9 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2024
    1. Instance methods Instances of Models are documents. Documents have many of their own built-in instance methods. We may also define our own custom document instance methods. // define a schema const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String }, { // Assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema through schema options. // By following this approach, there is no need to create a separate TS type to define the type of the instance functions. methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } }); // Or, assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); }; Now all of our animal instances have a findSimilarTypes method available to them. const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema); const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog' }); dog.findSimilarTypes((err, dogs) => { console.log(dogs); // woof }); Overwriting a default mongoose document method may lead to unpredictable results. See this for more details. The example above uses the Schema.methods object directly to save an instance method. You can also use the Schema.method() helper as described here. Do not declare methods using ES6 arrow functions (=>). Arrow functions explicitly prevent binding this, so your method will not have access to the document and the above examples will not work.

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided code snippets:

      1. What is it and why is it used?

      In Mongoose, a schema is a blueprint for defining the structure of documents within a collection. When you define a schema, you can also attach methods to it. These methods become instance methods, meaning they are available on the individual documents (instances) created from that schema.

      Instance methods are useful for encapsulating functionality related to a specific document or model instance. They allow you to define custom behavior that can be executed on a specific document. In the given example, the findSimilarTypes method is added to instances of the Animal model, making it easy to find other animals of the same type.

      2. Syntax:

      Using methods object directly in the schema options:

      javascript const animalSchema = new Schema( { name: String, type: String }, { methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } } );

      Using methods object directly in the schema:

      javascript animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      Using Schema.method() helper:

      javascript animalSchema.method('findSimilarTypes', function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); });

      3. Explanation in Simple Words with Examples:

      Why it's Used:

      Imagine you have a collection of animals in your database, and you want to find other animals of the same type. Instead of writing the same logic repeatedly, you can define a method that can be called on each animal instance to find similar types. This helps in keeping your code DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) and makes it easier to maintain.


      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const { Schema } = mongoose;

      // Define a schema with a custom instance method const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String });

      // Add a custom instance method to find similar types animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      // Create the Animal model using the schema const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema);

      // Create an instance of Animal const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog', name: 'Buddy' });

      // Use the custom method to find similar types dog.findSimilarTypes((err, similarAnimals) => { console.log(similarAnimals); }); ```

      In this example, findSimilarTypes is a custom instance method added to the Animal schema. When you create an instance of the Animal model (e.g., a dog), you can then call findSimilarTypes on that instance to find other animals with the same type. The method uses the this.type property, which refers to the type of the current animal instance. This allows you to easily reuse the logic for finding similar types across different instances of the Animal model.

      Certainly! Let's go through each part and explain it in simple terms: ### 1. `this` in Mongoose: - **What is `this`?** In JavaScript, `this` refers to the current context or object. In Mongoose, particularly within methods and middleware functions, `this` represents the instance (document) the function is currently operating on. - **Why is it used?** `this` is used to access and modify the properties of the current document. For example, in a Mongoose method, `this` allows you to refer to the fields of the specific document the method is called on. ### 2. Example: Let's use the `userSchema.pre("save", ...)`, which is a Mongoose middleware, as an example: ```javascript userSchema.pre("save", async function (next) { if (!this.isModified("password")) { next(); } else { this.password = await bcrypt.hash(this.password, 10); next(); } }); ``` - **Explanation in Simple Words:** - Imagine you have a system where users can sign up and set their password. - Before saving a new user to the database, you want to ensure that the password is securely encrypted (hashed) using a library like `bcrypt`. - The `userSchema.pre("save", ...)` is a special function that runs automatically before saving a user to the database. - In this function: - `this.isModified("password")`: Checks if the password field of the current user has been changed. - If the password is not modified, it means the user is not updating their password, so it just moves on to the next operation (saving the user). - If the password is modified, it means a new password is set or the existing one is changed. In this case, it uses `bcrypt.hash` to encrypt (hash) the password before saving it to the database. - The use of `this` here is crucial because it allows you to refer to the specific user document that's being saved. It ensures that the correct password is hashed for the current user being processed. In summary, `this` in Mongoose is a way to refer to the current document or instance, and it's commonly used to access and modify the properties of that document, especially in middleware functions like the one demonstrated here for password encryption before saving to the database.




  2. Jul 2023
  3. Aug 2022
      • When considering the work of social reproduction in the University, I suggest we focus our attention to two interrelated and crucial sites: the reproduction of the University itself, and the reproduction of the subject (the student-self).
      • Mapping social reproduction in the University uncovers the racism and patriarchy at work. As the neoliberal university seeks to market its diversity and multiculturalism, it requires those diverse bodies to do the work of reproducing the university as such.
  4. Jun 2022
    1. Referencing Intersections and Dialectics, McNally identifies in liberalism what he calls "social Newtonianism." In this theoretical framework, "things—be they entities, processes, or relations—can thus only be understood as utterly discrete atomic bits whose identities exclude the co-constituting effects of others," a critique which he applies doubly to liberalism and strains of intersectional theory. (McNally, 97) In a much less radical sense, we can understand social Newtonianism to be constitutive of the faux-progressivism of the neoliberal university, in which Contemporary DEI is an entrenched set of discourses. The production of social atomism amongst the working class is essential to ruling class ideology, and by extension managerial rationality. Managerial rationalities within the university are thus accepting of a watered-down form of intersectionality--one that leans into social Newtonianism and discourages class analysis. For this reason, among others, SRT provides resources to combat institutional discourse on race, gender and inequality.

    2. One understanding of social reproduction is that it isabout two separate spaces and two separate processes of production: theeconomic and the social—often understood as the workplace and home.In this understanding, the worker produces surplus value at work andhence is part of the production of the total wealth of society. At the end ofthe workday, because the worker is “free” under capitalism, capital mustrelinquish control over the process of regeneration of the worker andhence the reproduction of the workforce. The corpus of social relationsinvolving regeneration—birth, death, social communication, and soon—is most commonly referred to in scholarly as well as policy literatureas care or social care

      In the residential university, the economic and social life of the student are collapsed. In this sense, the labor of being surveilled and the production of human capital through all social processes inherent to regimes of managerial rationality, is panoptical, totalizing.

    3. The volume is premised upon the understanding that “in capitalistsocieties the majority of people subsist by combining paid employmentand unpaid domestic labor to maintain themselves . . . [hence] thisversion of social reproduction analyzes the ways in which both laborsare part of the same socio-economic process.”

      Part 2 aims to supplement the economic questions addressed in Part 1 to fully account for the vast unpaid and uncompensated labor that constitutes the labor process within the university. A proper analysis of labor in the university, and Contemporary DEI's role in facilitating it is to understand the socio-economic productive and reproductive forces that produce student, faculty and administrative subjectivity.

    4. apitalism, however, acknowledgesproductive labor for the market as the sole form of legitimate “work,”while the tremendous amount of familial as well as communitarian workthat goes on to sustain and reproduce the worker, or more specificallyher labor power, is naturalized into nonexistence.

      In the racialized and gendered capitalism that produces DEI, embodying diversity and similar forms of labor are made invisible as such.

  5. Sep 2018
    1. It appears therefore that the only alternative which now offers itself to the inhabitants of Lower Canada is a choice between dissolution pure and simple, or Confederation on one side, and representation by population on the other. And however opposed Lower Canada may be to representation by population, is there not imminent danger that it may be finally imposed upon it, if it resist all measures of reform, the object of which is to leave to the local authorities of each section the control of its own interests and institutions. We should not forget that the same authority which imposed on us the Act of Union, or which altered it without our consent, by repealing the clause which required the concurrence of two thirds of the members of both Houses in order to change the representation respecting the two sections, may again intervene to impose upon us this new change.

      Preamble, Part V, §§.51, 52, 91, 91(1), 92, and 92(2) of the Constitution Act, 1867. of the Constitution Act, 1867.

  6. Feb 2016
    1. How were human beings created? • Where did they obtain their knowledge, and how did they provide for themselves?

      1) Human beings were created by birth from mother and father.

      2) The father passed on his offspring and that his how they gained knowledge.