96 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2024
  2. Feb 2024
    1. The project contributes to better understanding of the root causes of the ecological crisis, brings important insights into sustainability transitions at grassroots and points of friction with the growth economy, and enhances our knowledge on concrete solutions for alternative ways of organizing the economy.
    1. Résumé vidéo [00:00:09][^1^][1] - [00:04:27][^2^][2]:

      Cette vidéo explique comment diminuer les comportements indésirables des élèves en utilisant les principes de la science du comportement. Elle présente les étapes à suivre pour concevoir et mettre en œuvre un plan de modification du comportement, ainsi que les considérations éthiques à prendre en compte.

      Temps forts: + [00:00:09][^3^][3] Comment diminuer les comportements indésirables * Avoir un plan clair et précis * Identifier les antécédents et les conséquences du comportement * Récompenser les comportements opposés positifs * Punir les comportements indésirables si nécessaire + [00:01:28][^4^][4] Comment adapter le plan aux modifications observées * Réévaluer régulièrement l'adéquation du programme * Viser une zone sensible entre la récompense trop fréquente et trop rare * Atténuer progressivement les récompenses + [00:02:25][^5^][5] Comment cultiver la qualité de la relation enseignant-élève * Éviter l'escalade négative * Accueillir chaque élève de manière positive * Augmenter le rapport entre les compliments et les réprimandes * Passer quelques minutes par jour avec les élèves difficiles + [00:03:20][^6^][6] Conclusion et ressources supplémentaires * Connaître les bases de la science du comportement * Demander de l'aide aux personnels spécialisés en cas de besoin * Prévenir les comportements indésirables par un climat et des règles cohérentes * Découvrir les démarches à l'échelle de la classe et de l'établissement

  3. Jan 2024
    1. [Musique] merci beaucoup à tous les trois pour ces interventions très riches

      Résumé vidéo [01:11:29][^1^][1] - [01:18:06][^2^][2]:

      La quatrième partie de la vidéo traite de l'utilisation des résultats de la recherche par les différentes directions de Pôle emploi et par d'autres acteurs. Les intervenants partagent leurs expériences et leurs recommandations pour diffuser, inspirer, ajuster et suivre les programmes évalués. Ils soulignent l'importance du cycle d'apprentissage, du contact avec les utilisateurs finaux et de la promotion des programmes innovants qui ont montré des effets positifs.

      Points forts: + [01:11:29][^3^][3] L'utilisation des résultats de la recherche par Pôle emploi * Diffuser les résultats avec un large auditoire * Inspirer d'autres politiques en présentant les résultats à l'international * Ajuster les programmes en fonction des résultats et refaire des évaluations * Suivre et promouvoir les programmes innovants qui marchent + [01:15:06][^4^][4] L'importance du contact avec les utilisateurs finaux * Les chercheurs sont transformés par le contact avec le terrain * Les administrations centrales sont souvent coupées des utilisateurs finaux * Obliger les agents à passer 10 jours par an au contact des utilisateurs * Avoir un impact majeur sur la conception et l'ouverture des politiques + [01:17:33][^5^][5] Le mot de la fin * Remercier les intervenants pour leur implication et leur suivi * Faire une pause café de 30 minutes * Reprendre à 11h45 précise

  4. Aug 2023
    1. The RNGs or PRNGs (Pseudo-Random Number Generators) are the building blocks of modern cyber-security and cryptography. The basic principle of these RNGs lie in some computation providing different numbers, that seem random.
  5. Jun 2023
  6. Apr 2023
    1. Practical reasoning is a goal-directed sequence of linked practical inferencesthat seeks out a prudent line of conduct for an agent in a set of particular circumstances known by the agent. Where a is an agent, A is an action, and G a goal, thetwo basic types of practical inferences are respectively, the necessary conditionscheme and the sufficient condition scheme (Walton, Pract. Reas., 1 990; see alsoSchellens, 1 987).G is a goal for aDoing A is necessary for a to carry out GTherefore, a ought to do AG is a goal for aDoing A is sufficient for a to carry out GTherefore, a ought to do A
      • Goal Directed sequence
      • Agent Awareness
      • Act may be sufficient or necessary for Goal. *Therefore, Agent carries Act out
      • Required to Understand the Qualification Weight of Act is it necessary or sufficient?
    2. A person who puts forward an argumentation anticipates criticism, and bychoosing a particular type of argumentation, using the one argumentationscheme rather than the other, he implies that he thinks he knows which routewill lead to the justification of his standpoint. At any rate, whether he reallythinks this or not, if he is to be taken seriously by the other party, he may beheld to be committed to deal with the critical questions which pertain to ajustification via the argumentation scheme that is inherent in his argumentation.In relying on a certain argumentation scheme, the arguer invokes a particular testing method in a dialectical procedure, in which certain criticalreactions are relevant, and others not. Each argumentation scheme calls, as itwere, for its own set of critical reactions. In conjunction with each other,these reactions constitute a well-rounded test for checking the soundness of anargumentation of the type concerned. (p. 98)This way of describing argumentation schemes suggests that they are normativelybinding, in the following sense. If the hearer accepts the premises of the speaker'sargument, and the argument is an instance of a genuine and appropriate argumentation scheme (for the type of dialogue they are engaged in), then the hearer mustor should (in some binding way) accept the conclusion. This does not appear to be"validity" in the same sense in which the word is familiarly used in deductive (orperhaps even inductive) logic. But it does appear to express a normative or broadlylogical sense of validity, bindingness, conditional acceptability, or whatever youwant to call it
      • Initial Speaker has goal in mind thus presents reasoning that invites particular types of attention
      • This includes Supportive and Critical attention
      • The reasoning is normative in that it conformism to the shared communicative standards. Not definitive logical ones.
    3. Arguments like the one in Case 1 . 1 lie on a razor's edge: They are somewhatweak and unreliable, and apt to fail occasionally, but they are not so bad or inherently erroneous that they should be called "fallacious" in all instances. On theother hand, they can tum out to be fallacious, in some cases. And, in particular,they run the risk of committing the secundum quid fallacy as quite a general sort offailure they are prone to. If this is right, a new approach to fallacies is called foran approach that takes more care in assessing the particulars of a given case.In arguments like the one in Case 1 . 1 , the premise, if true in a given case,does give a reason for accepting the conclusion. But it is not a conclusive reason,and it is subject to default relative to what is known (or becomes known) of thefurther circumstances of the case. The problem then is to find the underlying structure of inference in such a case that enables one to identify and test the correctness(or incorrectness) of the argument as an instance of an argumentation scheme
      • Case = Argumentative Stage in the Sequence of Goal Statements
      • All Cases generate infernal qualifications.
      • Inferential Qualifications give rise to conclusions
      • Qualification to Conclusion = Argument
      • Arguments Relate to Goal.
    1. .

      Implications of these findings are that preventative measures regarding substance use should be implemented in the ASD population, and that comprehensive psychiatric examinations should be done in individuals with ADHD, ID, and ASD to determine what SUD treatment methods are most effective for each. Another implication is that attempts to treat SUD in ASD should consider vulnerabilities of first degree family members.



  7. Mar 2023
    1. In conclusion, this trial showed that patientswith ARDS and severe hypoxemia (as confirmedby a Pao2:Fio2 ratio of <150 mm Hg, with anFio2 of ≥0.6 and a PEEP of ≥5 cm of water) canbenefit from prone treatment when it is usedearly and in relatively long sessions

      Prone positioning may be beneficial in a small group of patients

  8. Feb 2023
    1. These findings implied that Lst1 and Atg40 function in the same pathway

      No additive effect was observed when double mutant of lst1atg40 is investigated. This finding drawn another summary which LST1 and ATG40 function in the same pathway.

    2. By contrast, Lst1 acted exclusively in ER-phagy

      A conclusion summarized by the authors based on experiments that have been done to distinguish the bulk autophagy and selective autophagy that happened in various organelles, and only ER-phagy is required by Lst1 coat protein.

      To draw a conclusion which exclusively functional in one particular experiment, the designs of various experiments are needed in order to rule out other possibilities.

    3. Atg40-3xFLAG from both lysates bound to purified, bacterially produced glutathione S-transferase (GST)–Lst1, but not to GST-Sec13, GST-Sec24 (Fig. 3A and fig. S10, A and C), or GST-Sec23 (fig. S10B).

      Only GST-Lst1 purified protein is able to bind with the Atg40 but not other subunits of COP11 coat proteins.

  9. Oct 2022
    1. general methods that leverage computation are ultimately the most effective, and by a large margin.

      what are general methods?

  10. Sep 2022
    1. En este artículo se destaca que, para que lasorganizaciones logren alcanzar sus objetivos, deberánapostar por aplicar estrategias de crecimiento deltalento humano enfocadas en la aplicación delempoderamiento de los colaboradores. Por tal motivo,se han presentado tres casos de empresastransnacionales que cuentan con éxito,reconocimiento social y actualmente se encuentran enexpansión, las cuales han recurrido al empowermentcomo estrategia de crecimiento de su talento humano.

      Logro de objetivos de las organizaciones

    1. Conclusion The role of a learning designer has continued to evolve to make room for emergent technologies and frameworks. Always the goal has been to design the most effective learning using all theories, processes, or technologies at our disposal. In the modern version of the field, there are simply more of these theories, processes, and increasingly advanced technologies to assist us.

      I wonder how much Artificial intelligence and virtual reality enhancements will affect the role of the learner designer. I know we will have to learn the platform, its technology but at what level. Will we have to learn how to code to be able to do an effective learning environment.

  11. Jun 2022
    1. nd yet this labor force cannot reproduce itself, it mustbe reproduced. The university works for the day when it will be able to rid it-self, like capital in general, of the trouble of labor.

      As Moten and Harney convey poetically and simply, the barrier to an autonomous university is the inorganic work of labor reproduction--that which necessitates administrative work and its ideological state apparatus (managerial rationality). Human capital production, as noted, is thus the scheme of labor reproducing itself in contradiction. Just as capital, and the administrative apparatus seeks to "rid itself of the trouble of labor," labor in the university must wage an equally militant movement to abolish the administrative apparatus that interpolates labor as trouble.

    1. One understanding of social reproduction is that it isabout two separate spaces and two separate processes of production: theeconomic and the social—often understood as the workplace and home.In this understanding, the worker produces surplus value at work andhence is part of the production of the total wealth of society. At the end ofthe workday, because the worker is “free” under capitalism, capital mustrelinquish control over the process of regeneration of the worker andhence the reproduction of the workforce. The corpus of social relationsinvolving regeneration—birth, death, social communication, and soon—is most commonly referred to in scholarly as well as policy literatureas care or social care

      In the residential university, the economic and social life of the student are collapsed. In this sense, the labor of being surveilled and the production of human capital through all social processes inherent to regimes of managerial rationality, is panoptical, totalizing.

  12. May 2022
  13. Apr 2022
  14. Feb 2022
    1. Researchers have only just begun to address how relationship dynamics, stress, emotions, and violence may be linked.
    2. Continuing theoretical de- velopment on masculinities, along with an under- standing of stress and coping research, offers a promising framework for more fully understand- ing the social psychological processes (especially the stress, appraisal, and coping patterns) that un- derlie domestic violence.



  15. Jan 2022
    1. as.

      This argument is ineffective for anyone already educated as to what being trans is. Unfortunately, many people are not educated and Ryan T. Anderson is very persuasive. He starts off with many small things, making the topic out to be huge, complicated and scary to make the uneducated reader fear trans people, and trans activists. He points out how terminology is constantly changing while making trans activists out to be crazy people, unable to make up their mind, when in reality the terminology is evolving as more trans people come out and find words to describe themselves.

      Ryan T. Adersonś arguments stands on the back of a strawman argument, that once you point out, burns up the rest of his argument underneath him.

    1. In general for all coordinates extracted by StylEx,except one, there is a common word shared by all descrip-tions, and only in two coordinates the most common word isthe same. On the other hand, for Wu et al. less than half ofthe coordinates have a common word in all their descriptions,and two pairs of coordinates have the same most commonword.
  16. Dec 2021
    1. The results of the study showed that object control motor skills (such as kicking, catching, and throwing a ball), were better in the children who played interactive games.“This study was not designed to assess whether interactive gaming can actually develop children’s movement skills, but the results are still quite interesting and point to a need to further explore a possible connection,” said Dr. Lisa Barnett, lead researcher on the study.“It could be that these children have higher object control skills because they are playing interactive games that may help to develop these types of skills (for example, the under hand roll through playing the bowling game on the Wii). Playing interactive electronic games may also help eye-hand coordination.”

      This is a deductive argument because the logical premise which is that video games can improve motion control skills is supported by a logical premises which is the evidence from Dr. Lisa Barnett. This premises leads to the conclusion that video games can improve motor skills.

  17. Nov 2021
    1. Combining organic farming and modern biotechnology could unleash important synergies, as both have their specific strengths in contributing to the SDGs. However, such combination would require a change in the EU law

      Conclusion / recommendation: combine organic and biotechnology

    1. A preguiça entre nós, como a luxúria e o dengo, nunca foi coisa de negro nem de índio ou de mulato e nem mesmo de ranço pobre. É a fatia do branco rico, a mais gostosa de suas muitas regalias.



  18. Oct 2021
    1. Also the problem becomes even worse if you multiple api/resource servers and have to decide in each load function which credentials should be exposed to which server.
  19. Jun 2021
  20. Mar 2021
    1. To the consternation of some users, 3.x employed Unicode variable names such as λ, φ, τ and π for a concise representation of mathematical operations. A downside of this approach was that a SyntaxError would occur if you loaded the non-minified D3 using ISO-8859-1 instead of UTF-8. 3.x also used Unicode string literals, such as the SI-prefix µ for 1e-6. 4.0 uses only ASCII variable names and ASCII string literals (see rollup-plugin-ascii), avoiding encoding problems.
    1. (A) Optical image of the undeformed device (left) and the FEA model for simulation (right). Optical images and max principal strain contours of the multifunctional wearable electronics being uniaxially stretched by 60% along vertical direction (B), along horizontal direction (C), and being biaxially stretched by 30% (D). (E) ECG data of the same device under different deformation modes. Photo credit: Chuanqian Shi, University of Colorado, Boulder.

      (A) Model of the device without any stress/strain (left) and Finite element analysis model of the wearable device, not deformed (right). The model to the right exhibits the components inside the device. (B-C) The model shown being stretched 60%, vertically and horizontally respectively, show the maximum strain of the chip being 0.01%. This is much less than the normal failure strain for silicon (1%). (D) This figure shows the FMEA model being stretched 30% vertically and horizontally. The maximum strain in the chip components is below 0.004%. (E) Figure shows sensing performance of device when being stretched using an ECG. No significant effects from the mechanical stretching where evident in the results.

  21. Feb 2021
    1. (A) Schematic illustration of the fabrication processes of the multifunctional wearable electronics. (B) Motion tracking performance with the multifunctional device worn on the wrist. (C) Indoor and outdoor body temperatures acquired using the wearable electronics mounted on the forehead (top) and comparison of measured indoor body temperatures when the wearable electronics is mounted at different locations (bottom). (D) Acoustic data acquired using the wearable electronics mounted on the neck. (E) ECG data acquired using the wearable electronics when the participant is at rest (top), and after exercising for 13 s (middle) and 34 s (bottom). Photo credit: Chuanqian Shi, University of Colorado, Boulder.

      (A) Step-by-step process of each layer of the device to allow multiple functionalities and wearability. (B) Amplitude vs. Time graph of sensor worn on the wrist to measure motion when walking, running, jumping. (C) Thermal sensor can read forehead, abdomen, and hand temperature on skin when indoor and outdoor over time. (D) The acoustic sensor is placed on the neck to measure the amplitude (vibration) characteristics of the vocal chords to serve as a human-machine interface. (E) The electrocardiogram sensor measures heart activity while resting, after exercising for 13 seconds and then after 34 seconds. The heart rate resulted in 72, 96, and 114 per minute, respectively.

    2. (A) Schematic illustration of a multifunctional wearable electronic system mounted on the hand, which integrates ECG, acoustic, motion, and temperature sensing capabilities. (B) Exploded view of the multifunctional wearable electronics. (C) Optical images of the multifunctional device being crumpled on the skin, bended, twisted, and stretched. (D) Schematic illustration of the dynamic covalent thermoset polyimine: polymerization and depolymerization and bond exchange reaction induced bond breaking and reforming. (E) Schematic illustration of self-healing and recycling of the multifunctional wearable electronics.

      The sensing components of the device being worn on the hand are ECG, acoustic, motion, and temperature sensors. It incorporates an electrocardiogram to measure heart activity using amplifiers and resistors to calculate the voltage versus time using electrodes placed on the skin. Assembling the sensors with EGaIn alloy to connect the sensor electronics and polyimine films allows the device to possess its’ flexibility and stretchability. Using polyimine allows for the breaking and reforming of bonds to allow self-healing, and polymerization and depolymerization to recycle the product.

    1. More often than not, the expression ‘taken to its logical conclusion’ serves to point up the absurdity of a piece of reasoning we come across.
    2. I need a holiday to get over a holiday
    3. I wish there were no Mondays
    4. The golden standard I suppose is set by the rhyme: There is a hole in my bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza. Of course, fixing it requires the use of the bucket at some stage, and so the loop closes.
  22. Dec 2020
    1. This is a first step to conquer Collector’s Fallacy: to realize that having a text at hand does nothing to increase our knowledge. We have to work with it instead. Reading alone won’t suffice: we have to create notes, too, to create real, sustainable knowledge.

      From collector to creator

  23. Oct 2020
  24. Jul 2020
    1. All this to say: your webpack test config, i.e. config/webpack/test.js, is essentially useless unless your application: a. uses a Node.js test runner for JavaScript unit test AND configure it to use your webpack config a. overrides the defaults so that the test config is loaded in your Rails tests (just be sure to change Babel behavior)
  25. May 2020
    1. In Part One of this textbook, we covered collegewriting at CNM, and reading strategies that will helpyou succeed in different disciplines. As reading andwriting go hand-in-hand, we will now turn to the stepsyou can take toward effective writing, also known asdeveloping a writing process.

      This is the conclusion to Part one of the textbook, and it includes the purpose for all the Chapters. This also brings us to what we will see next in Part 2 of the textbook.

  26. Mar 2020
    1. développer une réflexion sur leur mode de fonctionnement et leurs limites. Ce n’est qu’en mobilisant le corps des philosophes, des épistémologues, des anthropologues, des mathématiciens, des historiens…, que l’on y parviendra, pour le bienfait de tous les sujets du savoir : chercheurs, professeurs, enseignés, citoyens ».

      Conclusion et ouverture sur l'incitation au débat. En effet, Philippe Testard-Vailland, l'auteur, mais aussi, Bernard Stiegler, et d'autres scientifiques veulent commencer à chercher activement des solutions à ce problème naissant dans la société. Cet article est donc une incitation au débat, une recherche d'équilibre, mais aussi une mise en garde, face aux différents problèmes que peuvent entraîner l’essor de la technologie.

  27. Nov 2019
    1. Still, there’s plenty of hope for transit, because only 9 percent of surveyed riders abandoned transit all together. “While people are taking transit less often, they’re not completely cutting transit out of their lives,” says Mary Buchanan, a TransitCenter researcher. “They’re hanging onto transit for every now and then.”That might mean there is an opportunity to convince those riders to get back on the bus or train or light-rail car. Survey respondents who reduced their transit use said their number one transit wish is more frequent service, followed by safer, and then more predictable, trips.Making that happen is no small order, but some places have pulled it off. Seattle, for example, plans to invest $53 billion in light rail, and in 2014 the city passed a 0.1 percent sales tax to support its bus system. Its ridership (and particularly bus ridership!) is up. Oh, and traffic is down. And the TransitCenter survey respondents in Seattle cited improvements as a reason they took transit more often.It’s elementary, really: Cities just need to build systems where riding the bus is more relaxing and convenient than hopping in your car.


  28. Oct 2019
    1. The basic structure of a speech is not linear but circular. Speeches should not take you on a straight line from A to Z. Speeches should take you in a circle from A to Z.

      In previous semesters, students tend to end their speeches abruptly without tying up the loose ends. Typical: "That's it." Students need to boil down their speech's one main idea, per Chris Anderson of TED. The last few words make speeches memorable or forgotten.

  29. Apr 2019
    1. At Hyde Park Corner the car stopped suddenly, the driver swo­re and Sayako opened her eyes. The bodyguard turned around to face her.'A demonstration,' he said. 'Nothing to fear.'She looked out of the window and saw a long line of mid­dle-aged people crossing the road in front of the car. Many of them were wearing beige anoraks that Sayako, a devoted shopper, identified as coming from Marks and Spencer.12 A few were car­rying signs on sticks.Nobody appeared to take any notice of them, apart from a few impatient motorists.

      She saw many people in cloths like her. and nobody notice the princess.

  30. Mar 2019
    1. Overall, these theoretical perspectives on the impor-tance of engagement, psychosocial development, and self-presentation in the university/college context suggest thatsocial anxiety may interfere with achieving academic suc-cess, perhaps through difficulties in establishing social ties

      concluding paragraph to sum up the information presented in the text

    2. achievement over the university/college years. A fear ofnegative evaluation alongside a greater tendency of feelingdistressed and avoiding social situations seemed to inter-fere with academic achievement.

      The author sums up the main point and ideas to wrap up the article in the last paragraph

    1. Walking out of the door she wondered what she might have for tea. Possibly chicken, she thought, with salad. Walking towards her car she thought that she should have bought the cookery book after all. She suddenly felt much better in the fresh air. She'd buy it next week. And in future she'd buy a large salad cream. After all, what if people came round unexpectedly?

      Conclusion In future Jean would like to buy a large salad cream. After all, what if people came round unexpectedly?

    2. She gave over her money and picked up her carrier bag. She felt a sense of relief to be away from the mass of people. She felt out of place.Walking out of the door she wondered what she might have for tea. Possibly chicken, she thought, with salad. Walking towards her car she thought that she should have bought the cookery book after all. She suddenly felt much better in the fresh air. She'd buy it next week. And in future she'd buy a large salad cream. After all, what if people came round unexpectedly?

      she goes out and dicides to by cookery book next time

    3. Walking out of the door she wondered what she might have for tea. Possibly chicken, she thought, with salad. Walking towards her car she thought that she should have bought the cookery book after all. She suddenly felt much better in the fresh air. She'd buy it next week. And in future she'd buy a large salad cream. After all, what if people came round unexpectedly?

      Walking towards her car she thought that she should have bought the cookery book after all.

    4. Walking out of the door she wondered what she might have for tea. Possibly chicken, she thought, with salad. Walking towards her car she thought that she should have bought the cookery book after all. She suddenly felt much better in the fresh air. She'd buy it next week. And in future she'd buy a large salad cream. After all, what if people came round unexpectedly?
    5. Walking out of the door she wondered what she might have for tea. Possibly chicken, she thought, with salad. Walking towards her car she thought that she should have bought the cookery book after all. She suddenly felt much better in the fresh air. She'd buy it next week. And in future she'd buy a large salad cream. After all, what if people came round unexpectedly?


  31. Jan 2019
    1. If you simply manage to write in spoken language, you'll be ahead of 95% of writers. And it's so easy to do: just don't let a sentence through unless it's the way you'd say it to a friend.
  32. Dec 2018

      tanto la mocion de censura como la cuestion de confienza, son fomas de evaluar la continuidad y credibilidad de las personas con poder politico y controlar el gobierno.

  33. Nov 2018
    1. In summary, the hospitalist model is growing rapidly and appears to have achieved its minimum goal of improving efficiency without adverse effects on quality, teaching, or patient satisfaction. Ongoing larger studies should help determine whether preliminary data suggesting an improvement in some of these outcomes, such as quality and teaching, can be confirmed. The dominant questions no longer relate to whether the hospitalist model is here to stay—even skeptics concede that it is—but rather, the myriad organizational, financial, ethical, educational, and clinical issues that arise with a major change in the organization of US hospital care. We hope that these issues will continue to be settled on the basis of rigorous analysis of the evidence.
  34. Oct 2018
    1. We found that the photosynthetic capacity of leaves in terrestrial plants is strongly correlated with proximity of veins to the evaporative surfaces of the leaf.
  35. Aug 2018
  36. May 2018
    1. The high cost of textbooks has a measurable and negative impact on the educational choices and outcomes of post-secondary students in British Columbia. Students assigned open textbooks perceive these resources to be of generally high quality and value the cost savings, immediate access, portability, and other benefits they confer.
  37. Dec 2017
    1. 4.4 to 6.1 (P5-CS), 4.0 to 6.3 (P6-C6), and 6.8 to 9.1 (P7-C7) Ma

      mtDNA traced pairs back to million years ago. ~J.D.A.

    2. Likewise, there is no evidence for differences among the pairs in historical effective population sizes or generation times that can be related to divergence (20).

      The generation types (ex. F1, F2, etc.) and population size were taken into account for each shrimp pair. These factors were found to not support the phenomenon of divergence among shrimp pairs because no differences were found. ~J.D.A.

  38. Nov 2017
    1. Significanc

      Climate change will result in a shifting of where plants are usually located on the planet. Southern plants will move into higher latitudes, for example.


    1. Even the least divergent pairs show substantial reproductive isolation

      Species so closely related showed two differ clutches. Isolation could've been geographical, though nothing that could completely cut them off from each other since they are similar. If anything, this could infer that they could've been selective in mating, or aggressive in behavior to even mate, thus preventing creation of offspring between them. ~J.D.A

    2. 4.4 to 6.1 (P5-CS), 4.0 to 6.3 (P6-C6), and 6.8 to 9.1 (P7-C7) Ma

      mtDNA traced pairs back to million years ago. ~J.D.A.

  39. Sep 2017
    1. Charlotte Lucas poses this question to Austen studies and to a liberal feminist critical agenda: what if you choose less, choose safety, and choose constraint; choose, in Elizabeth Bennet’s words, a “humiliating picture” for yourself but nonetheless expect to be happy? Charlotte is largely overlooked in Austen criticism except to shadow Elizabeth Bennet, the “most modern and liberated” of Austen’s characters.50 Charlotte models a form of subjectivity that thus far has been temporalized into a version of the premodern that Austen was eager to transcend. Yet the relevance that she has for feminism today is acute, as we expand our focus to a global context that encompasses modes of female agency and fulfillment that are not oriented toward resistance or autonomy. Taking the relationship between Charlotte and Elizabeth not as a dynamic of oppression and liberation, but as an agonistic exchange that produces multiple forms of female subjec-tivity allows Austen’s fiction to become a richer and more productive site for imagining feminism’s multiplicity. Charlotte and Elizabeth’s differing expectations about conjugal intimacy suggest the multiplicity of roles marriage can have in mediating between self and society. In particular, Charlotte’s long overlooked perspective points toward the possibility of human flourishing in situations of restraint and of attaching significance to self-discipline and to submission to social expectations. We can recognize the significance of Charlotte’s presence in Austen’s narrative and her own claim “to be . . . happy” only when we no longer assume that emancipatory self-expansion exhausts the possibilities of empowered conjugality.

      This last paragraph is a tremendous conclusion that wraps up everything Moe pointed out in the thesis, thus successfully addressing what the article set out to achieve. However, I believe that within the content of the article, Moe did not consistently accentuate her arguments as well as she does in the last bit of her writing.

    2. More recently, some feminist criticism has turned away from describing female subjectivity as normatively governed by a will to resist. In looking to describe modes of female subjectivity outside a subversion/complicity duality and identify how women attached significance to inhabiting norms, as Charlotte Lucas did, this critical approach broadens our understanding of the multiple forms that subjectivity and agency take in the early novel.

      Interesting, especially since the majority of the article seemed to do what recent feminist criticism "has turned away against"

    1. Most of the time, in the modernage, influence is arbitrary, unconscious and disconcertingly widespread. Noreader is entirely free to think outside of the pathways literature has laiddown for her. None can wholly escape, in Austen’s words, our compulsion to‘‘fall into a quotation’’.30However independent and authentic we believe ourthinking to be, we are all operating under the influence

      Here, Murphy ties together the notion of readership and literary influence. I do find the last sentence to be somewhat unclear - what influence are readers operating under? What is the compulsion to fall into a quotation?

    2. Much must be lost if we restrict our reading of influence to Bloom’sconcept of the‘‘Poet confronting his great original’’, beyond its implicationsfor a closed and potentially sterile canon.29Such an understanding of‘‘influence’’cannot account for the novel’s great achievement.

      This is the beginning of the author's conclusion when she confronts the idea of the the restrictive nature of the canon and literary influence.

    1. The more pressing threat is that a fear of solution-ism and neoliberal connotations of “open data” together might dissuade political par-ticipation. Systemic social disparities are often intractable. The route to alleviate them has never been detachment or abandonment. Looking forward, we should pay attention to how data activism and advocacy might result in meaningful systematic change beyond the usual claims of “transparency.” To fulfill the possibilities for meaningful social change hinted at in their history, civic hackers might have to coordinate around specific mechanisms for change and articulate a deeper sense of democracy than the language of technology provides.
    2. civic hackers seek to ease societal suffering by bringing the hidden workings of abstract systems to light and improve their functioning. Part of the academic discomfort with recognizing civic hacking might stem from their activities cutting across political categories that have traditionally been passionately defended: unitary and adversary, citizen and consumer, horizontalist and institutionalized, and prefigurative and strategic.

      La noción de realistas utópicos se vincula con la idea del "no todavía" como utopía expresada en la tesis.

    1. The resultsreported here allow us to conclusively reject the possibilitythata group of sporophytic cells of the ovule are responsiblefor guiding the pollen tube as well as controlling the femalegametophyte development.
    2. Therefore, at least the finalphase of pollen tube guidance to the ovule is controlled by thefemale gametophyte.
    1. The consequence is sharks being forced to undertake energetically costly wider-range foraging as the only option to meet energy requirements

      Reef sharks spend more energy searching for food due to overexploitation of fish spawning sites.-SES

  40. Jan 2016
    1. See, these are political questions and they are philosophical questions.

      I see her argument as an extension of Tim O'Reilly's essay "The Architecture of Participation" . And I see it as a Marxist way of viewing political and economic agency as a function of some idea substructure. Although I find it intriguing that Watters uses a mesh metaphor at the end of the post. We are enmeshed in rather than standing upon political and philosphical assumptions and axioms.

  41. Feb 2014
    1. The innate qualities of intellectual pr operty, however, in combination with INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: POLICY FOR INNOVATION 15   strong economic motivations have led U.S. intellectual property policy to operate according to rights - based, non - utilitarian theory, possibly as a result of lobbying (capture theory).

      Lobbying has led to a rights-based non-utilitarian theory copyright policy in the US at the present time (2014).

    2. The U.S. social contract establishes a utilitarian basis for protection of intellectual property rights: protection as a means of encouraging innovation.

      The social contract of the US Constitution provides a utilitarian basis for protection of intellectual property rights.

    3. As intellectual property lacks scarcity, and the protection of it fails the Lockean Proviso, there is no natural right to intellectual property. As such, the justification for intellectual property rights arises from the social con tract, and in the case of the United States, the Constitution.

      The justification for intellectual property from the social contract established by the US Constitution; it otherwise has no justification by natural right because it fails the Lockean Proviso.

    1. Finally, with the current technology, some types of writing are probably outside the reach of MOOCs. There is no literature to suggest that either AES or CPR can accurately assess figurative or creative pieces, or original research pieces. Some type of peer review software that relies heavily on the students being closer to experts in their own right might bring these types of writing into larger courses; but, not every undergraduate course that uses writing as a form of assessment will translate to the MOOC format.
  42. Oct 2013
    1. Conclusion). This has four parts. You must (1) make the audience well disposed towards yourself and ill disposed towards your opponent, (2) magnify or minimize the leading facts, (3) excite the required kind of emotion in your hearers, and (4) refresh their memories by means of a recapitulation. --

      Make them remember what you talked about and want to side with you

  43. Sep 2013
    1. To sum up, everything done at the right time is seemly and everything done at the wrong time is disgraceful. What have I then worked out?

      Conclusion: seemliness or disgracefulness is dependent on temporal circumstance. This could also be said about labeling something as good or bad, but perhaps a bit looser.