- Jan 2024
27 Aktionäre von Shell unterstützen eine Resolution, die den Konzern auffordert, das Pariser Abkommen einzuhalten. Sie repräsentieren 3,4% des Kapitals der Firma. Dieselbe Resolution hatte bei TotalEnergies die Unterstützung von 30% des Kapitals gefunden. Im vergangenen Jahr hatte Shell seine ohnehin minimalen Dekarbonisierungsziele revidiert und angekündigt, die Ölproduktion bis 2030 stabil zu halten. https://www.liberation.fr/environnement/pollution/industries-fossiles-chez-shell-des-actionnaires-activistes-font-pression-pour-de-meilleurs-objectifs-climatiques-20240116_HKBWVGK5CVFMDACJBNKNMP4E2A/
- Oct 2023
in violation of the demands of the covenant, the people of Israel erected sacred stones dedicated to other gods (Hosea 10:1). In their religious reforms, both Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:4) and Josiah (2 Kings 23:14) destroyed the sacred pillars which the people of Israel had dedicated to the worship of Baal.
During the establishment of the covenant between Yahweh and Israel, the people were commanded to destroy the sacred stones of the Canaanites, “You must demolish them and break their sacred stones (masseboth) to pieces” (Exodus 23:24).
In neighboring cultures in which both have oral practices relating to massebah, one is not just destroying "sacred stones" to stamp out their religion, but it's also destroying their culture and cultural memory as well as likely their laws and other valuable memories for the function of their society.
View this in light also of the people of Israel keeping their own sacred stones (Hosea 10:1) as well as the destruction of pillars dedicated to Baal in 2 Kings 18:4 and 2 Kings 23:14.
(Link and) Compare this to the British fencing off the land in Australia and thereby destroying Songlines and access to them and the impact this had on Indigenous Australians.
It's also somewhat similar to the colonialization activity of stamping out of Indigenous Americans and First Nations' language in North America, though the decimation of their language wasn't viewed in as reciprocal way as it might be viewed now. (Did colonizers of the time know about the tremendous damage of language destruction, or was it just a power over function?)
- The Covenant
- 2 Kings 23:14
- Exodus 23
- Exodus 23:24
- orality and memory
- Hosea 10:1
- sacred stones
- Indigenous languages
- biblical stones
- Canaanite religion
- 2 Kings 18:4
- Apr 2023
BP faces a green rebellion at its annual shareholder meeting on Thursday as some of Britain’s biggest pension funds prepare to demand the company toughens its plans to reduce its emissions by 2030.
Einige der größten britischen Pensionsfonds werden beim nächsten BP-Aktionärstreffen deutlich schärfere Maßnahmen zur Reduktion der Emissionen verlangen. BP hatte die eigenen Reduktionsziele in diesem Jahr nach dem Rekordgewinnen aufgrund des Ukrainekriegs gelockert. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2023/apr/24/bp-facing-green-rebellion-annual-shareholder-meetingNGI:
- Mar 2022
References to other Semitic gods in the Old Testament. Some general basics which will require some delving into translations and further research for stronger foundations in early Semitic religions.
Legends of a storm god such as Ba’al defeating the sea are very common in the Ancient Near East.
Storm gods like Baal are commonly seen defeating the sea in legends in the ancient Near East.
Link this to mention of Rahab in Job 26:12.
Dagon’s father was El, the head of the West Semitic pantheon. The name Israel, shows that El was originally the tutelary god of Israel (it’s right there in the name!), but over time, Yahweh took El’s place:“When the Most High (El Elyon) divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. For the Lord's (Yahweh’s) portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance” (Deuteronomy 32:8-9).
In the West Semitic pantheon of gods, El was the father of Dagon who was in turn the father of Baal. El Elyon is mentioned in Deuteronomy 32:8-9 and his name is a root word of the endonym Israel.
In 1 Samuel chapter 5 we are told that after the Philistines captured the Ark of the Covenant, they took it to the Temple of Dagon in Ashdod. But this resulted in the miraculous destruction of his cult statue. Yahweh wins again.
1 Samuel 5 describes an event at the Temple of Dagon, the father of Baal, in Ashdod where the cult's statue is destroyed.
It seems that what this story and other biblical stories like it are telling is that the belief in Yahweh supplanted the worship of Ba’al. In fact it seems that in some ways, Yahweh subsumed Ba’al, taking on his attributes and powers.In some of the Bible’s more poetic texts, Yahweh is presented as a storm god in very much the same language that Ba’al is described:“At the brightness that was before him his thick clouds passed, hail stones and coals of fire. The Lord also thundered in the heavens, and the Highest gave his voice; hail stones and coals of fire. Yea, he sent out his arrows, and scattered them; and he shot out lightnings, and discomfited them” (Psalms 18:12-14).
Biblical passages like Psalms 18:12-24 may be indicative of Yahweh subsuming the powers and attributes of other regional gods like Ba'al.
This makes one wonder if Yahweh evolved from other cultures into the one true god of the Hebrews?
Ba’al was an honorific title of the god Hadad, in much the same way that "Adonai" (“my master”) is an honorific title for Yahweh.
- 1 Samuel 5
- place names
- storm gods
- Semitic religions
- evolution of religion
- ancient Near East
- Deuteronomy 32
The kothon of Motya in southern Sicily had first been assumed to be an artificial harbor. It wasn’t, archaeologist Lorenzo Nigro of Sapienza proves
Overview of paper: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2022.8
Yet prevail, Baal did not; towns in biblical Israel named after him are gone, while towns named after other gods, including Shamash, the moon god Yarekh, and El, are everywhere.
The towns in biblical Israel named for Baal were renamed or gone, but there are many towns named after other gods including Shamash, Yarekh, and El.
Baal was also worshipped by the Canaanites and became the bugbear of the Yahweh followers, though early Israelites were clearly not the diehard monotheists that modern Jews tend to assume. They apparently adored quite the pantheon, including Baal. But Baal was especially irksome, it seems; his name appears dozens of times in the Bible, never in a good way; to this day, Israel has cities named after the god.
Like the Canaanites, early Israelites worshiped Baal amongst a wider pantheon of gods despite the fact that later Jews were monotheists. Modern day Israel still has cities named after Baal.
But crucially, he believes the pool at the center of the complex may have also served as a surface to observe and map the stars. The water surface would have mirrored the sky, as water does – none other than Leonardo da Vinci pointed out the attributes of inert standing water when studying the night sky. For one thing, the stars were adored by the Phoenicians, whether as gods or deceased ancestors; and the position of the constellations was of keen interest to the sailors among them for navigation purposes, Nigro points out.
Lorenzo Nigro indicates that the "kothon" of Motya in southern Sicily was a pool of Baal whose surface may have been used to observe and map the stars. He also indicates that the Phoenicians adored the stars potentially as gods or deceased ancestors. This is an example of a potentially false assumption often seen in archaeology of Western practitioners misconstruing Indigenous practices based on modern ideas of religion and culture.
I might posit that this sort of practice is more akin to that of the science of Indigenous peoples who used oral and mnemonic methods in combination with remembering their histories and ancestors.
Cross reference this with coming reading in The First Astronomers (to come) which may treat this in more depth.
Leonardo da Vinci documented the attributes of standing water for studying the night sky.
Where was this and what did it actually entail?
- Indigenous science
- kothon of Motya
- Leonardo da Vinci
- orality and memory
- standing water
- Lorenzo Nigro
- pool of Baal
- biblical Israel
- Aug 2018
Baalim and Ashtaroth,
Ashtoreth was the primary female goddess, the moon goddess in ancient Canaan; her consort was Baal. The Phoenicians worshipped her as Astarte, and the Babylonians and Egyptians, as Ishtar. The Greeks later associated her with Aphrodite. In the Old Testament, there are numerous references to the condemnation of the worship of Astarte/Ashtoreth in chapters about Moses, Solomon, Elijah and more.