137 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2023
    1. There are two ways of establishing a chord–scale relationship for ii 7 –V 7 or ii≤57–V 7progressions: either select a mode that works for V7 or select a mode that works for ii7or (ii≤57). As shown in Figure 18.4, mm. 2–4 feature a descending sequence of incompleteII–Vs connecting the tonic on I with the predominant on IV. Each II–V progressionestablishes a chord–scale relationship with the corresponding dominant 7th. Notice that,in m. 2, the use of Mixolydian ≤13 fits the underlying context much better than the diatonicMixolydian mode. The tonic note F4 functions as the ≤13th of Mixolydian ≤13 and isretained as a common tone in mm. 1–2. The second A section (mm. 9–16) demonstratesa different approach to chord–scale theory. The selection of modes for the II–V pro-gression in Figure 18.4 is based on the quality of the predominant chord. Thus, inm. 10, Emin7(≤5)–A7 uses E Locrian, while in m. 11, Dmin7–G7 establishes a chord–scalerelationship with D Dorian, etc

      The bridge of “Confirmation” (mm. 17–24) features two four-bar phrases with ii7 –V7 tonicizations of the IV and ≤VI key areas. The chord–scale relationship for the bridge in Figure 18.4 includes a different selection of modes: Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian for Cmin7–F7–B≤Maj7, and Dorian, Altered, and Lydian for E≤min7–A≤7–D≤Maj7. Tonal and contextual considerations are particularly evident with the choice of Altered mode in m. 22, which accommodates notes from the tonic key and prepares the arrival of FMaj7 in m. 25. The last A section (mm. 25–32) features a much bolder selection of modes. The choices of A Altered in m. 26 and F Locrian in m. 28 are particularly poignant. The former injects chromatic notes into the structure of dominant 7th chord. The choice of F Locrian over Cmin7–F7 in m. 28 might seem out of place because neither chord (at least not in the present form) establishes a convincing relationship with this mode. But, the F Locrian mode forms a chord–scale relationship with F7(≤9≥9)sus, which is an effective harmonic substitution for Cmin7–F7. While the selection of modes in Figure 18.4 is overcrowded with different options, an improvisation may focus on only a few modes. In fact, each A section contains a selection of modes that could be implemented in the course of an entire solo. In establishing a successful chord–scale relationship for the tune, be mindful of three important con- siderations: (1) modal hierarchy, (2) chromatic treatment, and (3) voice leading. Chromatic modes, for instance, contain notes that might need preparation. This preparation usually takes place anywhere from one beat to one measure before the chromatic notes occur. The succession of modes in mm. 5–6—B≤ Mixolydian and D Mixolydian ≤13—illustrates such a case. The latter mode contains the chromatic ≤13th that was introduced as ≤7th of B≤7 in m. 5. “CONFIRMATION” 239

    2. The rhythmic structure of the melody is interesting hypermetrically: in mm. 1–4, thehypermetric downbeat occurs in mm. 1 and 3 and emphasizes ^5 as the melodic anchor.The continuation of the phrase features a less regular hypermetric organization withmetrical downbeats occurring in mm. 5, 6, and 7. This hypermetric organization cor-roborates yet another characteristic of contrafacts, namely that they have a fairly irregularand purposefully unpredictable phrase structure. The irregular hypermetric organizationof the A section is balanced by a symmetrical unfolding of hypermetric two-bar phrasesin the bridge
    3. ach dominant 7th in mm. 2–4 is subsequently expandedwith the ii≤57–V or ii7–V7 progressions, thereby doubling the rate of harmonic rhythm. Inm. 2, then, A7 becomes Emin7 (≤5)–A7; in m. 3, G7 turns into Dmin7–G7; and, in m. 4,F7 expands into Cmin7–F7.Comparing the second half of each A section shows that the first A is harmonically openand ends on a ii 7–V7 in m. 8, while the second and the last A feature closed harmoniccadences on I in m. 16 and m. 32, respectively. The bridge in mm. 17–24 has a symmetricalphrase structure and slower harmonic rhythm, which redirects the harmony from I to IVin m. 19 and, then, to ≤VI in m. 23. These key areas are tonicized with local ii7–V7progressions. The choice of these tonal areas corroborates an interesting fact about theoverall tonality of bebop tunes with respect to jazz traditions. The subdominant key areahas always had strong blues underpinnings and the flat submediant was one of the fewchromatic regions that ragtime or early jazz tunes allowed in their harmonic structure.3
  2. Jun 2023
    1. The A Section—Arpeggiation Patterns
    2. An Alternate Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    3. The A Section: A Two-Scale Approach
    4. A Single-Scale ApproachThe chord structure of the A sections of rhythm changes can be reduced to the fundamentalframework shown in Figure 19.5.While mm. 1–4 of any A section feature a tonic prolongation, mm. 5–8 are morecomplicated even at the background level. For instance, the predominant in mm. 6, 14,and 30 can take the form of major 7th or dominant 7th chords. Also, the tonally closed256 INTERMEDIATEFIGURE 19.5 Fundamental Harmonic Frameworks
    5. xperiments with the“Coltrane” substitution
    6. FIGURE 19.6 A Basic Chord–Scale Relationship for the A Section
    7. The A section of rhythm changes can be realized with different harmonic progressions.Some of the most interesting realizations are shown in Figure 19.3a–i. With eachconsecutive progression, the level of harmonic complexity increases.
    8. As pointed out in the analysis of the tune, blues melodic devices are featured prominentlyin the original melody. In Jones’s solo, the melodic blue notes are integral componentsof his lines. In mm. 14–15, for instance, the pitch D≤4/C≥4 connects two adjacent phrases:≤^3 functions as a ≤7th of E≤7 and then becomes a lower chromatic neighbor preparingthe 3rd of B≤Maj7 in m. 15. The tritone G4–D≤4 in m. 14 provides additional bluesreferences. In mm. 61–62, open-position chords have similar blues underpinnings with≤^3 as the highest note piercing through the characteristic blues voicing. In mm. 94–95,the use of three-note close-position voicings embellished with grace notes enhances thestructural subdominant
    9. All the harmonic options in Figure 19.4 rely on the use of dominant 7th tritonesubstitutions, ii7–V7 diminutions, and/or [ii7–V7]/X interpolations. The use of a dominant7th tritone substitution in its clearest manifestation is shown in Figure 19.4b. Chords inmm. 18, 20, 22, and 24 function as tritone substitutions of the preceding dominant 7ths.The use of ii7–V7 diminutions results in the faster harmonic rhythm, as each dominant7th of the bridge can be potentially expanded with a predominant ii 7. In Figure 19.4c,the ii7–V7s occurring in mm. 18, 20, 22, and 24 expand the underlying dominant 7thchords. The combination of ii7–V7 diminutions with [ii7–V7]/X interpolations can producemore intricate harmonic progressions as demonstrated in Figure 19.4d and 19.4e. Themost obvious consequence of such combinations is even faster harmonic rhythm with twochords per measure. For instance, in Figure 19.4d, the [ii7–V7]/X interpolations in mm.18, 20, 22, and 24 establish a logical voice-leading connection with the upcoming ii7–V7progression. In addition, the ii 7–V7s in mm. 17–18, 19–20, 21–22, and 23–24 are a halfstep away from each other, which further assures good voice leading. The neighboringii7–V7s are also on display in Figure 19.4e. But unlike Figure 19.4d, the [ii7–V7]/Xprogressions in mm. 18, 20, 22, and 24 from Figure 19.4e function as lower chromaticneighbors in relation to the diatonic ii 7–V7 progressions
    10. ownward arpeggiation of Cmin7

      downward arpeggiation of Cmin7 balances an upward arpeggiation of a rootless B≤9 in m. 93; in mm. 115–116, an incomplete upward arpeggiation of Dmin 11 balances a downward arpeggiation of G7 (≤13)

    11. Another relatively simple technique used by Jones in his solo involves the arpeggiation offour-part chords
    12. “Confirmation”—Improvised Solo by Hank Jones (transcribed by Dariusz Terefenko)
    13. Lead Sheet—“Confirmation”
    14. Even though the subdominant on IV features a dominant 7th chord, inthe context of this progression it functions as a predominant
    15. A chromatic pitch enclosure occurs in m. 18 when the melodic cellE4–C4–C≥4–D4 encircles the root of D7. The C≥5s in mm. 2, 6, 26, and 30 constitutemelodic appoggiaturas because they are accented and approached by a leap
    16. The presence of chromaticism is integral to the structure of bebop melodies. Some of thechromatic additions, such as the metrically accented C≥5s in mm. 2, 6, 26, and 30, makesubtle references to the blues
    17. “Moose the Mooche” features a 32-bar AABA form.3 The first A section is harmonicallyopen and ends on a ii 7–V7 in m. 8. The second A features a full-cadential closure on I inm. 16. The bridge cycles through a cycle of dominant 7ths progression and interruptsthe form on V 7 in m. 24. The final A section is harmonically closed but, in order to allowfor the circularity of the chorus improvisation, it features a Imaj7–VI 7–ii7–V7 turnaroundprogression (or any acceptable substitute variant).The tonic is prolonged in mm. 1–4 and then morphed into a V 7/IV in m. 5. The tonicprolongation takes the form of an idiomatic Imaj 7–vi7–ii7–V7 progression, which lendsitself to a variety of harmonic substitutions. The subdominant controls mm. 5–6 and iscapable of many surface realizations. Next, mm. 7–8 proceed to the dominant, which canalso be idiomatically expanded, transformed, and/or confirmed. The A section of rhythmchanges is also known as an eight-bar blues because it contains the harmonic paradigmof the blues: tonic in m. 1, subdominant in m. 6, and dominant in m. 8.4 This foreshortenedblues preserves the structural weight of the fundamental chords, as the tonic controls thelongest span (mm. 1–4), the subdominant occupies the shorter span (mm. 6–7), and thedominant (m. 8) becomes subject to various harmonic modifications
    18. Charlie Parker wrote a number of contrafacts on rhythm changes among which “Moosethe Mooche,” shown in Figure 19.1, is one of the most well known
    19. Figure 18.5 provides a chord–scale relationship for “Confirmation” using bebop scalesonly.The selection of bebop scales is analogous to the use of modes from Figure 18.4. Inm. 2, for instance, Emin7 (≤5)–A7 uses A Mixolydian ≤13, which accommodates ^1 in itspitch structure, as does A dominant bebop ≤13, making them much better choices thantheir diatonic counterparts.Demonstrating slightly different and more advanced organization of bebop scales, the lastA section alternates between ascending and descending scalar patterns. In addition, thelast note of each measure forms a stepwise connection with the first note of the next,thereby ensuring effective voice leading between different scales. Thus the last note ofm. 26, C≥4, resolves up to D4, which begins the G dominant bebop scale on 5. Similarly,the use of B≤3 in m. 31 is a consequence of the C4 in m. 30 resolving down to the ≤7thof C7
    20. cadential melodic gestures in his solo. Thesepatterns usually accomplish two objectives: (1) they provide a logical phrase conclusionand (2) they foreshadow the arrival of the next phrase
    21. diminished 7th chords
    22. incomplete diminished 7th (mm. 24 and 98)
    23. The solo is unified through the use of similar melodic devices at the same locations withinthe form. For instance, in mm. 4, 12, and 28 of the form, Jones frequently employs adom7(≥5) chord (mm. 4, 12, 36, 92, 100, and 108).
    24. arpeggiation
    25. Hank Jones’s solo on “Confirmation,” shown in Figure 18.3, is from the album BebopRedux, recorded in 1977. In this solo, Jones shows how two jazz traditions—blues andbebop—can be integrated in a musically convincing manner. He also demonstrates astunning command of the bebop language manifested in a linear approach to improvisation
    26. Notice how Jones infusesthe music with the blues elements in mm. 45–48, 61–64, 93–96, or 125–128
    27. As indicated in the analysis of the tune, the A section of “Confirmation” contains elementsof the blues, such as single blue-note inflections and characteristic blues harmonies
    28. metric displacement
    29. Playing OutsideAlong with rhythmic displacement, playing outside of the underlying tonality is anotherhallmark feature of Tristano’s style of improvisation and results in his highly originalapproach to chromaticism. In “Line Up,” the use of chromaticism is pervasive, yet themanner in which Tristano controls it deserves attention. Just like his use of rhythmicdisplacements, Tristano’s use of chromaticism is elegant and logical. When his linestemporarily leave the underlying tonal area and venture into a chromatic space, they retainstrong melodic and harmonic identities and remain inside of the outside key areas. Figure26.3 compares two phrases from mm. 25–27 and 63–68.“LINE UP” 395

      side-slipping bitonality

    30. The expressiveness of the blues comes from the melodic inflections added to particularnotes. When we listen to various vocal or guitar renditions of the blues, these inflectionsare easily recognizable; they stand out because of their emotional charge and slightly “outof tune” sound. 1 The so-called blues scale approximates the sound of these pitchinflections by altering ^3, ^5, and ^7 of the major scale. Figure 9.3 illustrates the content ofthe blues scale and its derivation from the major scale.The blues scale is a six-note collection with the “blue” notes on ≤3, ≤5, and ≤7. Althoughthe presence of ≤7th suggests a chord–scale relationship with the dominant 7th chord,the use of the blues scale is not limited to this chord only. In the context of the bluesscale, the pitches ≤3 and ≤5 constitute expressive embellishments not bound by anyparticular harmonic function or chord type. The blues scale, then, is an androgynous
    31. rhythmic displacement using different improvisationalstrategies, such as phrase displacement, metric displacement, manipulation of phraseaccents, and melodic interpolations. Phrase displacement occurs when the phrase is shiftedby a beat (or more) and creates a dissonance with the underlying harmonic and metricstructure. Probably the most effective use of this technique occurs in m. 77 where theline begins on beat 2 with a downward arpeggiation of the E major upper-structure triadover the structural B≤7 and is further emphasized with a strong accent on the first quarternote, EΩ4. The manipulation of phrase accents shifts regular metrical accents, therebycreating metric ambiguity. This technique occurs when the phrase temporarily rendersbeats 2 and 4 as beats 1 and 3. The phrase in mm. 159–160 illustrates these features.Notice how beat 4 in m. 159 influences the perception of beat 2 in the next measure.Metric displacement implies the use of cross rhythm to create a characteristic rhythmic joltand increase in tension within the phrase. The phrase in mm. 81–83 displays thesecharacteristics. The distribution of accents and phrase groupings in mm. 81–83 createsan interesting superimposition of 3/4, 3/8, 2/4, and 4/4 respectively. Notice how theuse of 3/8 influences the metric location of sub-phrases in 2/4 and 4/4 in mm. 82–83,and how the perception of the meter in the ensuing measures is constantly beingchallenged

      forms of rhythmic displacement

    32. These seven models of harmonic realization get progressively more advanced, but eventhe initial ones—provided that they are performed in time and with a good rhythmicfeel—can convincingly express the majority of jazz progressions. As you get morecomfortable at realizing harmonic progressions using these models, experiment withdifferent metric placements and variations of the Charleston rhythm
    33. The ability to realize harmonic progressions on the keyboard is an essential skill for thecontemporary jazz musician, regardless of her/his primary instrument. The forthcomingmodels of keyboard playing will help to accomplish this objective
    34. invertible potential of the guide tones.
    35. Various chords realized in “chorale style” with equal distribution of notes in bothhands.Model VII uses two voices per hand and employs different four-, five- and larger-partharmonic structures. Since this model uses only four-voice textures, larger formations needto be reduced to their essential harmonic frameworks. In reducing chords to their four-part frameworks certain notes are retained and others omitted. Typically, the root isretained, the 5th is omitted, and—depending on the context—the remaining three voicesare selected from the related guide tones, pitch alterations, or extensions. Figure 12.7demonstrates different Model VII realizations of the II–V–I progression. The selectionof chords differs from one realization to the next and depends both on the voicing of theopening chord and on the voice-leading forces initiated by the initial two chords
    36. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, thirds, or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.The motion between chords in Model VI shown in Figure 12.6 is controlled by theprinciples of good voice leading
    37. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leading considerations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Broadly speaking, so-called rootless formations omit the root of the chord from theirstructure. With rootless five-part chords, the upper four-part structure is placed in theR.H. and the root in the L.H. Some of the R.H. shapes should look, sound, and feelfamiliar, since they have already been encountered in the four-part chords in the contextof Model III and Model IV. Similar to Model III, we will first acquaint ourselves withfour rotations of the rootless formation. Figure 12.5 provides four Model V realizationsof the major and minor versions of the II–V–I progression, with each realization beginningon a different R.H. shape
    38. Root position and inversions of four-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leadingconsiderations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.The focus of Model III, shown in Figure 12.3, is to explore only one position or inversionof the four-part chord throughout the progression
    39. Root position and inversions in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, 3rds, or 5ths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H
    40. Guide-tone lines in the right hand (R.H.).• Roots of chords in the left hand (L.H.) in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.1 demonstrates Model I using the major and minor versions of the II–V–Iprogression. Notice that the R.H. explores the invertible potential of the guide tones
    41. Rhythmicized guide tones in the R.H.• Roots, thirds or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.2 illustrates the use of Model II. The R.H. distributes the Charleston rhythmat different locations within the measure
    42. Figure 12.2 illustrates the use of Model II. The R.H. distributes the Charleston rhythmat different locations within the measure
    43. In addition to the ii 7–V7–Imaj7 and ii≤57–V7–i progressions, there are other harmonicprogressions that often occur in standard tunes. Probably the most recognizableprogression is a turnaround, also known as a turnback. The turnaround is a two- orfour-bar progression, usually with a faster harmonic rhythm, that typically occurs at theend of 8- or 16-bar phrases. One of the formal functions of the turnaround is to effectivelyprepare the arrival of the “top of the chorus” by ushering in a familiar chord progression. 1Just as the ii 7 –V 7 –Imaj 7 progression can be transformed with different harmonicsubstitutions, so too can turnarounds
    44. Tag endings are somewhat related to turnarounds in their basic harmonic structure, butplay different roles in tunes and complete performances. A tag ending occurs at the veryend of a tune, repeats a chord sequence (which in the course of subsequent repetitionsbecomes harmonically transformed), and has an indeterminate duration. Only the finalrepetition of the tag ending progression is harmonically closed with a clear confirmationof the tonic. Its basic role in the performance is to provide a satisfactory, coda-like endingwith a final improvisational flair. As Miles Davis demonstrated on his many recordings,tag endings may take on a life of their own—especially with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter,and Tony Williams in the rhythm section—and frequently exceeded the length of his solos.2Tag endings and turnarounds often share similar chord progressions: the only differencebetween the Imaj7–vi7–ii7–V7 and the iii7–vi7–ii7–V7 is that the former begins on the tonicand the latter on the mediant chord. These two chords, Imaj7 and iii7, are said to befunctionally equivalent and are frequently used to substitute for one another. Figure 13.6illustrates a iii7–vi7–ii7–V7 tag ending progression realized with Model II of keyboardplaying. Each measure displaces the Charleston rhythm by a half beat.Each of these chords can be further substituted by a secondary dominant 7th and,subsequently, by a TR/X7. Since a tag ending progression is usually four bars long, wecan demonstrate the use of two harmonic techniques that will double the rate of harmonicrhythm in each measure. The technique of dominant saturation combines two dominant7th chords, diatonic or chromatic and its TR/X 7 (or vice versa) next to each other. Theuse of ii7–V7 diminution technique expands any dominant 7th chord into a local ii 7–V7
    45. Chapter 21 introduces 13 phrase models that illustrate the essential harmonic, contrapuntal,and structural properties of the different eight-bar phrases commonly found in standardtunes.
    46. During the Baroque Era, the “Rule of the Octave” was a practical tool that enabledmusicians to gain harmonic flexibility at the keyboard.5 The rule prescribed how toharmonize a scale in the bass using stylistic tonal progressions. In jazz, a similar rule canalso be developed. Instead of placing the scale in the bass, the major scale is placed in thesoprano voice. The jazz rule of the octave explains how to harmonize a descending majorscale with idiomatic jazz progressions. By examining different harmonic outcomes, therelationship of melodies to chords and chords to melodies becomes clear. The jazz ruleof the octave also helps us to realize the harmonic potential of different melodic segmentsand examines their behavior in the context of underlying chord progressions. Figures21.3a–21.3d illustrate four distinct harmonizations of the descending major scale
    47. Chapter 13 investigates two- and four-bar idiomatic jazz progressions. It also focuses onaural identification and keyboard realization of non-modulatory and modulatoryprogressions with various ii7–V7 or ii≤57–V7 interpolations, as well as miscellaneous four-bar phrases
    48. Chapter 5 expands the repository of harmonic structures to 35 five-part chords. They aredivided into five categories: major, minor, dominant 7th, suspended dominant, and inter-mediary

      Chordal extensions consist of different forms of the ninth, the eleventh, and the thirteenth and can be divided into two broad categories: diatonic and chromatic. Diatonic extensions enhance the structure of chords, whereas chromatic extensions modify that structure in a considerable way. The ninth has three distinct forms: a diatonic major 9th, a chromatic ≤9th, and a chromatic ≥9th. The eleventh has two forms: a diatonic perfect 11th and a chromatic ≥11th. The thirteenth has two forms: a diatonic major 13th and a chromatic ≤13t

    49. Chapter 23 examines the 32-bar ABAC form and its two tonal variants: on-tonic and off-tonic. As an example of this formal design, “All Of You” is analyzed
    50. Chapter 22 undertakes a study of song forms and its most common type: the 32-barAABA. Two tonal variants, on-tonic and off-tonic, are examined and, as an example ofthe on-tonic AABA formal design, “Have You Met Miss Jones?” is analyzed.
    51. John Coltrane’s recording of Giant Steps in 1959 epitomized his three-year period ofharmonic explorations, most notably with symmetrical intervallic cycles. 3 Hiscomposition “Countdown,” which is based on Miles Davis’s “Tune Up,” illustrates theuse of so-called “Coltrane” substitutions. Characterized by fast harmonic rhythm, thissubstitution projects a major-third cycle in which each local major 7th chord is tonicizedwith the corresponding dominant 7th. In the context of the Dmin7–G7–CMaj7progression shown in Figure 13.10, the first member of the major-third cycle, ≤VImaj7,is accessed through its dominant 7th that follows the structural predominant, ii 7. Thenext member of the major-third cycle, IIImaj7, is also preceded by its dominant, V 7/III,before the progression completes its trajectory with the structural dominant 7th resolvingto the tonic.
    52. Dorian Family of Voicings
    53. Roman numerals are context-sensitive and indicate the exact position of chords with respectto the underlying tonic. This style of notation is very powerful in explaining the tonalbehavior of chords and is mostly used in analysis. Some jazz musicians, however, havefound a useful niche for this type of notation. By translating the lead-sheet notation of astandard tune into Roman numerals, jazz musicians can easily transpose and learn thattune in all 12 keys. But Roman numerals, too, have their disadvantages. Problems withthis style of notation arise when a tune modulates away from the underlying tonic orfrequently tonicizes new key areas. With the addition of Arabic numbers borrowed fromthe figured-bass tradition, Roman numerals are capable of expressing complex five-,six-, or seven-part chords. When using Roman numerals, however, complex five-, six-, orseven-part formations will be translated to their essential four-part framework. For instance,F7(≤13) in the key of C major will be simply notated as IV7.

      The addition of available extensions to chords is a matter of personal preference and reflects the underlying context in which specific chords occur. The practice of adding extensions or reinterpreting chords is similar to that of interpreting unfigured basses from the Baroque period. There are, however, many musical situations where more detail is desired, such as when a composer or arranger wants a specific sound or voicing. In those types of situation, a chord symbol might include more detailed information about chordal HARMONIC FUNCTION 29 extensions, note omissions, or even a specific arrangement of notes. These chord symbols typically stand out among other, more conventionally written chords. Given the very different notation systems being used, we can start thinking more rigorously about our own notational choices. In Figure 3.6, the tonic chord in root position is notated with a “I5 3” symbol. In practice, however, a “I” will be used without the Arabic numbers because they are assumed. Also, in notating a chord in first inversion, the Roman numeral representation has already been simplified: instead of a complete “I6 3” symbol, the “I 6 ” symbol was used. Roman numerals might also include “Ω,” “≥,” and “≤.” Written in front of the Roman numeral, these accidentals indicate chromatic scale degrees in relation to the underlying key. To notate major chords, upper-case Roman numerals will be implemented, and to notate minor chords, lower-case Roman numerals will be used. A diminished triad will take a lower- case Roman numeral with a small raised circle, viio ; an augmented triad will use an upper- case Roman numeral with a small plus sign, III+ .

    54. any melodic line can be represented by a chord and/or harmonicprogression and, conversely, any chord or harmonic progression can be horizontalizedwith a melodic line
    55. In modal jazz theory, there are 14 modes: seven diatonic and seven chromatic. Modes inmodal jazz typically function as independent scalar formations that are devoid of traditionaltonal relationships. For instance, a complete section of a tune might feature only a singlemodal scale (e.g. John Coltrane’s “Impressions” or McCoy Tyner’s “Passion Dance”).5In tonal jazz, however, modes exhibit similar functional behaviors comparable to thoseof four-, five-, or larger-part structures. In Chapter 8, diatonic and chromatic modes willbe combined and their tonal functional associations shown
    57. Chapter 7 introduces seven diatonic modes from the major scale and seven chromaticmodes from the melodic minor scale
    58. Chapter 2 identifies the main characteristics of jazz rhythm
    59. SYNCOPATIONFigure 2.1
    61. voice leading
    62. motivic development
    63. Chapter 27 makes forays into post-tonal music theory in an attempt to demonstrate howsome of its concepts—trichords, in particular—are implemented in jazz. Familiar topicsare presented anew with the emphasis on ear training and harmony
    64. Chapter 25 discusses various approaches to jazz reharmonization. It begins by consideringtwo contrasting approaches to harmony: vertical and horizontal. Eleven basic techniquesof reharmonization are introduced and demonstrated using Joseph Kosma’s “AutumnLeaves.” More advanced linear techniques are shown in the context of Jerome Kern’s “Allthe Things You Are” and Victor Young’s “Stella By Starlight.”
    65. hapter 24 provides a list of standard tunes with extended and unusual formal designs.As an example of the extended form, “Dream Dancing” is analyzed
    66. The hexatonic scale is a six-note collection that conveys characteristics similar to theseven-note modes. Just like pentatonics, hexatonic scales have more interesting intervallicproperties and provide essential notes for melodic lines and harmonic formations. Thehexatonic collections are compartmentalized in the familiar categories and scales are gener-ated from aggregates of pitches that contain all available notes from the particular category.For instance, since the pitch aggregate for the major category contains eight notes, thereare a number of options for creating different major hexatonics. Given the enormous rangeof options, it is best to pick a scale whose pitch content best conveys specific modalcharacteristics.The derivation of hexatonics from the aggregate puts the understanding of pitch hierarchyto the test. The pitch structure of different hexatonics prioritizes only those notes thatare essential to projecting the exact harmonic function and/or intended chord–scalerelationship. Each category below includes two types of hexatonic collection: regular andaltered. Regular hexatonics share common characteristics with the corresponding modes.For instance, Mixolydian ≥11 hexatonic has similar properties to the seven-note Mixolydian≥11 mode, etc. Altered hexatonics are derived from the specific pitch aggregate and theirstructure includes minor variations from regular hexatonics. In labeling altered hexatonics,use the name of the category with Roman numerals specifying different variations (i.e.Major Altered I, Dominant Altered II, etc.)
    67. Chapter 18 provides an analysis of Charlie Parker’s “Confirmation” as a representativecomposition from the Bebop Era. It offers a transcription of the solo by the pianist HankJone
    68. In jazz, pentatonics represent a rich assortment of scales with a vast potential forimprovisation. They come in a variety of flavors, from the simple blues inflections addedto diatonic pentatonics popularized by Lester Young in the 1930s to the chromaticallyaltered five-note segments common in contemporary jazz styles
    69. Chapter 19 provides an analysis of Charlie Parker’s “Moose the Mooche” and Hank Jones’simprovised solo on the tune. This chapter also proposes a pedagogy of rhythm changesimprovisation.
    70. Chapter 17 analyzes three blues progressions from the Bebop Era and proposes additionalapproaches to blues improvisation
    71. Chapter 16 examines the pitch structure, chord–scale relationships, harmonic and melodicpotential of the octatonic scale
    72. The so-called Bebop revolution in the late 1930s was probably one of the most importantmusical events in the history of jaz
    73. chromatic [ii≤57–V7]/x interpolation
    74. Chapter 15 examines bebop and begins developing a pedagogy of bebop improvisation
    75. Chapter 14 discusses three types of voicing chord, upper-structure triads, rootlessformations and incomplete voicings, and explores their harmonic and voice-leadingpotential
    76. The blues is an American art form. Originally, blues were primarily sung, with one of theobjectives being to tell a story as vividly as possible. To tell stories, blues singers usedsimple repeated phrases charged with a variety of expressive devices. The ability to tell thestory from one’s perspective came to represent blues performance practice in particular,and jazz improvisation in general. The familiar saying that “your solo should tell a story”takes on a completely different meaning when we consider whence it came and howintricate life’s stories can really be. Early blues practitioners were unconstrained by theform of the blues as the duration of improvised lyrics often influenced the length of
    77. modulatory four-barphrase
    78. The terms “turnaround” and “tag ending” are generic labels that do not indicate a partic-ular chord sequence; rather, they suggest the specific formal function of these progressions.In jazz, there is a certain subset of harmonic progressions whose names suggest specificchord successions. When jazz musicians use the term “Lady Bird” progression,for instance, it connotes a particular chromatic turnaround from Tadd Dameron’s tuneof the same title recorded in 1947. Figure 13.9 illustrates the chord structure of thatprogression using Model VI of harmonic realization
    79. Jazz musicians often use different harmonic substitutions to modify the content of diatonicprogressions. The most common harmonic modifications of the Imaj 7 –vi 7 –ii 7 –V 7progression involve the use of secondary dominant chords (V7/X), and tritone substitutions(TR/X 7). Figure 13.5 demonstrates these substitutions using Model III of harmonicrealization.The secondary dominant 7ths A7 and D7 are analyzed with two different Roman numerallabels VI7 and V 7/ii, and II 7 and V 7/V, which can be used interchangeably. The tritonesubstitutions, E≤7 and D≤7, also use two Roman numerals, ≤III7 and TR/VI7, and ≤II7and TR/V7, respectively
    80. The ii7–V7–Imaj7 progression constitutes the perfect vehicle to introduce one of the mostimportant features of jazz harmony: the tritone substitution, notated as TR/X 7. Thetritone substitution has its theoretical origins in the equal or symmetrical division of theoctave. This substitution is associated with the dominant 7th chord and capitalizes oninversional invariance of the tritone inherent to the dominant 7th formation.
    81. Chapter 12 introduces seven models of realizing harmonic progressions on the keyboard
    82. n order to become a successful jazz musician, one has to learn how to read, interpret,and modify lead sheets. Improvising from a lead sheet is a unique performance skill thatjazz musicians cultivate on a daily basis and perfect over a long period of time. Comparableto other shorthand notations from classical music, such as figured bass, tablature,partimento, or others, lead-sheet notation contains just enough essential information tocreate a complete performance
    83. Chapter 10 embarks on a study of improvisation. After some introductory remarks, theimportance of melody in improvisation is discussed. A few basic improvisational strategiesinvolving blues riffs, guide tones, and motifs are closely examined and implemented inpractice
    84. The progression shown in Figure 9.9 exemplifies the structure of a minor blues.4The chord structure of the minor blues is characterized by the presence of traditionaltonal progressions. For instance, the tonicization of iv in m. 4 uses a secondary dominant7th, V7/iv, and the motion to V 7 in m. 10 is prepared by the ≤VI7 chord. This particularpreparation of the dominant 7th, ≤VI7–V7, is one of the harmonic trademarks of the minorblues.
    85. Figure 9.8 establishes a couple of chord–scale relationships for the basic blues progressionin the key of B≤. Figure 9.8a uses major and minor blues scales and Figure 9.8b combinesblues scales and modes
    86. In the most fundamental form, the generic blues consists of only three chords: I7, IV 7,and V 7. These harmonies control the structure of the blues, even though in some chordprogressions, particularly those from the Bebop Era, they might be disguised, substituted,transformed, or omitted all together. The generic or three-chord blues, without anyadditional chord changes, was often employed in early jazz, particularly in Early Blues,Boogie-Woogie, and different New Orleans styles.3 We will now examine the harmonicstructure of a slightly modified blues (one that is probably the most common in jazz),
    87. Having examined the structure of the blues scale, we can now explore the tonal potentialof the scale.2 Figure 9.4 illustrates the structure of G blues scale.This scale has a minor feel to it; notice the use of ≤3, ≤5, and ≤7. By starting the scale onB≤3 and continuing through the octave, we are able to generate a major scale that, inaddition to having the “blue” 3rd, also contains the major 3rd needed for major anddominant 7th chords. A major blues scale, shown in Figure 9.5, starts on ≤3 of the regularblues scale, contains a perfect 5th, major 6th, and major 9th, and establishes a convincingchord–scale relationship with the B≤6/9, B≤13 or other B≤–based dominant 7th chords.In addition to more generic usage of the blues scale (where a single scale is used in thecontext of different chords), we can be more discerning and assign a regular blues scaleto minor chords and a major blues scale to major and dominant 7th chords.
    88. The musical depiction of the lyrics from Figure 9.2 illustrates an additional aspect of bluesperformance practice—the use of call and response. Originally practiced by a large groupof people, this improvisational technique involves sharing ideas between the leader andher/his followers. Mastering the call and response technique is especially important at thebeginning of our encounter with jazz improvisation. It engages us in a meaningfuldialogue that includes exchanging and communicating musical ideas. The communicativeaspect of call and response is relatively straightforward in the context of verbal conversation.

      In a musical setting, however, when spoken words and sentences are replaced with motifs and melodic phrases, the structure of the call and response might not be as obvious. To be a good communicator, we have to know how to listen, pay close attention to what the other musicians are playing, and try to be receptive to their ideas. In certain scenarios, however, the use of call and response technique might create less than desirable effects. For instance, when the call and response takes the form of exact and immediate repetition, it might be impressive but not necessarily in keeping with the surrounding musical context. A much more subtle way of thinking about the call and response technique involves musical interaction at the level of the entire performance in which non-adjacent sections relate to one another, and where the flow of the performance is regulated by logically introduced musical ideas. In creating a musical narrative, then, we can also respond to each other’s playing, but these responses are not as obvious as simple repetitions tend to be. We can demonstrate our listening skills, for instance, by incorporating an idea that we have previously heard (i.e. a rhythmic motive from the drummer, or a melodic gesture from the guitarist) and develop it in such a way that leads to a more satisfying musical discourse. The call and response aspect of improvisation means that musicians understand each other’s intentions, have an unspoken agreement, so to speak, and project them with a high level of personal expression and musical commitmen

    89. The intermediary category contains three modes: Dorian, Locrian, and Locrian Ω2
    90. Chapter 8 establishes a relationship between the vertical and horizontal dimensions injazz. The diatonic and chromatic modes are revisited, and chord–scale relationships withfour-, five-part chords, and the II–V–I progressions are established.
    91. Chapter 6 investigates the most important progression in jazz—the II–V–I—and its twotonal variants: ii7–V7–Imaj7 and ii≤57–V7–i7. A discussion of guide tones, secondary dominant7ths, and diminished 7th chords and their subsequent voice-leading transformations furtheramplifies the importance of the progression
    92. In jazz terminology, the term “voicing” refers to the arrangement of notes within a chord.That arrangement can be either close or open. In a close voicing the arrangement ofnotes is the most packed possible. In an open voicing, the arrangement of notes is

      intervallically more diverse. The most common method of generating an open voicing is to drop certain notes from a close-position chord down an octave. In a “drop 2” voicing, the second note, counting from the top note, is dropped down an octave. “Drop 2” refers to voicings above the bass in which the bass note is not counted as one of the voices being “dropped.” Each chord in Figure 4.15 includes three “drop 2” voicings because the three notes above the bass can be rotated three times.

      see figure 4.15 on p 47

    93. Chapter 4 establishes the foundation of jazz harmonic syntax. Fourteen four-part chordsare introduced and their functional status is examined
    94. Broadly speaking, voice leading controls the interaction between chords and lines withinharmonic progressions. The principles of voice leading encompass several general topics,such as the role of outer-voice counterpoint, the types of melodic motion, the retentionof common tones, the treatment of dissonances, and others that will be discussedthroughout the book.At the surface level, jazz voice-leading conventions seem more relaxed than they are incommon-practice music. After all, jazz musicians use forbidden parallel perfect fifths andoctaves, move all the voices in the same direction, and tolerate voice crossings of differentsorts. The rules of jazz voice leading are different because the syntax of jazz is largelyincompatible with common-practice classical or other types of music. These differencesdo not mean, however, that the rules of jazz voice leading are any less strict. When jazzmusicians think about dissonance treatment or highlight a linear approach to harmony asopposed to a vertical one, they rely just as much on well-defined rules of voice leading asdo composers of common-practice music. The conventions of jazz voice leading dependgreatly on the soprano and bass, so-called outer-voice counterpoint.
    95. The function symbol notation is the least used notational system in jazz. As the namesuggests, this notation specifies the harmonic function of individual chords and evencomplete chord progressions. It has the potential of being useful to notate specificbehaviors of chords that may not—at least, not on the surface level—indicate that theybelong to a particular functional family of chords. As such, function symbols enable theperception of harmonic progressions from a more structural perspective. Function symbolsindicate neither the architecture nor the specific scale degrees of chords. This style ofnotation is more conceptual than it is representative of a specific surface event. The termssurface level and structural level are used to describe musical events and the degree oftheir importance. “Structural” events occur beneath the musical “surface” and areresponsible for the overall tonal, harmonic, and melodic forces controlling the piece.Function symbols use three labels: T for tonic-type chords, PD for predominant-typechords, and D for dominant-type chords.
    96. When using Roman numerals, however, complex five-, six-, orseven-part formations will be translated to their essential four-part framework. For instance,F7(≤13) in the key of C major will be simply notated as IV7
    97. Lead-sheet notation, also known as popular-music notation, is by far the most widespreadnotational convention used by jazz musicians. It comes in a variety of forms that arisefrom its murky origins and subsequent vague implementations. There are many alternatenotational systems in use, which for better or worse every jazz musician needs to getfamiliar with for purely practical, “bandstand” reasons. Here, we will only use chordsymbols that are commonly found in published and respected fake books. Lead-sheetnotation is very specific in showing what the chord is: it indicates the letter name, theexact number and types of extensions occurring within a chord, chordal inversions, orcomplex polychordal formations. A chord symbol, then, provides a quick insight into thechord’s pitch content. As such, it can be easily transmitted into a voicing that capturesthe essence of that symbol. The downside of this labeling is the lack of contextualconsiderations, especially in regard to the underlying tonality. As a tonally “uninterpreted”notation, we are not quite sure, for instance, how chords relate to one another, how theirbehavior conveys the underlying tonality, and what the overall tonal logic of differentchord successions may be.In this book, upper-case letter names will be used to indicate major-type chords. For minor-type chords a “min” extension following an upper-case letter name will be used. The lead-sheet symbols from Figure 3.6 also employ slash notation; this specifies a chord typewith the lowest sounding pitch separated by a diagonal slash. An upper-case letter nameto the right of the diagonal indicates the chordal root. The letter name to the left of thediagonal shows a specific chord type.
    98. Figure 3.6 illustrates the structure of four triads and their inversions labeled with threesets of notational symbols: traditional lead-sheet notation above the staff, and Romannumerals and function symbols below the staff. Since we will use them interchangeablythroughout the book, let us make some general observations about their usefulness intheory and practice. Each of these notational conventions has unique advantages, but alsosome obvious shortcomings.
    99. harmonic functioncan be defined as a contextual feature that can be attributed to a chord, a family of chords,harmonic progressions, or even to complete melodic phrases. These features are uniquefor each of the following functions: the tonic, the predominant, and the dominant. Theinteraction between these three creates a system of functional tonality, which undergirdsthe structure of tonal jazz and common-practice music
    100. Chapter 3 defines harmonic function
    101. The use of dynamics, legato, and especially articulation can substantially improve the overallpresentation of melodic lines. Generally, the use of dynamics should roughly follow thecontour of the melodic lines. Rising lines are typically played with a slight crescendo anddescending lines with a slight diminuendo. Additionally, melodic lines should be playedalmost legato with barely perceptible note detachment. Carefully distributed articulations(dynamic accents, staccato, tenuto, marcato, etc.) are also an essential component ofphrasing.
    102. The term “swing” has multiple meanings and associations. Sometimes it refers to a specificmusical style from the 1930s called Swing. It may also refer to a performance practicetradition or a specific rhythmic attribute attached to the quality of 8th notes
    103. Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study


      Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study Terefenko, D. 2014




  3. May 2023
    2. The ABAC Song Form
    4. Bebop Blues
    9. The AABA Song Form
    10. Phrase Models
    12. Pentatonics and Hexatonics
    14. DROP 2
    15. Chord–Scale Theory
    16. Post-Tonal Jazz
    17. Jazz Reharmonization
    18. Bebop
    19. Idiomatic Jazz Progressions
    20. Keyboard Textures
    21. Jazz Lead Sheets
    22. Improvisation
    23. The Blues
    24. Chord–Scale Theory
    25. Diatonic Modes
    26. Swing
    27. Syncopation
    28. Jazz Rhythm
    29. Modes
    30. The II–V–I Progression