writs Act to make it easier to unlock your iPhone, it would have the power to reach into anyone’s device to capture their data. The government could extend this breach of privacy and demand that Apple build surveillance software to intercept your messages, access your health records or financial data, track your location, or even access your phone’s microphone or camera without your knowledge.

      Cook is explaining what exactly an encryption by Apple would mean to millions of Americans, and even international Apple customers. This violates laws of privacy, and would mean increased surveillance and government understanding of our whereabouts at all times. This is important because Cook is educating his audience, particularly Americans, as to why they're publicly denying assistance with a terrorism. Cook is seeing the bigger picture here, and is asking his fellow Americans to do the same.

      I can see myself using this source in the future to include Apple's side of why they're not including themselves within the case, directly from the CEO. Cook provides evidence for his claim, and it allows for sympathy from his audience.

    3. A Message to Our Customers The United States government has demanded that Apple take an unprecedented step which threatens the security of our customers. We oppose this order, which has implications far beyond the legal case at hand.  This moment calls for public discussion, and we want our customers and people around the country to understand what is at stake.

      Cook, Tim. "Customer Letter - Apple." Apple.com. Apple, 16 Feb. 2016. Web. 9 Mar. 2016.

      Tim Cook is an American Business Executive, and the CEO of Apple Inc. Cook also serves on the Board of Directors at Nike, and the National Football Foundation. In 2014, Cook became the first Chief Executive of a Fortune 500 company who was publicly gay.


    4. Compromising the security of our personal information can ultimately put our personal safety at risk. That is why encryption has become so important to all of us.

      The author's claim argues that by allowing the government access to our personal information, yes it may be able to solve the San Bernardino case, but the personal privacy implications are not worth the risk.

    5. Specifically, the FBI wants us to make a new version of the iPhone operating system, circumventing several important security features, and install it on an iPhone recovered during the investigation. In the wrong hands, this software — which does not exist today — would have the potential to unlock any iPhone in someone’s physical possession. The FBI may use different words to describe this tool, but make no mistake: Building a version of iOS that bypasses security in this way would undeniably create a backdoor. And while the government may argue that its use would be limited to this case, there is no way to guarantee such control.

      This is where Cook addresses the second "they": the FBI. He explains the implications of what the FBI is demanding, and how they can affect all customers, especially Americans.

    6. We were shocked and outraged by the deadly act of terrorism in San Bernardino last December. We mourn the loss of life and want justice for all those whose lives were affected. The FBI asked us for help in the days following the attack, and we have worked hard to support the government’s efforts to solve this horrible crime. We have no sympathy for terrorists.

      Here, Cook is using pathos to clarify that, despite his stance on the encryption piece, they still sympathize with the victims of the San Bernardino case, and their families. This is where Cook addresses one of the "they's," being those who were directly affected by the case, or those who believe Apple should comply in order to get justice.

    1. And when that happens, if scientists are on the right track, the missing heat will reappear and temperatures will spike once again.

      If the scientist's claims are correct, when would they predict the next switch in climate conditions to take place? Also, can they predict the severity of the next cycle?

    2. A key breakthrough came last year from Shang-Ping Xie and Yu Kosaka at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. The duo took a different tack, by programming a model with actual sea surface temperatures from recent decades in the eastern equatorial Pacific, and then seeing what happened to the rest of the globe8. Their model not only recreated the hiatus in global temperatures, but also reproduced some of the seasonal and regional climate trends that have marked the hiatus, including warming in many areas and cooler northern winters.

      This adds credibility. It validates the claim, while also showing how the experiment is important and how it came to its conclusions.

    3. This variation in ocean temperature, known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), may be a crucial piece of the hiatus puzzle.

      This is a specific pieces of information that confirms the reporters claim.

    4. But even those scientists who remain confident in the underlying models acknowledge that there is increasing pressure to work out just what is happening today.

      Good point. It important to show that the counter argument is being acknowledged.

    5. The simplest explanation for both the hiatus and the discrepancy in the models is natural variability.

      This is the counter argument. As stated in the article, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) hypothesized that from 1998-2012, the temperature should rise at a rate of 0.21 degrees Celsius per decade. Instead, the temperature only rose .04 degrees Celsius during that time period. Therefore, differing perspectives are claiming that instead of having a consistent global warming increase, the world goes through periods of climatic fluctuations. Furthermore, because of this evidence, scientists conclude that global warming effects are being overestimated and overstated.

    6. On a chart of global atmospheric temperatures, the hiatus stands in stark contrast to the rapid warming of the two decades that preceded it.

      The refutation against Tollefson's claim is stated pretty early on in the article.

    7. Now, as the global-warming hiatus enters its sixteenth year, scientists are at last making headway in the case of the missing heat. Some have pointed to the Sun, volcanoes and even pollution from China as potential culprits, but recent studies suggest that the oceans are key to explaining the anomaly.

      Here is what "they" are saying. Because evidence has shown a decline in global-warming for years, scientists are wondering if perhaps its a myth. However, others are saying that global-warming is not in decline, but is rather being stored in places such as the world's oceans. Because of this, the events like El Nino and El Nina exist and are becoming more aggressive each time they occur.

    8. Jeff Tollefson

      Jeff Tollefson has quite the impressive resume as a reporter on issues like energy, climate, and the environment. His work in this article is definitely valid and is credible. As seen on the Nature about the editor website, "Jeff has won a number of accolades, including New Mexico press awards for pieces on pollution and nuclear-weapons work at Los Alamos National Laboratory". He has many years in his field reporting on numerous environmental issues and/or concerns.


      The Nature International Weekly Journal of Science is a well know journal that focuses on innovating science and technology. Their mission statement as found on their website states their responsible "First, to serve scientists through prompt publication of significant advances in any branch of science, and to provide a forum for the reporting and discussion of news and issues concerning science. Second, to ensure that the results of science are rapidly disseminated to the public throughout the world, in a fashion that conveys their significance for knowledge, culture and daily life". The journal itself is high cited and has won awards for their scientists.


    9. Climate change: The case of the missing heat

      Tollefson, Jeff. "Climate Change: The Case Of The Missing Heat." Nature 505.7483 (2014): 276-278. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article as stated by the reporter Jeff Tollefson, is that there has been a lack of confidence in the field of climate change over the years due to the fact that temperatures today are in conflict with previous models. Because the new temperatures are straying from the previous records, some are claiming that global warming is beginning to stop; however, others believe it still to be alive, but it is being stored in another way. Therefore, this idea of "The Missing Heat" is being hypothesized to be stored in the world's oceans.

    1. His old pack, made up of his daughters and their new male partners, came roaring back to the Lamar Valley in mid-March. They swooped down on 755M’s den, attacked his consort, and chased the pair away. The two staggered into the forest, 755M’s mate leaving a trail of blood in the snow. She died that night. And what of 755M? He’s rarely seen these days. He wanders in the borderlands between other packs, hunted and haunted – a lone wolf, bereft of all.

      Gives the sad ending to gain sympathy: pathos. I even felt heartbreak.

    2. We all love happy endings and, like many others who follow the Yellowstone wolves, I rooted for 755M and his new mate. It was not to be.

      Morell gives that her joy melted into despair once finding the real outcome. Pathos and ethos to support her claim.

    3. She wanted to know what had become of him, McIntyre said, just as we would if we became separated from our family members.

      Pathos and experience to the human race

    4. For most of the 20th century, scientists were taught to regard animals as mindless beings lacking thoughts or emotions. But that attitude, too, has been swept aside as researchers with a more evolutionary perspective have revealed that species from fish and turtles to rats and lions have mental skills not so dissimilar from our own. Many animals—not just human animals-- love and laugh and grieve (link is external).

      Love this paragraph. I believe in this entirely.

    5. Cougar societies that aren’t actively hunted—and so have the oldest males and females—also cause fewer problems for people.

      Ethos; to show how human intervention cause major problems, to the animals and to our own race

    6. From Rob Wielgus’s research at the Large Carnivore Conservation Laboratory (link is external) at Washington State University in Pullman

      Reliable source

    7. We know now that animals have personalities (link is external) (some are shy, others are bold) that affect their reproductive success.

      Mentionable quote. Further proves my previous post.

    8. Animals were regarded more or less like cogs in a wheel; one dies, another one takes its place. Long-term studies of elephants, chimpanzees, dolphins, and other species tell a different story, though.

      I hate to even think about this, but it is true. It hasn't been that long where animals were seen as just that, animals. Now we know they are very similar to us humans. We both have emotions, personalities, and feelings.

    9. But the numbers overlook the social consequences of these deaths.

      Goes back to the other argument. The pathos side.

    10. And that is true. The death of one or two, or even a dozen Yellowstone park wolves (the number of park wolves believed to have been shot or trapped outside its boundaries in the 2012-2013 hunting season (link is external)) does not mean that the population is doomed. Wolf biologists emphasize how resilient the animals are. Packs may vanish, but others will take their place; there are pups this spring.

      Morell continues on (from the last post) to show a logical side and gives sources (the wolf biologists) to gain reliability.

    11. After the death of 832F, officials emphasized that the parks’ wolf population was still viable; there were plenty of wolves for people to see with more than 80 remaining.

      Harsh swiping of the fact the wolf was killed

    12. “I can’t prove it, but I think that’s why 832 led her pack back there,” Rick McIntyre, a biological technician for the Yellowstone Wolf Project, told me. McIntyre has followed the canids daily since they were reintroduced to the park in 1995, (link is external) and knows the individual wolves better than anyone.  “Even though 754 wasn’t the alpha male, he was her favorite. I think she went looking for him.”

      Is not reliable source of statement but his occupation gives him credibility. The fact that he knows these wolves since 1995 also gives him credit.

    13. But two weeks before her death, the pack’s beta male, 754M, had also been shot and killed in the same area.

      Shows that not only does a powerful Alpha female was killed but another of the pack's mates. Ethos and pathos

    14. People were drawn to 832F because she was an unusual female wolf—saucy, independent, powerful and wily enough to bring down a bull elk alone, and unwilling to be anything other than the leader of her pack. She’d scorned all her suitors until she met a pair of malleable males, the black-and-silver furred brothers, 755M and 754M. They were younger than she was, and were mediocre hunters at best, but the trio formed a pack, which the brothers wisely let her lead. By 2012, they had grown to 13 strong, and were the indisputable rulers of the Lamar River Valley with its herds of elk and buffalo. All that changed, though, in early December 2012, when 832F was killed 15 miles from the park’s eastern boundary.

      Ethos and pathos! Morell is giving a background to the female wolf whom died. She shows that wolves can be different, just like people, and that something this "minor" can be very major.

    15. enormous repercussions, which continue to this day.

      This quote is likeable to me because of how Morell is beginning to tell her audience that animal welfare is almost highly important.

    16. From a purely demographic standpoint, biologists say no. If there are sufficient numbers of wolves to breed, then the species is fine

      Gives one side of the argument, credibility increased

    17. Does the death of one wolf matter?

      Falls back on claim

    18. He is, after all, still alive, although some might say he’s but a ghost of his former self, because she is gone, felled by a Wyoming hunter’s bullet.

      Pathos! Morell is giving a background to the lone wolf and explaining that he wasn't always like this. From the death of his mate, which was the cause of a hunter, did he change drastically.

    19. Only a few weeks before

      Shows something has gone awry

    20. lay so still he looked more like a stone or downed log. Most unlike a wolf, he was alone.

      Ethos and pathos; sympathy for the wolf and evidence to support her claim.

    21. I learned this firsthand during a visit to Yellowstone National Park last winter

      Using pathos and her own experience to get empathy. Her credibility with her experience increases, showing the reader(s) that she isn't just writing about it, she sees for herself what's going on.

    22. The decision is based solely on numbers, and so it misses what is increasingly evident to wildlife biologists and conservationists: the importance of individual animals.

      This statement is biased but true. Morell is using pathos with ethos; she is trying to get sympathy and concern from her audience.

    23. according to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

      This shows some antagonism against FWS.

    24. When A Wolf Dies Do individual animals matter? Posted Jun 07, 2013

      This is Morell's claim. She is asking how a single wolf could affect an entire pack or other wolves. Her question gives input of thought to readers that may or may not have occurred to them about animal welfare and their mental state.

    25. Virginia Morell

      I did not realize that Virginia Morell was the author of both my third and my fourth article. On the other article, she was very unbiased and not as much of a reliable source. Here, she seems to be more reliable considering how the website gives recognition to her books and other articles. In a psychological viewpoint, Morell is a reliable source.

    26. When A Wolf Dies

      Morell, Virginia. "When A Wolf Dies." Psychology Today. Psychology Today. 7 June 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2016.

    1. through state regulations and/or international conventions

      Then because we can't be responsible as a whole society, we think laws and regulations will help. So we take away human rights and choices from those that may be working hard to make everything work. The point is it doesn't matter it takes away all choice and therefore, responsibility. Then it creates resentment, not towards those who make these flawed laws and regulations, but towards the animal or habitat its supposed to protect. It all boils down to educating people and fixing our humanities lack or responsibility.

    2. The brochure gives examples of farmers in India poisoning elephant watering holes because they claim elephants damage their crops, and livestock owners in Russia and Africa killing tigers and lions on their land.

      This should stir something up in everyone. This is the problem... there are so many of us that we are encroaching massively on animal territory. Poisoning a water hole to keep elephants form damaging crops? There are enough humans to build a fence or chase them off if they come in, poisoning is absolutely ridiculous, lazy and unnecessary. We have enough people to have our own living and work around other animals. If a tiger is eating your sheep you can raise dogs or stay with them to protect them yourself. People just want the easy way like we used to strive for but now that we have it we can work a little harder of spend a bit more time so everything can make it together. When people are lazy and take the easy was the animals are the ones that suffer.

    3. This loss of habitat causes the extinction of species

      This is the main fact driving Anika's thought. She is not worried about the individual killings but about species wide. The problem is most species can't adapt and evolve as fast as we as humans can destroy it. Humans are destroying habitat for their own or for possessions.

    4. affect of overpopulation on animals

      The audience for this article is not one purely of human rights or animal rights but more of a hybrid of the two. It is for people that can see everything is connected and you can't just fix one thing and be fine you have to help the whole system to achieve success.

      For me the title struck me because it hit on what I was looking for. I think is is still well done though, it askes a question that ques people up to talk and is not just a yes or no answer.

    5. here is a very real and dangerous affect for animals.

      The claim of the author is that our expansion into the animal kingdom because of our needs is very dangerous for and affecting all animals adversely. I happen to believe this, we used to had plenty of space and that space was shared with animals but now there are so many of us that our sprawl is crowding animals and each other.<br> The world tends to like a balance, so when we get to overpopulated something will happen, plague, war, famine. It might already be too late for some species at that point or it may be the cause.

    6. Anika Mohammed

      Anika Mohammed is a Doctors Without Borders member and a keen supported of animal rights. She gets to see first hand a lot of the issues caused by human overpopulation, unclean water, living quality, starvation, etc. As much as she cares for humanity she knows there are other living things in this world too. Some that may need help as much or more then humans.

    7. Overpopulation of humans, what does this mean?

      This website is for the animal enthusiast to put it lightly. They veiw everyone as equals, humans and animals. So this article is going to be a bit bias by making everything equal. With the slogan "Transending Speciesism Since October 2008" you kind of get the hint, but at least they don't try and hide it.

    8. Human Overpopulation as an Animal Rights Issue

      Anika Mohammed. "Human Overpopulation as an Animal Rights Issue". November 26 2013. Web. March 5 2016. <animalblawg.wordpress.com>

    1. Among students, religion not being importantand having no religion were associated with beingin favour of permitting abortion in any circum-stance and being against putting a woman whohad had an abortion in jail (p<0.001).

      The medical students who do not have any religion tend to support the abortion for any occasion. The audience can recognize that the religious conviction is related to a controversial issue such as abortion.

    2. The proportion of medical students whoagreed that abortion should be allowed wasalways larger than the corresponding proportionof civil servants.

      The medical students is younger generation than the civil servants. The research reveals that the rising generation has more flexible and acceptable opinion about the abortion than middle-aged people.

    3. We carried out two cross-sectional, descriptivesurveys, one with civil servants from a São PauloState public institution and the other with medi-cal students from three medical schools, also inSão Paulo State. Two different questionnaireswere used for the civil servants and the medicalstudents (Box 1), consisting of questions with pre-coded response categories for self-completion.

      The authors amplify who the subject of the survey is and what kind of methods they used, so it can gain the credibility from the audience. However, it is difficult to generalize as all nations’ opinions because the authors choose only two groups to conduct their survey.

    4. Considering that the answersobtained in surveys depends in great part on howthe questions are formulated, the aim of thisstudy was to compare the answers to generalquestions about the circumstances under whichthe respondents thought abortion should beallowed, with the answers of the same respon-dents to the question of whether a woman whohas had an illegal abortion should be sent toprison as the law mandates.

      This is the purpose of the article. The authors maintain a neutral stance about an abortion issue in the whole article.

    5. Cur-rently, the Penal Code is under review in the Par-liament, causing a heated debate betweenrepresentatives of the Catholic and Protestantchurches and those who defend women’s sexualand reproductive rights.

      The Penal Code about abortion is still under review and it has become a hot issue while Zika virus is spreading quickly in Brazil. Although many people advocate women’s sexual and reproductive right, religion has much influence in changing the law in Brzail. Therefore, it will be difficult to amend the current abortion law.

    6. In Brazil, the Penal Code dates from 1940 andestablishes that abortion is a crime but notpunishable in three cases: if the woman’s lifeis at risk, if pregnancy results from rape, andmore recently (since a court judgement in 2012)in cases of fetal anencephaly.7All other abor-tions are punishable with 1–10 years in prisonboth for the woman and for the person whocarried out the abortion.

      In my opinion, Brazil government should provide the proper education of contraceptives to public before they strictly ban abortion in law. Effective birth control methods can reduce the illegal abortion rate from unwanted pregnancies.

    7. One belief is that if abortion is criminalized,women will have fewer abortions than in an envi-ronment of liberal laws and easy access to safeabortions.5Experience shows this is not realistic,however; in fact, in countries where abortion islegally restricted women have more abortionsthan those living under more liberal laws.

      This is interesting because it breaks a common notion that the country which restricts abortion would have fewer abortions than people who are living in liberal laws. The author claims that abortion rates is related to women’s access to and use of effective contraceptive methods. The audience realizes the importance of education which is the correct use of contraceptives.

    8. The treatment ofabortion in these Penal Codes has remained almostunchanged (with a few exceptions), mostly underthe pressure of religions that traditionally opposeabortion, particularly the Catholic Church andother Christian faiths in Latin America.

      A religious belief in one society have a significant impact on the law.

    9. Unsafe abortions will continue to be a burdenfor the health and well-being of women in coun-tries where very restrictive abortion laws make ita crime.

      Looking through the sentence shows that a country with very restrictive abortion laws considers abortion as crime. Most of those countries are strict Catholic nations. The Vatican’s teaching on abortion is clear: It is a sin.

    10. According to the most recent global estimates,while the total number of induced abortionsdeclined between 2003 and 2008, the numberof unsafe abortions increased proportionately.

      The authors raise a problem about the unsafe abortions. Although the total number of abortions declined around the globe, the unsafe abortions subsequently increased. They claims that it virtually escalates the overall abortions rates. The poor women with unwanted pregnancy go unlicensed practitioners and it causes a greater health hazards such as anemia, cervical trauma, and even death.

    11. Brazilian parliamentarians who are currently reviewinga reform in the Penal Code need to have this information urgently.

      In fact, the abortion law in Brazil has not been changed.

    12. This paper presents the findingsfrom two studies. One was carried out in February–December 2010 among 1,660 public servants and the otherin February–July 2011 with 874 medical students from three medical schools, both in São Paulo State, Brazil.Both groups of respondents were asked two sets of questions to obtain their opinion about abortion:

      This article is based on surveys and opinion polls. The majority of respondents are against the current Brazilian law that women who had had an abortion should be punished with prison. In my opinion, the present legislation about abortion in Brazil is very strict and it needs to be revised under the extreme conditions of Zika virus and microcephaly.

    13. Unsafe abortions remain a major public health problem in countries with very restrictiveabortion laws.

      Although Latin America has very restrictive abortion law, unsafe abortion was common. Now, Zika virus has emerged as a serious social problem, so the audience can anticipate the current situation of Latin America that dangerous abortions would increase more than before.