3 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2023
    1. Instead of trying to resolve in general this problem of how macroscopic clas-sical physics behavior emerges in a measurement process, one can adopt thefollowing two principles as providing a phenomenological description of whatwill happen, and these allow one to make precise statistical predictions usingquantum theory

      To resolve the measurement problem from quantum mechanics into the classical realm, one can use the observables principle and the Born rule.

  2. May 2020
  3. Nov 2019
    1. This brings me to the crucial issue. Unlike the position that exists in the physical sciences, in economics and other disciplines that deal with essentially complex phenomena, the aspects of the events to be accounted for about which we can get quantitative data are necessarily limited and may not include the important ones. While in the physical sciences it is generally assumed, probably with good reason, that any important factor which determines the observed events will itself be directly observable and measurable, in the study of such complex phenomena as the market, which depend on the actions of many individuals, all the circumstances which will determine the outcome of a process, for reasons which I shall explain later, will hardly ever be fully known or measurable. And while in the physical sciences the investigator will be able to measure what, on the basis of a prima facie theory, he thinks important, in the social sciences often that is treated as important which happens to be accessible to measurement. This is sometimes carried to the point where it is demanded that our theories must be formulated in such terms that they refer only to measurable magnitudes.