55 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
    1. transformational leadership entails establishingoneself as a role model by gaining followers’ trust and confidence. Transformational leadersstate future goals, develop plans to achieve those goals, and innovate, even when theirorganization is generally successful

      focus on the FUTURE (Ridgeway p. 44)

    1. non-stereotypically masculine male leaders (i.e. leaders who identify with expressive traits) are better prepared to show individualized consideration, contingent reward behaviours and EI than more "masculine" male leaders.

      Big Take away

    2. the multivariate test of differences for the type of gendered identity was statistically significant

      Gender Identity is more significant to leadership style than sex

    3. Leaders who identify both with masculine and feminine traits (i.e. androgynous) will show higher scores in transformational leadership, contingent reward behaviours and EI than other leaders.

      Hypothesis 3

    4. women do not show lower scores on instrumentality than men

      women are more androgynous than men

    5. the most effective leaders combine both stereotypically masculine and stereotypically feminine identity traits

      effectively leadership incorporates both masculine and feminine identity traits

    6. Expressiveness will mediate the relation between participants' sex and their scores on individualized consideration, contingent reward behaviours and EI.

      Hypothesis 2

    7. Male leaders will show lower scores on individualized consideration, contingent reward behaviours and EI than female leaders

      Hypothesis 1

    8. it has been shown that individuals' identification with expressive and instrumental traits -, i.e. gender identity ([47] Parsons and Bales, 1955) - guides perceptual, affective and behavioural responses in important ways and mediates the effect of sex in relevant individual and group processes

      Gender identity influences perceptions and behaviors

    9. whether identification with gendered traits is one of the processes through which sex differences in leadership styles come about.

      Research Question Does identification with gendered traits influence how sex differences in leadership styles come about?

    10. we attempt to broaden our knowledge of men's and women's differential use of three communal dimensions of leadership: individualized consideration, contingent rewards and emotional intelligence (EI)

      Research question How men and women use individualized consideration, contingent rewards, and emotional intelligence

    11. men are, in principle, considered to be less prepared for the display of stereotypically feminine leadership behaviours

      Gender expectations make men less prepared to display transformational leadership qualities

    12. research has demonstrated that this type of leadership is in line with the characteristics and traits that have been historically linked to women

      Transformational leadership qualities are associated with typically feminine characteristics

    13. which direct our attention to leaders' transformational and people-oriented behaviours such as managing and appropriately expressing emotions, motivating employees, focusing on development and mentoring of followers, providing rewards for their satisfactory performance or attending to their individual needs

      Transformational Leadership is the new model of leadership to motivate employees to participate and contribute to organizations

    14. Results show that male leaders' lower scores in individualized consideration, positive contingent reward and emotional intelligence are partly explained by their lower identification with expressive traits. Furthermore, results indicate that integration of counter-stereotypical traits into the self positively relates to effectiveness in the sense of use of a wider range of leadership styles for both women and men.

      Integrating traits that are not in line with stereotypes of your gender positively relates to effectiveness by using a wider range of leadership styles

      Not restricting yourself to gender expectations correlates with more effective leadership in the sense that you use more leadership styles

    1. two, what can other bodies learn from this, i.e. how can we all move beyond gender dichotomies to queer leadership

      Hypothesis 2

    2. one, what are the perceptions of and expectations around leadership performed by a transgender body?

      Hypothesis 1

    3. We seek to highlight the relational dynamics involved in how leaders are constructed within the binaries of natural/unnatural, feminine/masculine, man/woman, and heterosexual/homosexual.

      Research question

    4. assumes that for bodies to cohere and make sense there must be a stable sex expressed through a stable gender (masculine expresses male, feminine expresses female)

      features and actions should match social expectations

    1. Namibian society is fairly conservative, particularly where issues of morality, customs and family values are concerned

      familial law and culture are not in line with legal provisions

    2. customary law survives only to the extent that it does not confl ict with the Constitution

      customary law does not outweigh the constitution, government over culture

    3. Women’s rights and family matters
    4. 11 different ethnic groups,
    5. Namibian government currently does not recognise polygamous marriages

      not recognized but still occurs, not outlawed

    6. increase the representation of women in management positions
    7. Therefore, any law, custom, stereotype or belief that oppresses or deprives women of their inherent right to reach their full potential cannot be binding on any person at all
    8. advancement of persons within Namibia who have been socially, economically or educationally disadvantaged by past discriminatory laws or practices
    9. law prohibits any discrimination and guarantee all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.56
    10. Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare.
    11. Land rights and property
    12. The main function of the bride price is to prevent divorce
    13. gives the man and his kinship group certain rights of control over the woman
    14. Customary marriages
    15. women being traditional leaders cannot be taken to imply that women are given equal opportunity in community decision-making processes
    16. Decision-making
    17. the universal justifi cation for treating women as inferior is that they are intellectually immature and, therefore, cannot form proper judgments.
    18. Education
    19. social status
    20. promotion of multilingualism and the maintenance of indigenous practices
    21. Communal Land Reform Act grants women equal rights when they apply for communal land

      equal rights to property

    22. are obliged to include at least four women
    23. Everything was basically done by women and girls, day in and out
    24. most prominent within the sphere of the family household.

      Even though customary law may not enforce these practices, they persist nonetheless

    25. matters that pertain to the children.
    26. the maintenance of such gender and role conceptions in Namibian society at large

      patriarchal stereotypes of men and women throughout Namibia, but they vary from each individual culture in specifics

    27. the eldest son makes all the major decisions

      male authority trumps parental/age authority of a woman

    28. one of the few constitutions in the world that uses gender-neutral language throughout,

      equal consideration of men and women under their constitution, sets culture up to modify towards gender equality

    29. Until Namibia gained its independence, its society was deeply patriarchal and divided along racial lines.

      traditional culture that is being changed