96 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. US crime

      Originally a British daily newspaper, the Guardian has expanded its reach to worldwide news reporting on a variety of issues.

    2. Jessica Valenti

      Jessica Valenti is a feminist author and blogger, and is the founder of feministing.com. A short biography of Valenti can be viewed at: http://jessicavalenti.com/about

    3. "Dismissing violent misogynists as 'crazy' is a neat way of saying that violent misogyny is an individual problem, not a cultural one,"

      McEwan expertly phrases this important point! This excerpt could be used to support my claim that culturally, white males are privileged and coddled which can lead to violent outbursts.

    4. (Only last month, a young woman was allegedly stabbed to death for rejecting a different young man's prom invitation.)

      By offering further evidence of misogynistic crime, the reader begins to understand how pressing this issue is. This plays to both the ethos and logos of Valenti. Ethos, because the author includes a link to the source, and logos because a list of examples can be seen as data, as evidence of wrongdoing.

    5. But to dismiss this as a case of a lone "madman" would be a mistake.

      Valenti is aware of the way in which crimes of this nature (and their perpetrators) are typically addressed in the media, and she makes a point to not allow the excuses. Too many times, excuses are made for men who commit heinous crimes like this. The perpetrator is referred to as the "lone wolf" who got in over his head, or was in some other way irresponsible for his own actions. By addressing this issue head on, Valenti gains trust from the reader and grows her ethos.

    6. We should know this by now, but it bears repeating: misogyny kills.

      Valenti addresses her claim head-on here. Misogyny is toxic ideology that contributes to white male privilege. When that privilege is disrupted, and self-image is threatened, disaster can ensue.

    7. Elliot Rodger's California shooting spree: further proof that misogyny kills

      Valenti, Jessica. "Elliot Rodger's California Shooting Spree: Further Proof That Misogyny Kills." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 24 May 2014. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

  2. illiad.library.colostate.edu illiad.library.colostate.edu
    1. Nursing standard

      This article would not let me use hypothesis.is in the actual article; however, I decided to write the entire source needs up here.

      Erin Dean is the author of this article that appeared in the news. As a reporter, Dean is expected to research conversion therapy through out time. This source does not provide much insight on the conversion therapy or the lgbt+ youth that are subjected to it; however, it does provide an interesting viewpoint on how it affected the people who were on the other side of these tests.

      Dean suggests that this 'cure' of conversion therapy on lgbt+ individuals through out the ages is unpleasant and harsh; however, it also explains that conversion therapy was not just harsh on the patients, but those involved with administering these treatments were also affected.

      Dean explains that conversion therapy is harmful to more than just one group, which may be an unpopular opinion to people who believe this is solely an lgbt+ individual's issue because they may believe that by talking about the nurses and doctors involved in this practice that it takes away from the issue at hand.

      The author of this article uses the facts of historic occurrences and suicides that happened to people who were involved in conversion therapy.

      I would need to do more research on how the stakeholder of nurses and doctors involved are affected by doing following orders of hurting the lgbt+ individuals for their 'treatments'. The nurses are stakeholders because they have opinions on the horrifying therapy that they placed on another human being. [](https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/may/28/gay-conversion-therapy-ruins-lives-lgbt-rights This article explains that conversion therapy hurts lgbt+ the most, however, it should affect the community as a whole.

    2. Shock therapies

      Here is the MLA Citation: Dean, Erin. "Shock Therapies." Nursing Standard 30.23 (2016): 25. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    1. That was the most eye-opening finding in a Pew Research Center study on science literacy undertaken in cooperation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and released in January. The survey represented a sample of 2,002 adult citizens and 3,748 scientists, all members of the AAAS.

      A company that has vested interest in making GMOs appear safe.

    2. Yes, there is a vigorous public discussion over GMOs. Yes, the thought of tinkering with our food in a lab—unaccountable scientists mixing steaming flasks—conjures up visions of soylent green and grotesque deformities. Let us acknowledge it; no one wants “technology” for dessert. The thought of GMO foods is not appetizing!

      The author really connects to the opposition here, voicing their concerns and somewhat agreeing with them.

    3. then tested the heck out of them for safety and allergenicity

      In all the previous articles I've read it has been stated that these GMOs are not required to be tested, so I would probably like to research this topic more so I could determine whether or not these products are tested for safety.

    4. You may have read, from anti-GMO websites or oh so reliable sources like Dr. Oz, or Jeffrey Smith’s Institute for Responsible Technology or Food Babe that the use of GMOs has unleashed a pesticide tsunami that is sweeping across the plains. Not

      The overtly sarcastic tone in this article is just obnoxious. With such a controversial topic I think it would be wise for the author to be a bit more serious.

    5. Introduced barely a decade ago, now upwards of 90 percent of Indian cotton is grown using Bt seeds

      While bragging that the crops have been introduced very recently and their benefits in such a short time the author is missing the very controversial point that these crops have not been tested for their long term effects.

    6. Among other nefarious tactics, anti-GMO activist posing as journalists have been telling farmer that their children could become paralyzed from eating Br brinjal.

      This statement seems overly defensive possibly turning away the author's intended audience. It also has improper grammar, further lessening the author's credibility.

    7. alled Bt, that is highly specific to pests but is nontoxic to birds, fish and humans. It is less toxic than table salt. It has been used safely in organic farming for nearly 100 years.

      I have trouble fathoming how something can kill insects but is completely harmless to humans, is is because of the dosage? I would like to do more research on this to see if this is possible.

    8. It is not owned or patented by major corporations. It is grown from public sector seeds, developed for distribution to resource-poor shareholder farmers.

      The author states this as if it is an important fact, whereas most GMOs are produced by a private sector.

    9. In fact, almost none of our foods that we eat today is the product of Nature’s way.

      Selecting genes to pronounce in food is different than taking genes from other organisms and inserting them into another organism. Author loses credibility here for presenting GMOs as selective breeding.

    10. The Case for GMOs and Sustainability

      Entine, John. "The Case for GMOs and Sustainability | Genetic Literacy Project." Genetic Literacy Project. 02 June 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

    11. GMO critics seem comfortable with that kind of genetic manipulation. But when it comes to inserting genes from one species into another, many people go “yuck,” claiming that it is “totally different” than conventional breeding.

      The author just led his readers to believe that the two were the same in the beginning of the article, yet now he states that they are different things. Again, losing credibility.

      The author's claim is that selective breeding and genetically modifying foods are essentially the same and we have been doing this for thousands of years, so GMOs must be safe.

    12. In fact, almost none of our foods that we eat today is the product of Nature’s way.

      The author here loses credibility because selective breeding in plants is different than genetically modifying plants genes.

    13. And that way you could avoid the ‘taint’ of eating food that might have come in contact with ‘dangerous’ GMOs

      The author already loses the interest of the audience they are trying to reach here by mocking them. The "they" the author is trying to persuade is probably cautious of genetically modified foods.

    1. There-fore, we wonder whether audience perceptions in other, perhaps more common,debate contexts (e.g., in courtrooms or during live political debates), where nonver-bal cues are present, though less salient, would produce similar audience responses.

      This article was written by John Seiter, Harold Kinzer and Harry Weger Jr. They write for Routledge about nonverbal background behavior in live debates. They made a study claiming how nonverbal background behaviors influence the audience and the credibility of the speaker. They used evidence from past debates, including John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon, watching the opponent not speaking doing gestures like shaking his head. Not only does opponents attacking each other verbally through a debate have an impact on the audience, this study shows that nonverbal behavior influences it, if not more. The audience knows that the opponent should not interrupt with the other person is talking, so they are coming up with a new strategy. They uses nonverbal behaviors to draw the attention of the audience to them rather the opponent speaking in that moment. The authors seem credible in how they did their research to do this study and how they conducted this study themselves rather than getting facts from the internet. There seems to be no bias in this article. Those who would disagree with this article would be the people who think that the only way to influence the audience is by how the candidate speaks on either an issue or talking about the other opponent negatively. This article would appeal to anyone interested in voting for the presidential debate. People tend to educate themselves on who they should vote for before they choose a preferred candidate, and articles like these will have them paying close attention to the candidates body language along with their verbal responses to figure out who they like better.



  3. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. Russia does not have a law that defines and criminalizes domestic violence. The Russian saying, “If he hits you, he loves you”

      It is scary to know that other countries handle assault differently and uses excuses for incidents like this.

    2. Despite all the online cover-age, most of the general public remains clueless; some 81 percent of Russians say they never heard anything about the hashtags or the controversy

      This controdicts the authors claim because even though a trending hashtag is going around about stopping hateful crimes such as assault, it is crucial to understand that the whole population does not have social media to be in the loop with this online movement.

    3. “If a man is raping a woman and she stabs him with a screwdriver, she’ll be criminally prosecuted because her life was not in dan-ger,

      This is something to further be investigated because most people, including myself, are not educated enough in the court system and what the legal consequences would be for either parties. One would think that if someone were to do something wrong like this, they would get the punishment that they deserve, but that is not always the case.

    4. The discussion has divided govern-ment and society alike, with some officials hosting free self-defense classes for women in Moscow parks, while others challenge women’s right to defend themselves

      It is important that "they" are aware of the consequences on both ends of the victim and the assaulter, and how to prevent an assault by attending the free self-defense classes for women.

    5. “I was eight,” wrote Anna, a friend of this editor, describing how she was raped by a relative and, frozen by fear, unable to resist. “I was 16, on a press tour,” wrote former Russian journalist Anastasia. “A drunken col-league kept breaking into my room all night, and the next day the whole group kept dis-cussing whether or not he managed to have sex with me, but for some reason I’m the one who was ashamed.”

      Although devastating, personalizing the article by including people who has first hand been assaulted helps the audience better understand the importance and urgent need to talk about this issue.

    6. encourages victims of domestic violence to seek help, to be swamped by incoming help-line phone calls.

      The new hashtag gains credibility to the topic as a whole, as well as the victims because it leads a virtual world who stands by other people who has also been assaulted themselves. It leaves them not feeling as alone.

    7. wearing revealing clothing or engag-ing in “inappropriate behavior,” Ukrainian activist Anastasia Melnychenko posted a list of incidents of harassment, assault and inappropriate behavior she has experienced as a woman

      It is hard to define "revealing clothing" or "inappropriate behavior" into one definition, because from the assaulter's standpoint, it could be more than one thing that triggered them to do what they decided to do. This is something for the audience to later explore with outside research to determine what triggers them to assault someone sexually without consent.

    8. one side blamed a woman for provoking a sexual assault by dressing attractivel

      The claim in the article is that women initiate or provoke the sexual assault by the way they dress.

    1. a $278 million package which blasted off from Vandenberg air force base on Tuesday and promptly crashed into the Pacific.

      This source is a well known european news source as well as the journalist who wrote about it.

      The author claims that NASA is wasting money on failures along with being stuck on getting to Mars, a seemingly 1960's theme. He suggests that the space program eats up all this money rather than using it to help out earth here and now.

  4. Aug 2016
    1. The pressure to avoid it is great, for in facing it I mustgive up the myth of meritocracy. I

      Here again we see meritocracy as we saw in the other article by Michael Monahan. As with the other two articles, she explains race-relation evasion.

    2. After I realized the extent to which men work from a base of unacknowledged privilege, I understoodthat much of their oppressiveness was unconscious. Then I remembered the frequent charges fromwomen of color that white women whom they encounter are oppressive. I began to understand why weare just seen as oppressive, even when we don't see ourselves that way

      This gives her the most credibility because she is taking personal experience to shed light on an issue that she does not directly experience herself. She is able to criticize her own identity and apply understanding and empathy to other identities.

    3. I think whites are carefully taught not to recognize white privilege, as males are taught not to recognizemale privilege.

      She is comparing white privilege to male privilege. This is justifying her identity and authority to write this essay. Though she may not identify as holding a marginalized ethnicity, she does identify with a marginalized gender. She is attempting to make this topic more accessible to herself and to many of the readers who could be women.

    4. I realized that, since hierarchies in oursociety are interlocking, there was most likely a phenomenon of while privilege that was similarlydenied and protected.

      Once again like the other articles there is recognition on interconnectedness between privilege and identity. The reason I chose this article is because of the personal testimony of white privilege. She is not denying or evading the fact that she holds a very prominent privilege.

    5. Peggy McIntosh is associate director of the Wellesley Collage Center for Research on Women. This essay is excerpted from WorkingPaper 189. "White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming To See Correspondences through Work in Women'sStudies" (1988), by Peggy McIntosh; available for $4.00 from the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, Wellesley MA 02181The working paper contains a longer list of privileges. This excerpted essay is reprinted from the Winter 1990 issue of IndependentSchool.White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible KnapsackPeggy McIntosh

      Mcintosh, Peggy. "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack." White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women Studies. 1988. Web. 8 Aug 2016.

  5. Jul 2016
    1. It's an exciting time at NASA as we reach for new heights to reveal the unknown and benefit humankind.

      The article ends by stating that NASA plans on continuing their research and projects. They end it on a hopeful note, and make the audience want to join them on their adventures. This article strikes me as a message to the nation that we need to continue to support NASA. They make the case that what they are doing is important and needs the backing of as many people as possible. The fact that they talk mainly about the exciting missions that they are working on, and not the more standard missions also in the works, supports this idea.

    2. We're studying Earth right now through current and future spacecraft helping answer critical challenges facing our planet: climate change, sea level rise, freshwater resources and extreme weather events

      There are other benefits to backing NASA, as they mention here. By demonstrating how what they are doing can help with environmental issues, more people may support their research. This may allow more of the audience to back them in the hopes of making our lives better in the immediate future.

    3. A new generation of U.S. commercial spacecraft and rockets are supplying cargo to the space station and soon launch astronauts once again from U.S. soil, allowing NASA to focus on building new capabilities for deep space exploration. As a blueprint for international cooperation, the space station enables a U.S.-led multinational partnership and advances shared goals in space exploration.

      NASA then explains that they are taking the steps they can in order to help out with issues people have had with them. They are working with private companies and other nations in order to bolster resources. The underlying message is that by teaming up with othe groups, they will not need as much money to reach their goals.

    4. The space station's microgravity environment makes research possible that can't be achieved on Earth, leading to breakthroughs in understanding Earth, space and physical and biological sciences.

      The article then explains why we do not have the exciting missions currently that we like to think of when space exploration comes up. We currently do not know enough to send astronauts off to other places safely. In order to get there, NASA needs to to more research as to just how to get there, and how to handle the many different types of situations that might arise. I think NASA is essentially telling people to be patient with them, and that what they are doing now may seem unimportant, but that it is necessary in order to take the next step.

    5. NASA is designing and building capabilities to send humans farther into the solar system than ever before, including to an asteroid and Mars.

      The first goal of NASA is indicated as the type of mission that most people think about when they think space exploration; astronauts going to far off places. This will keep the audiences attention, as it is the hook for the article.

    6. Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator

      The article opens up with a quote from the NASA administrator, Charles Bolden,who states NASA's mission statement. This helps solidify where NASA is coming from and gets the audience's attention.

    7. What's Next For NASA?

      "What's Next for NASA?"NASA. 3 Sept. 2013. Web. 10 July. 2016

      This article is from NASA itself, detailing their ongoing and future plans for their projects. This has been written not only to keep the audience informed of what is happening and where their money is going, but also to pitch ideas that may get them more support for their endeavors. Although it is a government agency, NASA sometimes need to act like a business. One thing businesses need to do to gain investors is to pitch their ideas. For this reason, the article was written. It could be argued either way whether or not this is a credible source. I think its credible, but not scholarly. It comes from NASA and is being edited regularly by NASA administrators. These are experts in the field, which means the people should be believed. However, there are no outside sources or information being used. It is strictly stating plans for the agency's future.

  6. Mar 2016
    1. If that happens many of the planet’s sea creatures would be unable to reproduce, find food, or escape predators and that’s bad news for the world’s commercial fishing industry and for recreational fishing as well,

      Annother possible inquiry question: While this may be bad news for the world's commercial fishing industry and recreational fishing, what about for the ecosystem as a whole? Or even through a smaller lens, what about the organisms living in a toxic environment that they have no control over?

      This also sheds some light on the view of fishermen and how the pollution of the ocean is directly affecting themas well.

    2. rising carbon dioxide levels

      This article mainly focuses on the stakeholder view of environmentalists. It examines the negative effects of the carbon dioxide that is being released into the environment and how it is severely affecting the marine organisms.

    3. The scientists studied seawater collected during the last 30 years and analyzed carbon dioxide concentrations with a mathematical algorithm.

      This increases the credibility of the author by discussing a scientific study.

      What information was found by this study? How is it beneficial to the authors claim?

    4. University of South Wales. By

      By brining in information from a University this increases the credibility of the author.

    5. Hypercapnia happens when carbon dioxide levels reach 650 parts per million; current levels exceed 400 ppm.

      Here the author uses logos. They are showing the harsh reality of how close our oceans are to having severe consequences due to our own pollution.

    6. By offering a $3,500 top prize, scientists at Thinkable.org are hoping to entice other researchers to beat their approach and improve our understanding of hypercapnia, the drunken fish phenomena.

      Another possible inquiry question to be asked here could be: Although the incentive of a monetary reward is appetizing, why is it necessary for there to be a tangible reward present when an entire ecosystem is at risk of extinction because of our own wrong doing?

      Shouldn't we be morally obligated to take care of the ecosystems that surround us and play a major role for life on planet earth?

    7. The drunk fish phenomenon has the possibility of affecting not just saltwater fish, but also coral reefs, ocean mammals, and entire marine ecosystems.

      A possible inquiry question to be asked here could be: If we continue to litter and pollute the oceans, how will the rest of the ecosystem be affected by the loss of these systems?

    8. A study published in Nature reports that increased carbon dioxide levels caused by climate change could make the planet’s fish drunk as a skunk and unable to operate normally.

      "Rising Ocean Pollution Levels Are Making Fish Drunk." The Inquisitr News. Web. 11 Mar. 2016.

      This is a popular source, therefore we can expect an informal approach to gain audience attention. The claim of this article is that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the ocean due to climate change is negatively affecting that fish that live in these marine environments and giving them a drunken affect.

    1. Such research has been conducted because rape victims are often viewed as partially responsible and to blame for the crime of rape (e.g., Calhoun, Selby, & Warring, 1976; Cameron & Stritzke, 2003; Donnerstein & Berkowitz, 1981; Muehlenhard, 1988; Muehlenhard & Rodgers, 1993). Moreover, rape is a crime that is frequently minimized—that is, it is perceived by others as non-serious (e.g., perceptions of only minimal or no

      The authors show that the reader can trust them right away by giving examples of their more direct claim which is that many victims are blamed especially if they are rape victims.

    2. Many victims of crime are blamed for their own victimization

      This is the general claim of the article.


      " Violence Against Women ". Vaw.sagepub.com. N. p., 2016. Web. 11 Mar. 2016.

      "Violence Against Women (VAW) peer-reviewed and published monthly, is an international, interdisciplinary journal dedicated to the publication of research and information on all aspects of the problem of violence against women. VAW assumes a broad definition of violence; topics to be covered include, but are not limited to, domestic violence, sexual assault, incest, sexual harassment, female infantcide, female circumcision, and female sexual slavery."

    4. The Influence of Rape Myth Consistent Information on Gender Differences in Rape Victim Perceptions

      Hockett, Jericho M., et al. "Rape Myth Consistency And Gender Differences In Perceiving Rape Victims." Violence Against Women 22.2 (2016): 139-167. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.



    1. Climate scientists, meanwhile, know that heat must still be building up somewhere in the climate system, but they have struggled to explain where it is going, if not into the atmosphere.

      This is how I would use this source in my Twine Essay. By showing that scientists are proving the reasons for the rise in intense oceanic temperatures, I can give validity to the concept of climate change, Additionally, I think that it would be interesting in looking at further research to see if we could predict future events or help stop the dramatic effects of them.

    1. As such, they are a critical tool at adaptation planners' disposal for tackling the threats that climate change poses to peoples' lives and livelihoods.

      This is the targeted group of stakeholders. People whose lives have been or will be affected by climate change.

    2. As climate change increasingly threatens lives and livelihoods, maximizing adaptation opportunities will minimize its potentially catastrophic effects.

      This is how I see me using this reference in my Twine Essay. If I could show people potential actions they could take or that our nation could take to help climate change maybe it will cause them to try and make more of an effort.

    3. Focus now must turn to establishing funding priorities for the Green Climate Fund, which will strongly influence the lending patterns of multilateral agencies and help guide national adaptation policies and planning.

      I would be interested in looking into this and seeing how successful it is.

    4. Furthermore, hard-engineering interventions can have negative and unforeseen impacts on surrounding human and natural systems

      Again, another issue with the EbA approach. If we are trying to help the environment now, we also want to ensure that the future environment will be safe no matter what we use on it now to help fix it. We want to help fix and support the environment, not just temporarily deal with the issue at hand.

    5. Many hard adaptation approaches are essentially permanent and inflexible — a key drawback in some settings. A hard structure can be mismatched to future climatic conditions, either because it was designed based on an assumption that natural systems such as rivers fluctuate within an unchanging envelope of variability30 or because projections of future climatic conditions turn out to be inaccurate31

      This is setback against EbA. If it is not flexible enough to address future issues rather than just the ones human face now that could be a potential problem. It will cost time and money. Hopefully, research will continue to be done to help address this issue.

    6. EbA frequently provide economic, social and environmental co-benefits in the form of both marketable (for example, livestock and fish production) and non-marketable (for example, cultural preservation and biodiversity maintenance) ecosystem goods and services

      I like that the authors make the point that this EbA approach not only helps individuals with the physical effects of climate change, but it will also help will providing economic, social, and environmental effects as well. This could potentially better a nation because it doesn't just address climate change, but it fixes all of the problems associated with it.

    7. Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EbA) harness the capacity of nature to buffer human communities against the adverse impacts of climate change through the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services.

      The authors bring up this idea of ecosystem-based approaches that consist of combing both soft and hard approaches. Ultimately, the result will consist of a broad scope that will use natural infrastructure to provide adaptation services. This approach is valuable because it is effective while at the same time flexible, cost-effective, and seen at a national and international levels.

    8. Adaptation to climate change can incorporate a range of potential actions. Although no single established typology of adaptation actions exists, they can be loosely categorized into 'soft' and 'hard' approaches5.

      Here is what "they" are saying. The authors are stating that there is funding that has been created to help with the effects of climate change on individuals throughout the world. This money; however, needs to be divided into groups such as soft and hard approaches. The soft approaches as stated in the journal, will focus on "information, policy, capacity building, and institutional function." The hard approaches, on the other hand, will focus on technology and actions that will be taken to physically control and/or help the effects of climate change.

    9. Holly P. Jones,1, David G. Hole2, & Erika S. Zavaleta

      Not much was available about the professional lives of each author, but I was able to determine that each author published on the Nature Climate Change website is a PhD- level scientist. Additionally, all work is reviewed by an 'External Advisory Panel in the areas of social sciences, policy and economics to provide advice on submissions in these areas in the initial few months." Therefore, I find this publication to be written by credible sources.


      Furthermore, The Website, Nature Climate Change, mission statement states they are, "dedicated to publishing the most significant and cutting-edge research on the science of climate change, its impacts and wider implications for the economy, society and policy." The journal reports on a wide range of scientific topics and only published original interdisciplinary work.


    10. Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change

      Jones, Holly P., David G. Hole, and Erika S. Zavaleta. "Harnessing Nature to Help People Adapt to Climate Change." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 26 June 2012. Web. 09 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article by the authors is that people need to learn about the tools and/or steps they can take to help them tackle the threats that climate change causes to people, their lives, and livelihood.

    1. As patterns of wolf density, prey density, weather, and vulnerability of prey change, in comparison with the conditions of the study period described here, we predict that there will also be significant changes in wolf predation patterns and feeding behavior.

      Possible prediction to different wolf behavior and population due to predation patterns changing.

    2. increased variety in diet compared with observed winter diets, including other ungulate species, rodents, and vegetation

      They do not only target one species of prey to feed. They have a distribution between their choice. Ethos and logos.

    3. based on their vulnerability

      Relation to the post after this one.

    4. therefore kill primarily calves, old cows, and bulls that have been weakened by winter

      Shows that wolves do not kill everything. They kill to eat and they kill the weaker for a reason. Gives hint to pathos and ethos to gain less hostility to wolves.

    5. Patterns of prey selection and kill rates in winter have varied seasonally each year from 1995 to 2004 and changed in recent years as the wolf population has become established

      This can be used with the other articles as a logos and ethos perspective and give credibility to the evidence presented by other articles.

    6. predation studies on a highly visible, reintroduced population of wolves are increasing our understanding of this aspect of wolf ecology

      Gives background and insight to what this article is about.

    7. essential component to understanding the role that top carnivores play in shaping the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems

      Further proves claim with the hint of logos.

    8. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA.

      Stahler, DR, DW Smith, and DS Guernsey. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2006. Web. 07 Mar. 2016.

    9. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA.

      This is the claim for this article. Showing a scientific approach to wolf behavior. This is a scholarly reliable source.

    1. But the losses and damage extend beyond killed animals. Wolves affect ranchers’ profit even if they never kill a calf. The bigger losses of disrupted grazing, lower pregnancy rates and weight loss are harder to measure than dead calves. Wolves also destroy peace of mind.

      So the opposition (the wolf lovers) may not understand that livestock are very fickle and complicated creatures. You can't just buy some cows and start a heard, its hard work and work that needs constant re-evaluation. A cow might survive a wolf encounter but the stress associated with that could make her barren for a time. Stress also makes bovine lose weight which is bad when you get paid by the pound.

      I think people go to the store or to MacDonalds and there's your beef. They don'y think about where and how that meat gets there. I mean come on there are people that honestly believe the meat is somehow magically made at the store.

    2. When you lose an animal to causes other than wolf predation, you usually find the carcass; wolves may not leave anything at all. “It’s like the animal evaporated. We get paid for confirmed kills, but not the ones that disappear or we find too late to determine cause of death,” Whittaker explains. Bruce Mulkey of Baker, ID, says wolf proponents on a panel discussion at Idaho State University last year claimed wolves were responsible for only 1% of livestock losses, and ranchers lose more calves to disease and other problems.

      The reason the statistics are so low is explained here. But even if you take the 1% number, their are almost 5 million cattle in Idaho and Montana, that is still 50,000 head of cattle killed (http://beef2live.com/story-cattle-inventory-vs-human-population-state-0-114255). And that is just cattle, not all other livestock and pets.

      This also shows what the opposition base everything off of, just numbers and hearsay. The author is obviously from a ranch back ground with the niche words she uses but she does report both sides. That is good to get rid of the stubborn farmer stereotype.

    3. but the wolves apparently didn’t read the fine print.

      The audience is definitely not the sierra club and its members but I believe it's anyone who has grown up in the rural West where you do still have predators. People who have grown up and raised any kind of feed animal or even pets, like dogs. In the city your pet goes missing... its either adopted by someone else, at the pound or hit by a vehicle. In the country when they go missing it's either a predator or a highway. So anyone who grew up in the rural West should be interested in this. We are the ones that have to deal with this disaster while the courts and organizations in the East, so far removed, keep these oppressions on the hard working ranches and farmers that feed them. I am certainly the audience here but I have much more of an elevated tone then the article.

    4. In central/eastern Idaho, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Canadian gray wolves in 1995. Theoretically, the wolves were supposed to stay in the backcountry and eat elk, but the wolves apparently didn’t read the fine print.

      Claim: Human involvement placed wolves in a small area but wolves are wolves and go where the want when they want and have the know how and stamina to do so. We humans like to think we can tweek nature to our foreseen outcome, but we are idiots. Nature solves itself one way or another. This wolf debacle is a fantastic example of how human involvement just creates more chaos. First off they forgot that there are multiple species of wolves and placed the big bad Canadian version in our back yard, the ones that are built to cover hundreds of miles a day and are bigger and hungrier then the small local population (which has now been killed of driven out by these new wolves). Whoops, now they are everywhere and livestock are being killed on a scale 5% more then usual and those beloved Elk and Deer that everyone loves to watch from their cars on the side of the highway, they are disappearing too.<br> This claim of the author may come of as sarcastic but it carries meaning if you understand that people in a totally different area and culture decide what to do with the land others have pioneered and fought out a living on.

    5. Western Ranchers Fight The Curse Of Introduced Wolves

      This web source is all about farm and ranch. Everything from markets to laws to alerts. Wolves are an important thing to this website and it's users. Its easy to say they could be bias towards anything ranch and against wolves, but this article was very factual and pretty objective considering the forum.

    6. Ranchers have been told that wolves are shy and stay away from people.

      More excellent research most likely carried out from behind a desk somewhere or at least skewed to cover what wolves really are, very curious and quick learning animals. Just because you don't see that wolf anymore doesn't mean its gone.

    7. Western Ranchers Fight The Curse Of Introduced Wolves

      Heather Smith Thomas. "Western Ranchers Fight The Curse Of Introduced Wolves". September 10, 2010. Web. March 6 2016. <beefmagazine.com>

    1. The final sample size included 2,364respondents, who were selected and interviewed using a multistage probabilistic survey design.

      The total population in Brazil was recorded at 204.5 million people in 2015. In my opinion, the whole number of people for the survey is too small to generalize as the most of nations’ views. The survey reflect only one out of hundred-thousandth of the entire population of Brazil.

    2. Our study of religion and abortion attitudes in Brazil utilizes data from the Brazilian SocialResearch Survey (BSRS).2The BSRS is a nationally representative survey of the Brazilian adultpopulation age 18 years and older that was administered in 2002 with the objective to explorepublic attitudes and values on a range of social issues.

      The research depends on the authority of the Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS) to gain credibility from the audience.

    3. Given these considerations, the purpose of our study is toexamine the association between religion and abortion issues in Brazil with regard to the practiceof abortion and abortion policy.

      The authors state why they write this scholar journal. It has a scholarly significance to perform the first research which explores the association between religion and abortion attitudes among the Brazilian population.

    4. The Catholic Church’s pro-family discourse and oppositionto abortion is well documented, yet there has not been a systematic investigation of sentimentsabout the practice and policy preferences concerning its legalization among the Catholic laity.

      Although Catholic Church’s official dictum is strongly against abortion, the authors suggest that the Catholic laity’s opinion may different from it. It can lead the further research.

    5. Research has yet to examine the role of religious factors on abortion attitudes in Brazil.

      The authors present a hypothesis that role of religious factors is related to the abortion attitude in Brazil. There are no published research that reveals the link between religion and public policy in Brazil up to now. Therefore, the authors give the United States’ research result to gain credibility from the audience. However, Brazil has different socioeconomic situation such as the per capita national income, gross domestic product (GDP), or a political posture from the U.S. In my opinion, the authors committee the logical fallacy. It is nonsense to apply the study in Brazil which has different circumstances from the U.S.

    6. The official doctrinal position that abortion is a grave sin is widely disseminated,and under the direct influence of the Vatican and guided by the belief that the “right to life beginsat conception,” the Catholic Church in Brazil has consistently demonstrated opposition to thelegalization of abortion and has propagated this view in a clear manner among its followers.

      Catholic leaders still cling to their position strictly that no abortion or contraception for Zika virus.

    7. Consequently, the push to legalizeabortion, at the same time garnering opposition from religious groups, has also become a salientissue for international women’s rights movements and health organizations (Correa 2010).

      This sentence regards Brazil as one of the country which has a great influence of religion. Every policy should consider religious groups’ opinions.

    8. A recent groundbreaking study, however, us-ing a ballot box technique to ensure complete anonymity for respondents, found that more thanone-fifth of Brazilian women living in urban areas had received at least one abortion by the endof reproductive age (Diniz and Medeiros 2010).

      These statistics is shocking that 25% of Brazilian women had received at least one abortion. The unproven process of illegal abortion can potentially make a negative effect on female health outcome. The situation will be exacerbated due to Zika virus. The Brazil government should prepare several measures before it is too late.

    9. collecting accurate estimates of its actual incidence has been a challenging exercisefor researchers

      It shows that Brazil has hostile condition to get an accurate rate about receiving illegal abortion because the women who report abortions receive the fear of social and legal sanctions.

    10. Since 1940, abortion has been illegal in Brazil, except in cases of rape or when the woman’slife is at risk. Despite legislative efforts to liberalize the law, especially from feminist organiza-tions, the current law has not changed significantly since becoming a statute (Correa 2010; Rocha2006).

      Historically, the abortion have been prohibited for 76 years in Brazil. The citizens have already recognized that abortion is illegal and they accept the reality and adapt themselves. That is why it is hard to change the abortion law although unsafe illegal abortions in Brazil are widespread and pose a significant health risk for women. However, Zika virus outbreak has prompted quite a commotion in public, so it may affect to revise the abortion law completely.

    11. During theinterim period between the first and second round of elections, the public opposition expressedby the Catholic Church and evangelical groups over Rousseff’s position on abortion promptedher to change her position and draft a letter promising not to change the abortion law if she wereelected president.

      Dilma Rousseff is the first female elected president in Brazil. Although she was heavily popular with the public, she faced tough competition due to her position on favoring the legalization of abortion. This episode illustrates that the abortion is not only women’s rights problems but also a divisive cultural issue with moral and religious dimensions.

    12. The most recent presidential election in Brazil, in November 2010, was marked by a con-tentious public debate over the practice of abortion and the future of abortion policy in thecountry (see Correa 2010).

      The audience can foresee the situation that a discussion on abortion and its policy in Brazil will be heated by a dramatic rise of Zika virus.

    13. This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortionpolicy in Brazil.

      The authors formulate a hypothesis that Pentecostals and Catholics tends to the strongest opposition against the practice of abortion and its legalization.