35 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2023
  2. Jul 2023
    1. There are two ways of establishing a chord–scale relationship for ii 7 –V 7 or ii≤57–V 7progressions: either select a mode that works for V7 or select a mode that works for ii7or (ii≤57). As shown in Figure 18.4, mm. 2–4 feature a descending sequence of incompleteII–Vs connecting the tonic on I with the predominant on IV. Each II–V progressionestablishes a chord–scale relationship with the corresponding dominant 7th. Notice that,in m. 2, the use of Mixolydian ≤13 fits the underlying context much better than the diatonicMixolydian mode. The tonic note F4 functions as the ≤13th of Mixolydian ≤13 and isretained as a common tone in mm. 1–2. The second A section (mm. 9–16) demonstratesa different approach to chord–scale theory. The selection of modes for the II–V pro-gression in Figure 18.4 is based on the quality of the predominant chord. Thus, inm. 10, Emin7(≤5)–A7 uses E Locrian, while in m. 11, Dmin7–G7 establishes a chord–scalerelationship with D Dorian, etc

      The bridge of “Confirmation” (mm. 17–24) features two four-bar phrases with ii7 –V7 tonicizations of the IV and ≤VI key areas. The chord–scale relationship for the bridge in Figure 18.4 includes a different selection of modes: Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian for Cmin7–F7–B≤Maj7, and Dorian, Altered, and Lydian for E≤min7–A≤7–D≤Maj7. Tonal and contextual considerations are particularly evident with the choice of Altered mode in m. 22, which accommodates notes from the tonic key and prepares the arrival of FMaj7 in m. 25. The last A section (mm. 25–32) features a much bolder selection of modes. The choices of A Altered in m. 26 and F Locrian in m. 28 are particularly poignant. The former injects chromatic notes into the structure of dominant 7th chord. The choice of F Locrian over Cmin7–F7 in m. 28 might seem out of place because neither chord (at least not in the present form) establishes a convincing relationship with this mode. But, the F Locrian mode forms a chord–scale relationship with F7(≤9≥9)sus, which is an effective harmonic substitution for Cmin7–F7. While the selection of modes in Figure 18.4 is overcrowded with different options, an improvisation may focus on only a few modes. In fact, each A section contains a selection of modes that could be implemented in the course of an entire solo. In establishing a successful chord–scale relationship for the tune, be mindful of three important con- siderations: (1) modal hierarchy, (2) chromatic treatment, and (3) voice leading. Chromatic modes, for instance, contain notes that might need preparation. This preparation usually takes place anywhere from one beat to one measure before the chromatic notes occur. The succession of modes in mm. 5–6—B≤ Mixolydian and D Mixolydian ≤13—illustrates such a case. The latter mode contains the chromatic ≤13th that was introduced as ≤7th of B≤7 in m. 5. “CONFIRMATION” 239

  3. Jun 2023
    1. An Alternate Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    2. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    3. A Single-Scale ApproachThe chord structure of the A sections of rhythm changes can be reduced to the fundamentalframework shown in Figure 19.5.While mm. 1–4 of any A section feature a tonic prolongation, mm. 5–8 are morecomplicated even at the background level. For instance, the predominant in mm. 6, 14,and 30 can take the form of major 7th or dominant 7th chords. Also, the tonally closed256 INTERMEDIATEFIGURE 19.5 Fundamental Harmonic Frameworks
    4. FIGURE 19.6 A Basic Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    5. any melodic line can be represented by a chord and/or harmonicprogression and, conversely, any chord or harmonic progression can be horizontalizedwith a melodic line
    6. Chapter 18 provides an analysis of Charlie Parker’s “Confirmation” as a representativecomposition from the Bebop Era. It offers a transcription of the solo by the pianist HankJone
    7. The progression shown in Figure 9.9 exemplifies the structure of a minor blues.4The chord structure of the minor blues is characterized by the presence of traditionaltonal progressions. For instance, the tonicization of iv in m. 4 uses a secondary dominant7th, V7/iv, and the motion to V 7 in m. 10 is prepared by the ≤VI7 chord. This particularpreparation of the dominant 7th, ≤VI7–V7, is one of the harmonic trademarks of the minorblues.
    8. Figure 9.8 establishes a couple of chord–scale relationships for the basic blues progressionin the key of B≤. Figure 9.8a uses major and minor blues scales and Figure 9.8b combinesblues scales and modes
    9. Chapter 9 discusses the most important form in jazz, the blues, examines the structureof the blues scale, and provides chord–scale relationships for the basic and minor bluesprogressions
    10. The intermediary category contains three modes: Dorian, Locrian, and Locrian Ω2
    11. Chapter 8 establishes a relationship between the vertical and horizontal dimensions injazz. The diatonic and chromatic modes are revisited, and chord–scale relationships withfour-, five-part chords, and the II–V–I progressions are established.
    1. Diminished Scales and Harmony
    2. Like the diminished chord, the diminished scale is symmetrical, an eight-note (octotonic)collection of alternating whole and half steps, or half and whole steps.21 As Stefan Koskastates, “The octotonic scale is a rich source of melodic and harmonic material. It containsall of the intervals, from minor 2nd up to major 7th. All of the tertian triads except for theaugmented triad can be extracted from this scale, as can four of the five common 7th-chord types (the major-7 th cannot). 22Diminished scales and patterns derived from them are now part of modern jazzharmonic vocabulary and are used primarily to complement altered dominant chords. Forexample, a half-whole diminished scale over a G7 chord will include most of thecommon extensions and alterations:  9, 11, and 13
    3. Another common hybrid scale, thediminished-whole tone, is usually implied by the “alt” chord symbol. This scale includesa 9, both major and minor thirds (also referred to as a 9), and a 5. It starts out like ahalf-whole diminished scale and ends like a whole-tone scale. A diminished-whole tonescale in C would be C, D, E, E, G, A, B
    4. Diminished Scales and Harmony
  4. May 2023