99 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. References

      Unzueta, Miguel M., and Brian S. Lowery. "Defining Racism Safely: The Role of Self-image Maintenance on White Americans’ Conceptions of Racism." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44.6 (2008): 1491-497. Elsevier. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    2. White privilege represents an external attribution for Whites’ personal success that threatens to discount their internal attributions (e.g., talent and effort) for such success.

      This is a powerful point that illustrates why many individuals, when faced with evidence of white privilege, want to deny the facts: they feel threatened by the downplay of their own contributions to success (e.g. merit).

    3. Defining racism safely: The role of self-image maintenance on white Americans’ conceptions of racism

      While reading this, I kept considering the authors' names and could not understand why, until I remembered that these writers also contributed to the second article I annotated, "Deny, Distance, or Dismantle"! This helps me as a reader to trust that these experts truly know what they are talking about.

    4. Unlike the individual conception of racism, the institutional conception of racism suggests that racism can occur without the deliberately discriminatory actions of prejudiced individuals

      Lowery and Unzueta explain the differences between the individual and institutional conceptions of racism, giving examples for each. This keeps the audience on the same page as the writers, and encourages ethos.

    5. We argue that

      This short paragraph states all sides of the claim in understandable concise sentences, part by part. First, white Americans may deny racism as an institutional issue because it makes the individual more aware of the privilege he or she possesses due to the color of their skin. The authors found that is it is much less threatening to white individuals when they consider race an individual issue, a case-to-case offense, because then they are not faced with their privilege.

    6. Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, 518 Memorial Way Stanford, CA

      Author Brian S. Lowery is currently a professor of Organizational Behavior at Stanford Graduate School of Business in California. He earned his doctorate at the institution for which his co-author currently teaches, UCLA. Lowery's work also focuses on inequality experienced by individuals. In fact, his findings indicate that "individuals distinguish between inequalities framed as advantage as opposed to disadvantage," and that this correlates to "how individuals perceive inequality and the steps they take, if any, to reduce it," (Stanford Graduate School of Business).

      Both authors have focused their academic passion on the issue of diversity, social inequality, and perception of racial inequality. In sharing their findings on white's perception of racial in equality, the authors can shed light on the psychology behind the issue, hopefully having a positive impact on future race relations.

      Biography and information on Lowery: https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/faculty-research/faculty/brian-lowery

    7. Department of Human Resources and Organizational Behavior, Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles

      Author Miguel M. Unzueta is an associate professor of Management and Organizations at the UCLA Anderson School of Management. Unzueta's work focuses on the interworkings of social hierarchy and how that affects the way in which we view social in equality as a society. A short biography is available at the School of Management's website: http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/management-and-organizations/faculty/unzueta

    1. In his 2006 article in theJournal of the Islamic MedicalAssociation of North America(JIMA)

      This source is goes into more depth on the Islamic views on homosexuality, which provides a base on what their views on conversion therapy may be.

    2. Junaid B. Jahangir, PhDaand Hussein Abdul-latif, MD

      These are the authors of the article and are professors with PhD's. This shows that they are qualified and have knowledge in their field of study for homosexuality and conversion therapy.

      This is a journal that this article is derived from in order to critique the journal that was created by Ahmed, as well as to explain the Islamic viewpoint on the situation of conversion therapy.

    3. Junaid B. Jahangir PhD & Hussein Abdul-latif MD (2016) Investigatingthe Islamic Perspective on Homosexuality, Journal of Homosexuality, 63:7, 925-954,

      This is the MLA format citation

    4. Kutty’s juxtaposing of pornography, in the context of gays and lesbians,allows some conservative Muslims to establish causality between pornogra-phy and sexual orientation. However, confessions on a site on asexualityreveal how some heterosexuals and asexuals occasionally watch homosexualpornography despite having no desire in masturbation or establishing asexual relationship with members of the same gender (

      Junaid B. Jahangir and Hussein Abdul-latif establish credibility through the evidence that they use throughout their article. They explain that Kutty's reasons for supporting conversion therapy are not justifiable, and then provide statistics and research based evidence, as to why these reasons are not logical reasons for conversion therapy to be needed.

      I think for the future of my research, that this source will be helpful because I will be able to include other countries views and reasons for using conversion therapy to strengthen my argument against it.

    5. Assuch, the intended audience for this critique is Muslim counselors, profes-sionals, and community leaders, who continue to ignore the predominantposition among professional psychologists and psychiatrists on the accep-tance of the sexual orientation of gays and lesbians and on the harms ofreparative therapy, and who persist in perpetuating the framework used bythe National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality(NARTH) due to their religious convictions.

      Since the author of this article is an American, he could be bias to the Islamic faith and viewpoints. However, this may be unlikely considering America has individuals who are religious as well with the same kind of approach to conversion therapy that doctors have over there.

    6. reparative therapy groups. He also associated mental health issues and fataldiseases with homosexuality rather than societal prejudice. As such, hedistinguished between orientation and action, and based on“Islamic values”he counseled permanent celibacy for homosexuals.

      The author of this article is arguing against the ideas of a different homosexual viewpoint through the perspective that Islam has. The author uses evidence from an Islamic source to point out the flaws of the idea that sexuality can be changed through a variety of ways that may be harmful to an individual. Also this compares and contrasts America's ideas of homosexuality versus another country. In the American culture many arguments against homosexuals is mostly based on religious affiliations, which seems to also be the same approach many of the Islamic faith have as well.

    7. no evidence of people being born gay and to underscore the need forhaving positive loving male figures to help with identity development. Inanother online response, the questioner is informed that homosexuality is asevere illness that must be treated, one that arises due to weakness of faith orfailing to pray (Muslims of Calgary,2011). He is counseled that throughrepentance theharam(prohibited) desires of many homosexuals have dis-appeared, and he is therefore advised to get married

      Junaid B. Jahangir and Hussein Abdul-latif are responding to the views of the Islamic faith and their views on homosexuality and the treatment that would be best for this 'mental illness'. The author's disagree with the point of views that are explained by conservative Muslims, who would also not share the viewpoints of the authors of this article. Since, the Islamic faith categorizes homosexuality under a mental illness, the way they handle it is harsh and meant to be solutions to an actual disease.

      Not only would the Islamic faith disagree with the viewpoints presented in this article, but they would also be considered a stakeholder in the topic of conversion therapy. Since, conversion therapy is different for other cultures and does happen around the world, they do have different ways to go about the therapy. This is a reliable source for the Islamic faith viewpoint on homosexuals and conversion therapy because the article features many thoughts by a Muslim doctor.

  2. www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org
    1. In summary, there are no data to support the claim that GM products are universally safe. In contrast, there is increasing evidence from the scientific community that some GM crops and definitely the herbicides that are required to produce the major GM crops are toxic

      restating claim

    2. These issues are too complex to discuss here,

      This kind of discredits the author, it seems like he is jumping around the issue or does not think his audience is intelligent enough to comprehend the data.

    3. But the glyphosate resistant GM crops do not die, while the surrounding weeds are killed. There are a number of studies showing that glyphosate is an endocrine disrupter and toxic to humans.[18][19]

      So while tests have not been conducted on gm foods, there have been tests conducted on the herbicides sprayed on gm crops - which have been found to be toxic.

    4. [12][13]

      I really appreciate that he has links for every one of his claims, no matter how small.

    5. Within the U.S., the scientific discussion of health hazards associated with GM crops is muted because it is largely controlled by industry and pro-industry plant scientists within the major scientific organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

      Interesting because I just annotated an article from the AAAS and did not notice an inherent bias, but also did not notice any criticism of gm foods.

    6. and we do not know about future GMO

      ok but what about present gmos?

    7. The laws that dictate the approval of GM foods were written by Monsanto, the company that developed the first GM plants.[9]

      This shows that the interests of large companies (monopolies in the GMO industry) do not put the concern of the consumer first, instead profit is the end goal.

    8. This case would have been much harder to trace to the source without the required labeling of the supplement.

      This is an accident related to gm foods, without gm labeling,companies could not be held accountable for deaths caused by their products (may be why they're pressing for non-required gm labeling)

    9. and from my view as a medical research scientist

      again, boosting his ethos by showing the reader that he has experience in this subject.

    10. n contrast, Bt-corn makes a bacterial insecticide that binds to and damages cells of the gut of insects and likely does the same in humans.[5] Finally, the GM papaya was engineered to resist a plant virus and may be perfectly safe to eat.[6] But until some comprehensive safety testing protocols are mandated, at a minimum similar to those required for all other food additives, the buyer should be given the option of whether to take the risk or not

      The author states the supposed harms of gm foods, but also says that there is a possibility that some of them are perfectly safe. This adds to his credibility by showing he is open to the possibility that gm foods may be perfectly safe, just a bit testing is required to prove that.

    11. The production of GM soy requires large amounts of herbicides containing the chemical glyphosate, declared a probable carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO).[3][4]

      Quoting the World Health Organization which is very reliable is a big ethos booster for the author. The WHO is an unbiased organization that doesn't have any corporations interests in mind.This is also very valuable information for me and my twine project, who would want to each a verified carcinogen?

    12. (1) All existing plants produced by GM technology are different from each other and all pose different levels of risk to health; (2) Because most anything is possible in the world of genetic engineering, we have no way of knowing what will be introduced into our food chain in the future, and; (3) Finally, this is all made more problematic because there is no required Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety testing of any GM product, and in fact to date none has been tested for toxicity.[1][2]

      He is addressing the "they" throughout the article that do not believe it be necessary to label GMO foods. Here he states his reasons simply upfront with citations.

    13. David Schubert

      He is a Salk Institute scientist with plenty of experience and education.

    14. Most people would prefer to have foods containing genetically modified products labeled as such.

      This is the author's claim, he is stating that even though there are many studies claiming that GM foods are safe, there is mounting evidence that says differently.


      Schubert, By David. Gene Watch Page. Gene Watch Page. Jan. 2016. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    1. h

      this source seems credible, since it seems to be a document which has many sources and intellectual information.

    2. mutualunderstandingandtrust,andinternationalpartnerships

      not only does space exploration help with inspiring out society with movies and book but it also connects nations and forms a sort of bond.

    3. Spaceexplorationthussupportsinnovationandeconomicprosperitybystimulatingadvancesinscienceandtechnology,aswellasmotivatingtheglobalscientificandtechnologicalworkforce,thusenlargingthesphereofhumaneconomicactivity

      From the graph above this the things we can get out of the space exploration programs is economic prosperity, human experience, understanding of place in the universe, also knowledge of the universe expands.

    4. technologicalbenefits

      not only does this expand how we can improve important technologies on earth but space exploration also helps scientists understand more about the human body. It helps with understanding the aging process along with how the body reacts in a microgravity environment.

    5. Agencieswillconductinthenexttenyearsroboticmissions

      This can be used against ab annotation 4

      Not only does this show that nasa is doing what they can to save money and such but it also proves that they are improving their technologies.

    1. The first and the fourth of the tweetsare about Hillary Clinton, former Secretary of State, who iscurrently leading in the Democratic presidential race.

      This article was written by five authors Yu Wang, Jiebo Luo, Richard Niemi, Yuncheng and Tianan Hu. The article was made in March 2016, it is recent. This article’s main focus is running a study about Donald Trump's tweets. It is showing that his tweets that attack his opponent Hilary Clinton are the most favorable. They use their own research as evidence to prove their claim. Attacking his opponent during a debate is not the only strategy Trump is using to win. He is attacking through social media. It is stated that Trump has 5.46 million followers on twitter. Not only are the millions of people watching the presidential debates hearing the ridicule about Clinton, but now it will be seen all over social media. Trump’s average amount of likes on his tweets are about 3 thousand. His tweets regarding Clinton ranges from 2 to 11 thousand likes. Using social media opponents can attack each other to make the other look bad in ways other than saying it on live television. The credibility of the authors is high due to them actually conducting the experiment. They did all the research and work that went with making sure their prediction was accurate. They are all also either Political or Computer Science majors at the University of Rochester. This article would appeal to Trump supporters, especially ones that follow him on twitter. This would appeal to the younger generation because that is who uses twitter. This article’s main focus is Trump which could possibly make this article bias. They could be Trump supporters and are using their research to advertise Trump.

  3. Aug 2016
    1. Megan Burnett

      Burnett, Megan. "On the Topic of White Privilege." Collegian. 7 Oct 2015. Web. 8 Aug 2016. Megan Burnett wrote for the CSU collegian in the Opinion section. There was much controversy after this article was published.

  4. Jul 2016
    1. The U.K. would have to accept most EU rules without having any input into them, pay into the EU budget, and accept free movement of people from other EU countries, or at least a large measure of it.

      The EU will remain adamant, since UK has always received more than it's just share. Question of hurt pride maybe. Through the mist, another ex-Yugoslavia scenario with non-english ethnias braking away is sensed, plus North and South England parting like Sudan. After that each entity can apply for EU membership again in a future.

    2. The smoothest exit from the EU—and the one that would entail the least economic disruption, according to numerous economic models—would be for the U.K. to join the European Economic Area, along with Norway. I

      Every country ends up making the best decisions for itself. Pan-European policies have been a failure (given that the average annual growth rate of the EU for the past 40 years is a dismal 0.5%). Small governments over people of the same identity (and feeling of belonging) is the best approach. As an example of the above, giving the Greeks the credit rating of Germans proved to be disastrous. Germans need high quality credit to build those expensive factories and those magnificent cars. Greece is a place where Europeans go to party. Giving Greeks access to all that money simply resulted in the money being wasted and Greece going belly up. Because Greece does not need huge amounts of money to build new taverns.

    3. there is a risk they become further disaffected

      The main reason for the UK leaving is that the EU (which started as the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951) has grown far beyond its original charter as a trading community. The original intent of the Euro was common standards and free movement of goods and services within Europe. Very few of its current member states envisaged the EU as it is today almost at the stage of becoming a formal empire with flag and national anthem. More importantly, almost all the legislation passed in its member states are rubber stamps of EU directives. No one in Brussels gets elected by the people in the countries they govern. It's a nice cozy circle of pals mainly backed by German and French politicians.

    4. A majority appeared to be motivated by very different concerns: that the U.K.’s openness, particularly to immigration from elsewhere in the EU, was depressing wages, damaging job prospects and putting pressure on public services.

      The EU has given Europe 50plus years of peace, prosperity and progress. The UK is still a relevant vital part of Europe.the UK parliament opposes Brexit. The best outcome for the UK and Europe now would be for the UK to have a 2nd referendum. This would ensure if this drastic action is actually what the people want. On EU referendums the Danes have done this, the Irish have done this, and the UK have an opportunity to do this now. They should take it.

    5. A minority of Brexit advocates, like Messrs. Gove and Johnson, depicted the EU as an obstacle to a more freewheeling, buccaneering, open-market economy.

      The Brexit campaign was based on lies, with no actual idea of plan on what to do if the Brexit proposal was passed. The net result of going through with an actual UK exit is a weaker UK, with less to little political influence in Europe, a weaker EU with a centre of power moving further East, a massive market correction in the UK, a likely recession and a potential potential.

    6. Stephen Fidler

      Stephen Fidler has been Brussels Editor of The Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones Newswires since October 2009. He runs a bureau of 11 journalists and leads coverage from Brussels of the European Union and the euro zone as well as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He writes a regular column and was part of a team of Journal reporters named as a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in 2011 for their reporting on the euro-zone debt crisis.

    1. Contrasted with rising powers, defense budgets in Europe clearly seemed to be stagnating if not dropping.

      Taylor then balances this out by talking about European nations. He explains that the spending in this part of the world is evening out and not increasing year afer year. If anything, it could be dropping. Since these are established countries, the United States could go this way as well, and any increased spending could go to places like NASA. There are many factors that could go into the spending for the United States military and defense. If the threat level stays the same or decreases, there may not be a need to cut NASA's funds, and may even make it possible for them to gain more funding. If the opposite proves true, NASA may in fact need to be cut back in order to allow the increased spending.

    2. Moreover, the overall balance of power in military spending appears to be shifting. Last year, the IISS Military Balance noted the rise of the Asian powers

      This could be an argument against NASA. If other countries begin to spend more, the United States may be inclined to do the same. The spending is so high already that the U.S. may decide to cut other areas. This could include NASA

    3. New technologies mean that the West in general and the United States in particular are losing their technological edge, the report found.

      Further evidence to support the thought that if cuts are to be made, it should be in the military spending. The United States spends half a trillion dollars on its military, which is more than one third the amount of the entire world. However, it could be argued that quality is more important than quantity. Other countries that gain the edge technologically would be able to do more, despite the fact that they do not have as much financial backing. If the United States focused their thinking to this outcome, they could cut cost while keeping the military edge we have established.

    4. On a grand scale, the report showed – yet again – that U.S. military spending easily dwarfed the rest of the world. With a defense budget of around $597 billion, it was almost as much as the next 14 countries put together and far larger than the rest of the world.

      At this point, it may not be very apparent as to why I have chosen this article to discuss spending on space exploration. The reasoning is to discuss another stakeholder viewpoint on the issue. The amount of money that the government allows NASA is incredibly small in comparison to how much is spent on other areas such as military expenditures. This page shows that science (such as NASA) and military both fall under discretionary spending. The military is given so much more money than NASA. Therefore, it could be argued that if the government wanted to cut costs, they should focus on cutting the expenses used for the military instead of NASA.

    5. On Tuesday, the International Institute for Strategic Studies released its Military Balance 2016 report, which seeks to examine closely the changing nature of military power.

      This article is reporting information released from the IISS. This source is incredibly credible, to the point that it helps run international summits. This proves that the information being received is incredibly accurate and will be very informative and factual.

    6. By Adam Taylor and Laris Karklis

      Multiple authors give crediblity.Adam Taylor is a professional writer and focuses on foreign affairs, which gives him large credibility to him penning an article about global spending on defense.

      Laris Karklis is more of an illustrator, providing graphs and pictures to represent data being discussed.

      The Washington Post is a very credible source for news. They are well known, and cover a plethora of topics, as well as maintaining a high standard of professionalism.

    7. This remarkable chart shows how U.S. defense spending dwarfs the rest of the world

      Taylor, Adam, and Karklis, Laris. "This Remarkable Chart Shows How U.S. Defense Spending Dwarfs the Rest of the World." The Washington Post. 9 Feb. 2016 Web. 10 Jul. 2016.

      This article states very specifically that is talks about how the United States spends more money on its defense and military than any other country in the world. Its audience is most likely those concerned with where their tax money is going. It also is to show those interested in more global comparisons just where the United States ranks in terms of spending.

  5. Apr 2016
    1. Scientists have long been warning that rising ocean temperatures will have drastic effect on marine life.

      Here is what "they" are saying. Due to the increasing temperature of the ocean because of climate change, specifically El Nino, many populations of marine species are being diagnosed with diseases and dying. As seen by a research studies done by Cornell University, sea star wasting disease has become more prevalent. It's affects are devastating as many as 20 species of sea stars along the U.S. coast. Another study also claims that with temperatures continuing to increase, there will eventually be an increase in shell diseases in lobsters found off the Gulf Coast. The rest of the article goes into potential ways to address the issues at hand in special ways.

    2. Study links warming ocean with increased marine diseases

      Berwyn, Bob. "Study Links Warming Ocean with Increased Marine Diseases." Summit County Citizens Voice. N.p., 17 Feb. 2016. Web. 01 Mar. 2016.

      The claim in this article as stated by author Bob Berwyn is that because of climate changes such as the increasing temperature of the ocean, marine life is being put in danger and is dying off.

    3. “Shell disease has devastated the southern New England lobster fishery, and now with warming, it’s created a situation where the Maine lobster industry may be at risk,” said Shields

      I like that Berwyn has shown an example of the economic effect of the increasing temperatures rather than just environmental ones. I think this helps appeal to the audience better because it has shown the effects of climate change in a more relate able way, as people's well being and lifestyles will change along with the marine life. Perhaps this will get people to start taking this issue more seriously if they realize it will start effecting them economically and even socially.

    4. The results showed that warmer ocean temperatures led to higher risk of infection from sea star wasting disease, an affliction that wiped out 90 percent of some populations from Mexico to Alaska between 2013 and 2014

      This is a substantial statistics. It's an example of ethos as it is using statistical data to help argue the seriousness of climate change and warming water.

    5. Bob Berwyn

      The author of this article is different then most of the other sources I've done because he is not a scientist, but rather an influential editor and reporter of the Summit County Citizens Voice. The Summit County Citizens Voice is a news website that has reported "uncensored" and "unfiltered" news since 1996. It specifically reports on news related to the environment.

      Berwyn, as a reporter and editor, is well respected as his work has appeared or been featured in top magazines and news sources across the country. For example, "he has reported for the Denver Post, the Summit Daily, the Summit Times, the Summit Independent, the Vail Daily Trail, the Aspen Daily News, the Durango Herald and the Telluride Daily Planet. His stories have also appeared in High Country News and 5280 magazine". Because of his extensive resume and connections, I find him to be a credible source who reports valid information.

      http://summitcountyvoice.com/about/ https://www.linkedin.com/in/bob-berwyn-b624ab9

    6. sea star wasting disease

      According to the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology website provided by the University of California Santa Barbara, "Sea star wasting syndrome is a general description of a set of symptoms that are found in sea stars. Typically, lesions appear in the ectoderm followed by decay of tissue surrounding the lesions, which leads to eventual fragmentation of the body and death. A deflated appearance can precede other morphological signs of the disease. All of these symptoms are also associated with ordinary attributes of unhealthy stars and can arise when an individual is stranded too high in the intertidal zone (for example) and simply desiccates". The scary thing about this particular disease is that it can kill a sea star in as little as a few days. It seems to be very aggressive and quick targeting to marine life.

  6. Mar 2016
    1. take steps to prevent further plastic waste by forcing producers to take back the plastic used in packaging.

      This article is focusing on the stakeholder position of environmentalists. It shows how they view the topic of ocean pollution, specifically by plastic, and why it is such an important issue that is rising in generation.

    2. But only 14 percent of this packaging is collected for recycling. The reuse rate for plastic is terrible compared to other materials — 58 percent of paper and up to 90 percent of iron and steel gets recycled.

      Here the author uses more statistics to talk about how more could be done to decrease plastic pollution in oceans, and around the world in general. They state that 58% of paper and 90% of iron and steel get recycled whereas only 14% of plastic does.

      What are some solutions to this? Maybe the general public is not as informed about the requirements of recycling. There is a significant emphasis placed on paper products being recycled to "save the trees". Maybe if the public were to become more aware that plastic is recyclable to, and if a movement such as something along the lines of "save the fish" or "save the dolphins" were to be started, then possibly more plastic products would get recycled.


      "Plastic For Dinner?." Earth Island Journal 31.1 (2016): 11. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2016.

      This source is a periodical, or a scholarly source. By reading the title it is pretty evident what the article is about, it even almost indirectly states the claim. I think the claim is that there will soon be so much plastic in the oceans that fish and other marine organisms will be "having it for dinner" and how it is going to effect the marine ecosystem, fishermen and pescatarians.

      Although its a scholarly source, it appeals to readers in a more simplistic and understandable way. Rather than appealing to students and other researchers, this article seems to focus more on appealing to the general public that may be concerned about the increasing problem of ocean pollution. This article also does a fairly good job at remain objective while presenting information in a less formal way, but also keeping it credible.

    4. One of the biggest problems [to] focus on is single use and disposable plasti

      ( http://patch.com/new-york/northfork/countywide-single-use-plastic-bag-ban-pitched-suffolk-legislator)

      Here the author brings in a the side of a CEO from a Plastic Pollution Coalition to increase their credibility. She states that one of the biggest problems is single use and disposable plastic. The article linked above discusses the negative effect of single use plastic as well as focusing on a proposed ban of single-se plastic bags in New York.

    5. A World Economic Forum (WEF) report has found that about 8 million tons of plastic end up in our oceans each year — the equivalent of a dump truck of plastic rubbish every minute.

      Here the author uses ethos and logos. They use ethos by using a World Economic Forum to get statistical support for their claim. They then use those statistics in the form of logos, stating "8 millions tons of plastic end up in our ocean each year". This both increases their credibility and gives the audience statistical information. The author also uses and analogy to connect with their audience by comparing the amount of plastic present in the oceans to the amount plastic dumped into the ocean by a dump truck per minute. This allows the reader to better understand how much plastic is actually being released into the marine ecosystems.

    6. the world’s oceans may be home to more plastic debris than fish by 2050.

      This is the main idea that the author will be discussing throughout the article. It also can be seen as a hook that pulls in more readers by gaining their interest in something they might see as an exaggerated statement. The reality of it is that its a potentially true statement that is supported by evidence throughout the article.

    1. Kesha's case has hit a raw nerve in music and raised the long-standing problem of sexism and mistreatment of women in the business, an issue for which -- compared with Hollywood and other industries -- it has remained largely unscrutinized.

      At first, I just thought this was a contract issue. I thought it was ridiculous how even in this extreme of circumstances, a judge wouldn't release Kesha from the contract. In every article about this current event that I have read, I have noticed one common factor and that is the mistreatment of women and sexism in business and industries.

    1. This kind of control is a cornerstone of domestic abuse, and it's far too common: according to the National Network to End Domestic Violence, financial abuse is an aspect of approximately 98 percent of abusive relationships.

      Even though statistics can sometimes be questionable, the author uses ethos by doing her research. Even though she is biased, she has evidence and data to back up her claim.

    2. Lena Dunham is mad as hell and she's not going to take it anymore.

      One of the biggest differences between the scholarly articles and the popular sources is the objectiveness, The scholarly articles remain pretty objective and it's a little challenging to find a bias of any sort. However, with this article, the author makes her bias known within the first few sentences.

    3. After all, she said, it's not appropriate to "decimate a contract that was heavily negotiated." Guess what else is heavily negotiated? The human contract that says we will not hurt one another physically and emotionally. In fact, it's so obvious that we usually don't add it to our corporate documents.

      This is exactly what my inquiry question is. It is very sad to see that the health, emotionally and physically, of humans can be compromised by a contract.

    4. sickening use of the word "alleged" over and over in reference to the assault she says she remembers so vividly

      This is really sad because unfortunately, the word "alleged" has to be used. There really isn't any hard evidence but that raises a question that everyone is thinking: why would she lie?

    1. Since the Rio Carnival participants are largely domestic, and the spread of Zika virus is already extensive, it will be challenging to assess if there was excess transmission related to the Carnival. Although winter temperatures mean that mosquito density is expected to be low in Brazil at the time of the Olympics, given the summer time mosquito density in the northern hemisphere, including in Saudi Arabia, the introduction of a few infections to the mosquito population might be sufficient to cause outbreaks of Zika virus in other countries.

      The author addresses an important counter-argument that the mosquitoes are not in their maximum capacity during the time of the Carnival, but quickly counters this by stating that it takes just a few infections to cause an outbreak in a new area.

    2. On Jan 15, 2016, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advised pregnant women to refrain from travelling to countries affected by Zika, given a possible association between Zika virus infection with microcephaly and other neurological disorders.2

      Authors state the issue that they are reporting on the virus' major outbreak area.

    3. The potential role of scheduled international mass gatherings in 2016 could exacerbate the spread of Zika virus beyond the Americas.

      This is the authors' claim as they believe that the meeting of massive amounts of people for the Olympic games in Brazil could prompt the spread of this virus worldwide.

    4. In Brazil, the Rio Carnival on Feb 5–10 attracts more than 500 000 visitors, and on Aug 5–21 more than 1 million visitors are expected to go to the summer Olympics followed by Paralympic Games on Sep 7–18. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia expects to host more than 7 million pilgrims from over 180 countries for the Umrah, between June and September, and the Hajj pilgrimage on Sept 8–13.4 and 5 Saudi Arabia receives about 7000 pilgrims from Latin America annually.

      The authors exhibit ethos as they show the exact scale of the gathering of people in the coming years. They show that millions of people will be gathering in close proximity in various locations around the world. If the virus infects travelers coming to Brazil for the Rio Carnival or for the summer Olympics then the spread of the virus to the traveler's homeland is likely. This poses big problems for the world as the virus could spread worldwide very easily with the infection of mosquitoes in areas that didn't originally have the virus. An example of this would be if someone from Egypt were to go and be a spectator at the Olympic games and were to get bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus. If the now infected Egyptian were to travel back home and get bit by a domestic Egyptian mosquito then now the mosquito would contract the virus. The mosquito would continue to feed on people all the while spreading the disease to these unsuspecting hosts. All of these newly infected hosts are bitten by different mosquitoes and the trend continues. The mosquitoes also would be reproducing during this time and creating massive amounts of Zika vectors. There is a clear snowball effect here as this new hypothetical area has become a new ground-zero for the virus on another continent.

    5. A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj

      Elachola, Habida, et al. "A Crucial Time For Public Health Preparedness: Zika Virus And The 2016 Olympics, Umrah, And Hajj." Lancet 387.10019 (2016): 630-632. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

    1. The Lancet began as an independent, international weekly general medical journal founded in 1823

      Shows that the journal has some history and has had enough popularity to stay around for nearly 200 years.

    2. : medical research, clinical practice, global health, and news and comment. The journal's editors will collaborate over any contribution that advances or illuminates medical science or practice, or that educates or engages readers on important matters in the practice, policy, and politics of research, medicine, and public health.

      The journal is focused on all things science and medical. The Lancet umbrellas multiple different journals that are specific to different subjects such as pathology, neurophysiology etc.


    1. “Where management has been transferred to the states, America’s wolves have fallen under an assault of legislation, bullets, and traps,” wrote the founders of Living with Wolves in a June 2013 op-ed in the New York Times. “Have we brought wolves back for the sole purpose of hunting them down?”

      Using pathos to grab sympathy and support from reader(s) that are pro-wolves.

    2. “It’s time for Wyoming to step back and develop a more science-based approach to managing wolves.” 

      Using logos and ethos to bring about a solution.

    3. “Any state that has a wolf-management plan that allows for unlimited wolf killing throughout most of the state should not be allowed to manage wolves,”

      This is a massacre, no matter how anyone puts it. Almost genocide

    4. conservation groups have criticized the delisting of wolves in the state, fearing it would leave their fate to the whims of Wyoming’s ranchers and livestock farmers.

      Appropriate concerns, especially considering Wyoming's methods for dealing with wolves.

    5. Reid Singer

      Singer is not a scholarly source but a popular reliable source. This is not a scientific article.

    6. “The court found that the agency acted arbitrarily and capriciously by relying upon improper factors,” Judge Jackson wrote in her ruling.

      Fancy way in saying Wyoming civilians and hunters were treating wolves inappropriately and inhumanely.

    7. Since the Obama administration delisted the gray wolf in 2012, the Fish and Wildlife Service treated it as a trophy/game animal in parts of Wyoming with allotted hunting seasons. Alternately, in four-fifths of the state, the wolf was treated as a predator that could be shot at any time.

      Singer is showing what side he is on. He clearly does not agree to the treatment the Gray Wolf has endured in Wyoming. He is using ethos and pathos equally to gain sympathy by the harsh level of treatment.

    8. Judge Amy Berman Jackson ruled on Tuesday that the management plan in Wyoming was inadequate and largely unenforceable.

      Introduction shows Singer's argument for how Wyoming wolf plans are not appropriate.

    9. Wyoming Wolves Back on Endangered Species List

      Singer, Reid. "Wyoming Wolves Back on Endangered Species List." Outside Online. Outside Magazine, 24 Sept. 2014. Web. 06 Mar. 2016.

    1. Most Poachers Are Starving

      This one seals the deal on extremely complicated. It also nails my question square on the head... When is an animals life more important then a humans. These aren't poachers that leave all the meat and take the tusks of a mother with child. No these are humans excercising their primal instincts to survive and provide for their families. Nature does, the Elephants and Rhinos are, the strong have survived and passed on their knowledge. Humans don't need this quality anymore, we are very safe and have an easy life. The only problem with us is us. Now these people have to poach an animal doing its job in this world because they have either been wronged by other humans or were not responsible enough to understand that you have to take care of yourself and the world before you can take care of a family. Our human traits of greed and irresponsibility have led to the near extinction of these animals. Luckly good people remain to try and help but we are being bread out and soon man will start to devolve if we haven't already.

    2. Asgar Pathan

      the author may not really know much about this topic but Asgar Pathan does, he lives it everyday. He is a subject expert. You could crunch numbers and look at political issues and black markets and everything else surrounding this topic and make it some boring article passed by by many or let someone who is so in-tune with the topic his life literally depends on it.

      This style borderlines on 100% credibility. The only option being if Ranger Pathan was a huge lier, but even though everything in his story is crazy it is told with a calm legitimacy that I personally believe.

    3. 352,042 view

      This website CRACKED is definitely a popular site resource. It is full of a lot of gossip and forums. Its geared toward people with opinions and people that like to express those opinions.

    4. we learned that even the most heavy-handed pro-wildlife documentaries barely scratch the surface of how crazy things have gotten ...

      I am sure the author had a certain view going into his interview with Ranger Pathan, you can tell by his words and his claim that everything is completely insane, more then you can imagine. That is basically all he is doing, shedding light on something that is so complicated and convoluted. Even more then the author could handle i believe. Most of the article is just quotes of Ranger Pathan. This means either the author is terrible at writing and has no thoughts or is so blown away with such a story the only thing that can do it justice is to let the story teller tell it, this is the latter.

    5. 5 Ways Saving Wildlife Has Turned Into All-Out Warfare

      Evan V. Symon & Asgar Pathan. "5 Ways Saving Wildlife Has Turned Into All-Out Warfare" June 23 2014. Web. March 5 2016 <www.cracked.com>

    1. What do we do if a few months from now, when mosquito season arrives, hundreds or thousands of low-income women in Texas and Florida find themselves pregnant with fetuses that show severe brain damage? What does ethical behavior look like in the here and now, in this political reality?

      At the end of the article, the author makes the audience think themselves what an ethical behavior is in the fiercely urgent situation about Zika virus.

    2. Garland-Thomson isn’t unsympathetic to this argument, but she notes that it wouldn’t hold water were we to substitute race of gender for disability. She blames the lack of public knowledge about the lives of people with disabilities for the widespread belief that ability-selective abortions are normal, desirable and ethical.

      The author concurs with Garland-Thomson’s argument that ability-selective abortion is unethical because it is a kind of set of discriminatory attitudes and practices against disabled people. Also, she claims that it should be a very deliberative process about considering their choices to terminate a pregnancy for anti-abortion movement.

    3. "It's days off work, it's out-of-pocket therapies until diagnoses kick in, it's fighting your insurance, it's becoming a full-time advocate," she continued. "A kid with disabilities born into poverty should be able to receive adequate support and care, and we just do not provide that.”

      These are a series of tweets written by Nicole Cliffe who is the editor of The Toast and the mother of a special needs child. I can read her feeling of frustration about raising a child with a complex impairment. In my opinion, the government cannot force women to bring children with disabilities without enough financial aid, education, and services.

    4. She acknowledges that there are very real challenges involved in parenting a child with disabilities. Raising special needs children can be enormously resource-intensive, and is often done with limited government or other structural support.

      The author claims that social welfare system for the handicapped should promote to establish a society which treasures life and does not throw it away simply because of fetal abnormalities.

    5. That having a child with a disability is undesirable is usually taken as a given, not just by pro-choice advocates, but by much of U.S. society.

      This sentence shows one of the most awkward and uncomfortable truth in our society. No parents are prepared or would want to have a disabled child.

    6. Embedded in the calls for re-examining abortion policies as Zika looms is the assumption that aborting a fetus with microcephaly is ethical and that women will want and should have the right to ability-selective abortions. There’s little room, in the usual pro-choice argument, for the notion that that disabled child has the right to exist, or for questioning the notion that life with a disability is inherently worse than life without one.

      The author criticizes sharply against abortion rights advocates. They have bias against the disabled that their quality of life would be lower than the non-disabled.

    7. Likewise, people with disabilities have long been subject to reproductive coercion, from the abandonment of newborns with disabilities to mandatory sterilization of women with disabilities. They have, said Garland-Thomson, “been eugenically eliminated from the world through selective abortion and other biomedical practices.”

      The author states with the authority of Rosemarie Garland-Thomson who is a professor of English at Emory University and a pioneer of the discipline of disability studies. Disabilities’ reproductive coercion in historical event arouses the audience’s sympathy by using pathos. Her delivery is effective because she make an emotional appeal to emphasize the right of the disabled.

    8. But if what the WHO calls an “explosion” of Zika does indeed lead to an uptick in fetal abnormalities in the U.S., the abortion rights movement faces another problem: a coming clash with the disability rights movement.

      In the outbreak of Zika virus, the author raises a problem about an upcoming clash between the abortion rights and the disability rights. She claims that rights of disabilities to exist should be respected and should not be violated by the rights of a woman to have abortion.

    9. Here in the U.S., officials have stayed mum on the topic, but abortion rights advocates are rightly wondering what an increase in fetal abnormalities would mean at a time where abortion restrictions -- from lengthy waiting periods to laws designed to shutter clinics -- have left millions of American women without access to abortion care.

      The author brings up a subject that Zika virus and abortion is not just Latin America issue, but also the United States. This sentences are coded criticisms against the U.S government which has been silent on Zika virus issue.

    10. In El Salvador, where abortion is completely outlawed, the government has advised women to simply not get pregnant until 2018.

      The author exemplifies one country in Latin America how El Salvador takes emergency steps to deal with Zika virus. The government of El Salvador suggest women to delay their pregnancy until 2018. In my opinion, they show an irresponsible attitude about the current state of affairs. They should provide necessary information, education, and contraceptives for their nation to avoid pregnancy.

    11. Zika Virus Threat Puts Abortion Rights And Disability Rights On Collision Course

      The title of the article stimulates audience’s curiosity how Zika virus leads to collision course between abortion right and disability right.

    12. As more cases of Zika virus pop up in the U.S., abortion rights advocates are raising concerns about whether harsh abortion restrictions will affect pregnant women’s ability to terminate pregnancies if they’re infected with the virus. Zika has been linked to microcephaly, in which babies are born with underdeveloped brains and abnormally small heads. Some cases seen in Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas have been severe.

      Latin America which has a serious medical problem due to Zika virus and the United States are geographically close. The author predicts that Zika virus will make hundreds or thousands of fetus with microcephaly in the U.S when mosquito seasons arrive. Also, she states that Zika virus will arouse controversy about abortion right because abortion laws vary in each state.