296 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
  2. Mar 2024
    1. he official daily record, or wardiary (Kriegstagebuch),
    2. "Barbarossa decree,"

      actions of German soldiers against Russian civilians would not be judged by military law, in practice a license to shoot Russian Jews

    3. Kommissarbefehl, or "commissar order,"

      all Communist functionaries in the army as well as those in the civil administration suspected of being in any way anti-German-were to be denied prisoner of war status and executed

    4. Reinhard Heydrich were thenotorious Secret State Police (Geheime Staatspolizei, or Gestapo), to combat the regime's political enemies, and the Criminal Police (Kriminalpolizei, or Kripo), which was basically adetective force for nonpolitical crimes.
    5. counterrevolutionaryparamilitary units known as the Freikorps
    6. the OrderPolice (Ordnungspolizei, or Orpo) and on its role in the Nazipolicy of murdering the Jews of Europe
  3. Feb 2024
    1. It was with an uncomplicated sense of superi-ority that even ordinary Landser (as German soldiers called them-selves) regarded themselves in the first two years of the war.

      Landser - german soldier

    2. recisely becauseGermans had begun to think in terms of Feindbilder, or “visions ofthe enemy,” Goebbels regarded exhibitions such as these a “fantas-tic success.”

      feindbilder - an idea of an enemy, a created image

    3. Setapart from the familiar social contexts of family, work, and school,the closed camp was designed to break down identifications withsocial milieus and to promote Entbürgerlichung (purging bourgeoiselements) and Verkameradshaftung (comradeship) as part of theprocess of Volkwerdung, “the making of the people,” as the pecu-liar idiom of National Socialism put it.

      entbürgerlichung - purging bourgeois elements

      verkameradshaftung - comradeship

      volkwerdung - the making of the people

    4. Sühneleistung, or “atonement fine,” which a ministerial conferenceset at one billion marks. Jewish taxpayers were required to handover 20 percent of their total assets in four installments ending inAugust 1939.

      sühneleistung- atonement fine

    5. Run largely alongside the state justice and penal system, concen-tration camps became a dumping ground for Gemeinschaftsfremde,“enemies of the community,” who were to spend the rest of theirlives thrown away.

      gemeinschaftsfremde - enemies of the community

    6. “In the language used by both the Nazis and the sci-entists, this policy was called ‘Aufartung durch Ausmerzung,’”improvement through exclusion.

      Aufartung durch Ausmerzung - improvement through exclusion.

    7. Nazi pedagogues extolled das Lager, “the camp,”as the privileged place where the “new generation was finding itsform.”

      das lager - the training community camps for german children

    8. a domestic-sounding vocabulary; a rhetoric of “cleaning,” “sweeping clean,”“housecleaning” strengthened the tendency to see politics in thedrastic terms of friends and foes
    9. “glitterwords” such as “normal,” “gene,” and “alien,” passed into ev-eryday speech

      interesting to note how nazi regime and vocabulary/popular culture very closely tied, the use of nazi-aligned vocab normalized the presence of these discriminatory policies

    10. With the cheerful slices of German life they broadcastand the national audience they pulled together, radio plays recrea-ted the people’s community. It produced the effect of being unteruns, “just us.”

      unter uns - only us, (us referring to ethnic germans, the feeling of inclusion in a special group)

    11. On these occasions, friends and neighbors knew they wouldfind one another in front of the radio and could later share im-pressions—in this sense, Gemeinschaftsempfang, collective recep-tion, had been achieved.

      gemeinschaftsempfang - communal listening, the understanding that everything you hear is what everyone else is also hearing and the sense of solidarity you gain from it

    12. A jumble of Nazi acronyms (WHW, DAF, RAD, HJ), workadayabbreviations (Bomber, Laster), and a thoroughly militarized vo-cabulary, including words like Einsatz, Sturm, and Kampf

      interesting to note-- normalization of military vocab, nazis make their mark on german society and make germans feel scared but prepared, reliant on nazis

    13. a“Machbarkeitswahn,” modernity’s heady sense of the possible thatepitomized National Socialism as it charged into the future.

      machbarkeitswahn - the possibility of achieving something / making change

    14. Coordination, or Gleichschaltung, hit working-class as-sociational life especially hard.

      gleichschaltung - coordination, in this context the systematic takeover of nazi ideology in social groups

    15. the Nazis recognized only Volkskameraden, people’s com-rades, and Volksfeinde, enemies of the people, whom they sub-jected to deliberate and refined cruelties in a “willful transgressionof norms.

      volkskameraden - people's comrades

      volksfeinde - enemies of the people

    16. The enduring popularity of the Nazis rested on the idea of theVolksgemeinschaft, or people’s community.

      volksgemeinschaft - people's community

    17. an Umwälzung, a sudden, unexpected overthrow, in which many ofhis neighbors underwent a rapid Umstellung, an adjustment or con-version, to Nazism.

      umwälzung - sudden overthrow

      umstellung - sudden adjustment

  4. Dec 2023
    1. Don't specialize, hybridize October 31, 2022 · 2 minute read Specialization is too heavily encouraged as a career path. Becoming a generalist is one alternative, but there is another path less discussed: become a hybrid. The hybrid path means developing expertise in two or more distinct areas. Having several specialities allows you to see patterns that no one else can see, and make contributions that no one else would think of. The world needs more hybrid people. Specialization is attractive. Many famous people you know are specialists. Specialization feels like the only way to pick the high-hanging fruit in fields where the low branches are bare. Specialization feels like a more predictable and measurable path. The world needs more hybrid people because the world is getting more complex. Specialists are important because they help us push the limits in each field. But we also need people who can see the big picture, find unexpected connections, and guide the world’s efforts.

      hybridize 培養多重專技

  5. Nov 2023
    1. It added it was committed to delivering the safest possible service.

      官腔 perfunctory bureaucratese/officialese

    1. Yuen-Hsien Tseng「During the pre-training phase, GPT predicts missing words in sentences based on the surrounding context.」預測句子中缺失的單詞來學習上下文的關係,是BERT,不是GPT。


    1. 《The Tech Contracts Handbook 》(暫譯:科技合約口袋書)

      handbook 口袋書


    1. 楣樑(柱頂楣構) Note: 主要用於古典建築物,是古典柱頭頂部三大主要部份中位置最低的一個,擱在圓柱頂板上,包含以過樑方式橫跨圓柱或角柱的水平橫樑。古典柱頭頂部的另外兩個部份為挑檐和檐壁。環繞門或窗,類似柱頂過樑的鑄模框架,稱為「楣樑飾邊」。環繞拱門外部弧線的裝飾板條,則稱「拱門緣飾」。

      example of meta/hypothesis-on-glasp annotation

      entablature 楣樑;柱頂楣構

      order: 古典建築柱式(style, rule) e.g. Doric order

    1. 楣樑(柱頂楣構) Note: 主要用於古典建築物,是古典柱頭頂部三大主要部份中位置最低的一個,擱在圓柱頂板上,包含以過樑方式橫跨圓柱或角柱的水平橫樑。古典柱頭頂部的另外兩個部份為挑檐和檐壁。環繞門或窗,類似柱頂過樑的鑄模框架,稱為「楣樑飾邊」。環繞拱門外部弧線的裝飾板條,則稱「拱門緣飾」。

      entablature 楣樑;柱頂楣構

      order: 古典建築柱式(style, rule) e.g. Doric order

    1. Ancient builders developed several Orders, or rules, for the design and proportion of buildings, including the columns. Doric is one of the earliest and most simple of the Classical Orders set down in ancient Greece. An Order includes the vertical column and the horizontal entablature.


      cf wiki : Doric order

      The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. The Doric is most easily recognized by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns. Originating in the western Doric region of Greece, it is the earliest and, in its essence, the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above.

    1. 後備箱

      tw: 行李箱 cn: 後備箱 US: trunk UK: boot

    2. NO TRADITION IS sacred—not even trick-or-treating. In recent Halloween festivities, many Americans switched to trunk-or-treating. Instead of going door-to-door on neighbourhood streets, children shuffled between cars in parking lots and collected candy from their open boots, which were bedecked by giant spiders and terrible ghouls. It was the latest demonstration of something that has long been true: cars have a remarkably tight grip on American life. America is far more car-reliant than any other big country, averaging roughly two vehicles per household. This, in turn, is linked to many ills: obesity, pollution, suburban sprawl and so on.沒有什麼傳統是神聖不可改變的,就連“不給糖就搗蛋”也不例外。在最近的萬聖節活動中,許多美國人把它改成了“後備箱討糖”。孩子們不再在街區里挨家挨戶地敲門,而是在停車場的汽車之間穿梭,從裝飾着巨型蜘蛛和可怕鬼怪的敞開的後備箱裡收集糖果。這再次反映了長期以來的一個事實:汽車在美國人的生活中擁有驚人的支配力。美國對汽車的依賴遠遠超過任何其他大國,平均每個家庭大約擁有兩輛車。而這又與許多弊病相關聯:肥胖、污染、郊區無序擴張等。

      urban/suburban sprawl 郊區無序擴張 (wiki: 城市/郊區蔓延)

    1. 可達性(accessibility)

      Nice. I recently learned of 可及性 from a court interpreter colleague.

    1. Apple Watch supports a VO2 max range of 14-65 mL/kg/min that is validated for users 20 years or older

      validation 驗證爲有效


    1. Verification, analytical validation, and clinical validation (V3): the foundation of determining fit-for-purpose for Biometric Monitoring Technologies (BioMeTs)

      驗證、分析驗證和臨床驗證(V3):確定生物測量技術(BioMeTs)是否合適用途的基礎。 #gpt

      這裡,GPT 把verification、validation 都翻做「驗證」。我覺得verification是初步驗證、確認安全,validation是在verification基礎上,確立該方法一定的有效度。也許,臨時起意的話,validate我會翻「驗證/確立/確證/證明 有效」。

      另外,會起意查詢validate這個特別用法,是因爲iOS Health app中,出現如「<某某測量/方法/app> is validated for <age group>」的說明。見官網

    1. Is Downloading Videos from YouTube and Other Sites LegalAnother common concern about 4K Video Downloader is whether it is legal to download videos from YouTube and other sites. The answer is yes, but with some caveats. According to the Fair Use Doctrine, it is legal to download videos for personal use, such as watching them offline or creating a backup copy. However, it is illegal to distribute or share downloaded videos without the consent of the copyright owner.

      Fair Use Doctrine 公平使用原則

    1. Because peak means the top, the maximum, it's possible to understand how people, even professional writers, confuse it with pique, as in the following examples: Revealing this new information to the police peaks their interest and now paints Shaw as a person of interest in Sophie's disappearance. (Washington Times) Sharon said he comes across many people who don't think opera is for them, but he hopes hearing about these kinds of "audacious experiments" will peak their interest. (Time)

      If Washington Times and Time writers got it wrong, it's no wonder a transciptionist for Amanpour and Company did too:

      Youtube clip

    1. Gen Alpha Is Here. Can You Understand Their Slang?

      Gen Alpha 「阿法時代」「A世代」 2010-2020中期出生者:頂多14歲

    1. 槽點



    1. 著名的恐怖谷理論描述,人類面對與人形越相近的物體好感度就越高,但是當物體與人高度相似,卻又帶有一絲非人的氣息,好感度則會突然下降轉為排斥。同樣的現象是否也出現在文字?當我們從資訊類文本移動到表達類文本,也代表文風越貼近人性,但在展現人性的關鍵時刻,AI文字卻有種莫名的突兀感。

      恐怖谷/詭異谷 uncanny valley

    1. the apocryphal frog in the slowly boiling pot of water

      apocrypha. The story is said to be false: the frog is smarter than staying and getting boiled to death.

    1. Measures of heart rate variability index language knowledge

      index: 動詞,反映 #terp;掛鉤(A值隨B值變動、調整)

    1. Writ of certiorari An order issued by the U.S. Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case which it will hear on appeal.

      abbreviated "cert" e.g. The supreme court has granted cert on the controversial case.

  6. May 2023
  7. Apr 2023
    1. strife

      "an act of contention" 爭吵

    2. bewail

      "to express deep sorrow for usually by wailing and lamentation" 悲嘆

    3. repented

      "to feel regret or contrition" 懺悔

    4. indignant

      "feeling or showing anger because of something unjust or unworthy" 憤慨

    5. temperance

      "moderation in action, thought, or feeling" 節制

    6. zeal

      "eagerness and ardent interest in pursuit of something" 熱誠

    7. avarice

      "excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain : GREEDINESS, CUPIDITY" 貪心、貪婪

    8. stoop

      "to bend the body or a part of the body forward and downward sometimes simultaneously bending the knees" 彎腰

    9. conjure

      "to charge or entreat earnestly or solemnly" 懇求

    10. toil

      "long strenuous fatiguing labor" 勞苦

    11. jurisdiction

      "the authority of a sovereign power to govern or legislate"; 管轄範圍

    12. drachm’

      "a unit of weight formerly used by apothecaries, equivalent to 60 grains or one eighth of an ounce." 德拉克馬

    13. vengeance

      "punishment inflicted in retaliation for an injury or offense" 報仇

    14. rejoice

      "to feel joy or great delight" 開心

    15. woe

      "a condition of deep suffering from misfortune, affliction, or grief" 悲痛

    16. endorse

      "to approve openly" 認可

    17. vicar

      "an ecclesiastical agent: such as: a Church of England incumbent receiving a stipend but not the tithes of a parish" 牧師

    18. hail

      "precipitation in the form of small balls or lumps usually consisting of concentric layers of clear ice and compact snow" 冰雹

    19. flax

      "any of a genus (Linum of the family Linaceae, the flax family) of herbs especially : a slender erect annual (L. usitatissimum) with blue flowers commonly cultivated for its bast fiber and seed" 亞麻

    20. ample

      "generous or more than adequate in size, scope, or capacity" 寬闊

    21. brethren

      "plural of BROTHER" 弟兄們

    22. boon

      "a timely benefit" 福利

    23. quenched

      "to put out the light or fire of" 熄滅

    24. motionless

      "not moving; stationary" 不動

    25. assailed

      "to attack violently" 攻擊

    26. dew

      "moisture condensed upon the surfaces of cool bodies especially at night" 露水

    27. perforates

      "to make a hole through"; 穿過

    28. tares

      "the seed of a vetch" 稗子

    29. slough

      "a place of deep mud or mire" 泥沼

    30. negligence

      "the quality or state of being negligent" 忽略、忽視

    31. laggard

      "lagging or tending to lag : slow especially compared to others of the same kind" 遲緩的、落後的

    32. courtesy

      "behavior marked by polished manners or respect for others"; 禮節、禮儀

    33. benignity

      "showing kindness and gentleness" 良性

    34. outrage

      "an act of violence or brutality" 暴行

    35. treachery

      "violation of allegiance or of faith and confidence"; 叛變

    36. desist

      "to cease to proceed or act" 斷念

    37. headlong

      "without pause or delay"; 猛然地

    38. astonishment

      "a feeling of great surprise and wonder" 驚愕

    39. pilgrim

      "one who travels to a shrine or holy place as a devotee" 朝聖

    40. brows

      "eyebrow" 眉毛

    41. unwonted

      "being out of the ordinary : RARE, UNUSUAL" 非習常的

    42. agile

      "marked by ready ability to move with quick easy grace" 俐落

    43. scorn

      "open dislike and disrespect or mockery often mixed with indignation" 鄙視、蔑視

    44. bend

      "to constrain or strain to tension by curving" 彎曲

    45. enswathes

      "to enfold or enclose with or as if with a covering"; 包裹住

    46. lingering

      "to move slowly" 逗、留

    47. reproach

      "an expression of rebuke or disapproval"; 批評的話語

    48. vermilion

      "a vivid reddish orange" 珠

    49. slopes

      "to lie or fall in a slant : INCLINE" 傾斜

    50. meridian circle

      "an astronomical transit instrument having its vertical circle very accurately graduated for precise measurements of declination" 經絡圈

    51. forebode

      "to have an inward conviction of (something, such as a coming ill or misfortune)"; 預示、預感

    52. fangs.

      “a long sharp tooth”; 獠牙

    53. hinders

      "to make slow or difficult the progress of";妨礙

    54. stain

      "to suffuse with color" 弄髒

    55. vanquish

      "to overcome in battle : subdue completely" 擊敗、征服

    56. ooze

      "a soft deposit (as of mud, slime, or shells) on the bottom of a body of water" 爛泥

    57. infamy

      “evil reputation brought about by something grossly criminal, shocking, or brutal”; 醜惡的、聲名狼藉的

    58. nape

      "the back of the neck";頸背

  8. Sep 2022
    1. Evaluation isthe worth of an argument.

      Evaluation def

    2. Whilethepreviouspitfallfocusestoomuchonanimaginedaudience,thethirdpitfalleauthor'sintent.

      Describing authors intent def

    3. describing the effect of the original argument. In thissituation, the writer describes how the argument (or a part of it) might affect an audience.

      describing the effect def

    4. Analyzinganargumentiscommonlycalledrhetoricalanalysis

      Rhetorical analysis def

    5. analysis seeks to make claims of fact rather thanclaims of value.

      Analysis def 2

    6. nalysis is the act of investigating how something works.

      Analysis def

    1. Appeals to value make a connection between the topic and a shared value or principle (such as fairness, equality, honor, kindness, selflessness, duty, responsibility, profit, or practicality).

      appeals to value def

    2. subject and a basic human need (such as intimacy, self-realization,

      Appeal to need def

    3. Appeals to emotion draw on the emotions (f s, hopes, sympathies, yearnings) of the audience.

      Appeal to emotion def

    4. Appeals to character draw attention to the arguer’s (writer/speaker’s) personal nature, integrity, experience, wisdom, or personality.

      Appeals to character def

    5. Golden age fallacies characterize the past as broadly and inherently better.

      Golden age def

    6. reductio ad Hitlerum.

      reductio ad Hitlerum

    7. Association fallacies claim that two people or things share a quality just because they are somehow associated, connected, or related.

      Association def

    8. Bandwagon fallacies claim that because everyone else is doing it, you should, too,

      Bandwagon def

    9. ed herring fallacies are deliberate attempts to change the subject. Instead of deal- ing with the actual argument, the arguer introduces irrelevant points to distract the audience.

      Red herring def

    10. Begging the Question (also called circular reasoning and, in Latin, petitio principii) involves supporting a claim by restating (in different words) the claim itself.

      Begging the q def

    11. Slippery slope fallacies claim that a certain way of thinking or acting will necessar- | ily lead to more of the same—that once you begin sliding down a slippery slope, you | will keep sliding.

      Slippery slope def

    12. on sequitur (Latin for it does not follow) skips or confuses logical steps. The conclu- sion cannot logically be arrived at through the premises.

      Non sequitur def

    13. Hasty generalizations draw conclusions based on too little evidence.

      Hasty g def

    14. Either/or fallacies oversimplify an issue by claiming that only two options exist when there are more options to choose from.

      Either/or def

    15. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc (or faulty cause-effect) fallacies claim that if one thing happened before another, then the first thing must have caused the second.

      Post hoc ergo propter hoc def

    16. Strawperson fallacies involve misrepresenting a position and then dismissing it as wrong.

      Strawperson def

    17. Ad hominem (Latin for to the person) fallacies are personal attacks. Instead of responding to the ideas someone has put forth,

      Ad hominem def

    18. A fallacy is a false- hood, so a logical fallacy is a logical falsehood that makes no sense within a given situation.

      Fallacy def

    19. Analogical reasoning depends on comparisons (or analogies).

      Analogical reasoning def

    20. enthymeme, which is a line of reasoning that contains an unstated premise. The unstated premise is so widely accepted that it goes unmentioned.

      Enthymeme def

    21. warrant, which is the link between a claim and its grounds (the claim's supporting reason). The warrant (which is sometimes stated, sometimes unstated) expresses why a person would accept a claim based on the grounds.

      Warrant def

    22. Inductive reasoning builds from specific premises and leads to a general claim.

      Inductive reasoning def

    23. Deductive reasoning builds a conclusion from accepted premises or general principles.

      Deductive reasoning definition

    24. ppeals are a major form of support in argumentation. They call on the reader's sense it of logic, character, emotion, need, or value,

      Appeal def

    25. SCENARIOS are fictional or hypothetical examples.

      Scenarios def

    26. ILLUSTRATIONS are graphic descriptions or representations of an idea.

      Illustrations def

    27. mples are specific occurrences of a p

      Examples def

    28. vidence is a type of support that already exists, unlike appeals, which are created by a writer,

      Evidence def

    29. FACTS are agreed-upon bits of knowledge that do not require further support in an argument.

      Fact def

    30. AUTHORITIES are experts who offer specialized knowledge.

      Authority def

    31. ANECDOTES are short accounts of a particular event or incident.

      Anecdote def

    32. grounds or proofs,

      Support called grounds or proofs

    33. apposilive,

      Quickly explaining someone's credibility

    1. curmudgeonly

      curmudgeonly | kəˈmʌdʒ(ə)nli | adjective (especially of an old person) bad-tempered and negative: a curmudgeonly old man | I enjoy a good curmudgeonly rant about how English is going to the dogs these days.

  9. Jul 2022
  10. Feb 2022
    1. praefuerat

      praesum, praeesse: to be in charge of + dative

    2. in ius

      in court, in an official audience/capacity

    3. cecidisset

      <caedo, caedere - to strike

    4. commonefaceret

      commonefacio: moneo + facio, to bring to mind, to remind of

    5. palaestritis

      palaestrita, ae, m., = παλαιστρίτης, the director of a wrestling-school

    6. desierunt

      <desino, -ere - to stop

    7. mystagogos

      mystagogus, i, m., = μυσταγωγός,

      one who conducts a person through secret and sacred places as a guide, an initiator, a mystagogue

    8. argumenta

      argumentum, -i: figure, representation

    9. operari

      operarius: a working man, a manual laborer (derogative, referring to Verres)

    10. bullas

      bulla, -ae: knob, stud

    11. liquido

      adverb - =plane, certe

    12. primarios

      =nobiles, honestos

    13. rationem

      reasoning, calculation

    14. pepercit

      parco, -ere: to spare, leave unharmed (takes a dative object)

    15. Neapolis

      Greek for "new city" (nea + polis)

    16. prytanium

      = πρυτανεῖον,

      the town-hall, a public building in some of the Grecian states, where the Prytanes assembled and dined, and where those who had done special service to the State were entertained at the public expense

    17. operiretur

      operio, -ire: to cover, overwhelm

  11. Jan 2022
    1. patuisse

      pateo, patere: to lie open

    2. quin


    3. Medemini

      medeor, -eri (deponent) - to heal 2nd person plural ending

    4. Aguntur

      ago can mean to argue or make a case, as in a law case

    5. deprecatio

      precor, precari - prayer, plea

    6. myoparoni

      myoparo, -onis: light pirate ship

    7. re vera

      idiom - "in reality," "actually"

    8. adscita

      adscio/ascio, -ire: to accept, adopt

    9. sancire

      sancio, sancire - to confirm, consecrate

    10. vestigia

      vestigium, -i, n. footprint, trace

    11. decumarum

      decumae = decimae (tenths or tithes)

    12. verbenis

      verbena, -ae, f. branches, boughs, laurels

    13. infulis

      infula: fillet, ribbon (ritual decoration)

    14. animus

      mindset, disposition, emotional state

    15. propatulo


    16. planities

      planities, -ei, f. - flatness