575 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2016
    1. Study Questions:

      What is a covenant? A covenant is an agreement between two person and is expected for both side that must be in mutual agreement.

      What agreement are the Puritans entering in and who are they entering it with? The agreement are the Puritans entering in was with God to establish a community that was totally Christian.

    2. God of Israel is among us, and ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies. The Lord will make our name a praise and glory, so that men shall say of succeeding plantations: "The Lord make it like that of New England.
    3. the Lord will surely break out in wrath against us and be revenged on such a perjured people, and He will make us know the price of the breach of such a covenant.
    4. As a result of the enclosure of traditional common lands, which were increasingly used to raise sheep, many rural laborers were thrown off the land, producing a vast floating population.
    5. the Puritan had made a covenant with God to establish a truly Christian community, in which the wealthy were to show charity and avoid exploiting their neighbors while the poor were to work diligently.
    6. All social relationships--between God and man, ministers and congregations, magistrates and members of their community, and men and their families--were envisioned in terms of a covenant or contract which rested on consent and mutual responsibilities.
    1.               Study Questions

      How, generally, do the colonists view people of the Powhatan Confederacy? The colonist view people of the Powhatan confederacy as good people because they had only shown the good side from them.

      After the attack, what does Waterhouse feel the colonists are free to do? After the attack, Waterhouse feel the colonists are free to conquered the Powhatan and steal they land and expand their colonies.

    2. may now by right of war, and law of nations, invade the country, and destroy them who sought to destroy us;
    3. not sparing either age or sex, man, women or child; so sudden in their cruel execution that few or none discerned the weapon or blow that brought them to destruction....
    4. they came unarmed into our houses, without bows or arrows, or other weapons, with deer, turkeys, fish, furs, and other provisions to sell and truck with us for glass, beads, and other trifles;
    5. the colonists discovered that Virginia was an ideal place to cultivate tobacco, which had been recently introduced into Europe.
    1. An island nation, England depended upon a robust navy for trade and territorial expansion.
    2. Many cited spiritual concerns and argued that colonization would glorify God, England, and Protestantism by Christianizing the New World’s pagan peoples. Advocates such as Richard Hakluyt the Younger and John Dee, for instance, drew upon The History of the Kings of Britain, written by the twelfth century monk Geoffrey of Monmouth, and its mythical account of King Arthur’s conquest and Christianization of pagan lands to justify American conquest.
    3. The island’s population increased from fewer than three million in 1500 to over five million by the middle of the seventeenth century.
    4. Spain had a one-hundred year head start on New World colonization and a jealous England eyed the enormous wealth that Spain gleaned from the new World.
    5. Missionaries, most of whom were members of the Franciscan religious order, provided Spain with an advance guard in North America

      How did missionaries advance guard in North America?

    6. Apalachee farmers grew an abundance of corn and other crops

      The fact that they grew a large amount of corn and other crops was probably one of the reasons why they were very powerful.

    7. e found between 150,000 and 300,000 Native Americans. But then two-and-a-half centuries of contact with European and African peoples–whether through war, slave raids, or, most dramtically, foreign disease–decimated Florida’s indigenous population.

      150,000-300,000 seems like a lot and a little at the same time given the circumstances, and imaging how many of those Native Americans were killed from war or disease is unbearable.

    1. Spaniards, often single, young, and male, emigrated for the various promises of land, wealth, and social advancement. Laborers, craftsmen, soldiers, clerks, and priests all crossed the Atlantic in large numbers.

      What would they have done if they found out that the promises were lies? And would social advancement mean moving up the hierarchy?

    2. The Spanish not only built Mexico City atop Tenochtitlán, but food, language, and families spilled across racial barriers. In 1531, a poor Indian named Juan Diego reported that he was visited by the Virgin Mary, who came as a dark-skinned Nahuatl-speaking Indian. Reports of miracles spread across Mexico and the Virgen de Guadalupe became a national icon for a new mestizo society.

      this image is the most sacred in Mexican culture

    3. Militaristic migrants from northern Mexico, the Aztecs moved south into the Valley of Mexico, conquered their way to dominance, and built the largest empire in the New World. When the Spaniards arrived in Mexico they found a sprawling civilization centered around Tenochtitlan, an awe-inspiring city built on a series of natural and man-made islands in the middle of Lake Texcoco, located today within modern-day Mexico City.

      the Aztecs were a big group of warriors and a advance civilization

    4. Mercenaries joined the conquest and raced to capture the human and material wealth of the New World.

      I guess they dinot care for nothing but the mothe gold

    5. It never fails to amaze me how whenever a larger country went to a smaller country to colonize the natives ended up suffereing

    6. In the encomienda, the Spanish crown granted a person not only land but a specified number of natives as well.

      The Natives were treated as objects that could be given as a gift.

    7. Some groups used shifting cultivation where farmers cut the forest, burned the undergrowth and then planted seeds in the nutrient rich ashes of what remained. When crop yields began to decline, farmers would simply move to another field and allow the land to recover and the forest to regrow before they would again cut the forest, burn the undergrowth, and restart the cycle.

      So basically the farmers would use the land until it was no good or damaged to the max, then find a new location until the damaged land recovered, and then go back and use it again. They were recycling the land in a way.

    8. And as paleo-Indians populated mountains, prairies, deserts, and forests, cultures and ways of life as arose as varied as the geography.

      Paleo-Indians populated different types of landscapes and environments.

    9. Nomadic hunter-gatherers, they traveled in small bands following megafauna–enormous mammals that included mastodons and giant horses and bison–into the frozen Beringian tundra at the edge of North America.

      Nomadic hunter-gatherers did not have settled homes, that's why they were always traveling. They live on the move.

    1. And to avoid such a great evil we passed a law so that any white man living inour Kingdoms and wanting to purchase goods in any way should first informthree of our noblemen and officials of our court whom we rely upon in this mat-ter

      I wonder how accurate this law was. What if these noblemen were bribed sometimes? Because back in those times people got away with a lot with bribes.

    2. very often it happens thatthey kidnap even noblemen and the sons of noblemen, and our relatives, andtake them to be sold to the white men who are in our Kingdoms

      So Affonso was okay with captives being sold into slavery, but he wanted to draw the line when he realized that noblemen and relatives, basically freemen, were being captured and sold.

    1. He dug into the sand and soon found clay with which to mould figures like himself

      According to many religious backgrounds, humans were made from clay. In Genisis 2:7 is says, "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground.." In the Qur'an it says God created man from clay. In Greek mythology it is said that Prometheus created man from clay.

    2. Wherever the sand landed it formed dry land, the bigger piles becoming hills and the smaller piles valleys.

      So the white hen is what created the hills and valleys, what could the white hen stand for?

    3. gold chain long enough to reach below, a snail's shell filled with sand, a white hen, a black cat, and a palm nut, all of which he was to carry in a bag.

      I wonder if these all symbolize for something?

  2. Jan 2016
    1. three crops in particular–corn, beans, and squash, the so-called “three sisters”–provided nutritional needs necessary to sustain cities and civilizations.

      So these 3 crops were the main food sources during this time. How was squash preserved?

    2. In the Pacific Northwest, Indian peoples including the Kwakwaka’wakw, Tlingits, and Haidas took advantage of the lush forests and many rivers. The abundance of large forest mammals including deer, elk, moose, and caribou, as well as waters filled with salmon, halibut, sturgeon and others created a tremendous surplus of food

      They had a lot of re sours

    1. It was found that he had made the country all rocks and full of ledges, and also a mosquito which was very large.

      Othagwenda believed in creating a hard life for humans. He had no intention of making a paradise for them.

    2. and the fruit of the sycamore to become small and useless

      I understand making the fruits small, but making them useless seems a bit too much.

    3. How did human beings arrive in the world? • How were animals helpful? • What did twins do to create the world?

      Human beings arrived in the world when the chief up in the Heaven’s was trying to help his ill daughter by placing her by a tree they had to dig up and someone who was against the idea of killing a tree pushed his daughter down the hole. The hole led to earth where the daughter gave birth to a girl and then her daughter gave birth to 2 twin boys. The animals were helpful by providing the fallen daughter a permanent resting place by getting soil from the bottom of the primal sea to create land. One of the twins, Othagwenda, created a world where humans had no chance of living with huge mosquitos and rocky landscapes. So the other twin, Djuskaha rubbed the mosquito down with his hands to make it smaller and blew on it so that it could fly. Djuskaha created a world that was very easy for humans to live in with fat animals that could hardly move, sugar-maple trees that dropped syrup, sycamore trees that bear fine fruit, and rivers that flowed up and downstream. Othagwenda saw this would have been way too easy for humans, so he made the animals smaller, made it so the sugar-maple tree only dropped sweetwater, made the sycamore tree to bear small, useless fruits and made the rivers flow in one direction

    1. I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

      This is showing how God chose to give us life in different forms such as trees and the fruits they provide.

    2. he made the stars also

      I would say stars were made for the night because it was darker and the moon's brightness doesn't compare to the sun's, so the stars make up for that.

    3. God called the firmament Heaven

      So according to this, there are waters above Heaven

    4. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth
  3. Dec 2015
    1. Racial systems of violence and domination were wielded with crushing intensity for generations, all in the name of keeping white womanhood as pure as the cotton that anchored southern society.

      well that is the excuse to abuse and take advantage of the slaves

    1. Soldiers were forbidden to interfere with slavery or assist runaways, but many soldiers found such a policy unchristian

      If slavery was one of the issues that caused the war, they should of have been able to help them

    2. Yet the end of legal slavery did not mean the end of racial injustice.

      even all these years later there's still racial injustice for all races

    3. Finally, white Confederates did not see African Americans as their equals, much less as soldiers. There was never any doubt that black laborers and camp servants were property.

      How could these people have been so naive, to think that just because a person skin was a different color they could be their property

    4. Gooding argued that, because he and his brethren were born in the United States and selflessly left their private lives and to enter the army, they should be treated “as American SOLDIERS, not as menial hirelings.

      He had a very good point

    5. The language describing black enlistment indicated Lincoln’s implicit desire to segregate African American troops from the main campaigning armies of white soldiers.

      even though they were fighting for the same cause he wanted to separate them.

    6. Land-Grant College Act (a.k.a. Morrill Act)

      what was this Act about?

    7. Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves in areas under Confederate control.

      the beginning of the end of slavery

    8. Lincoln, who initially waged a conservative, limited war, believed that the presence of African American troops would threaten the loyalty of slaveholding border states, and white volunteers who might refuse to serve alongside black men

      If they were fighting for the same reason skin color should have not been a problem

    9. Union troops evacuated. In response to the attack, President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to serve three months to suppress the rebellion

      the beginning of the war

    10. “Crittenden’s Compromise,”

      what is this?

    11. Lincoln, who initially waged a conservative, limited war, believed that the presence of African American troops would threaten the loyalty of slaveholding border states, and white volunteers who might refuse to serve alongside black men.
    12. the Union adopted General-in-Chief Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan to suppress the rebellion.
    13. Some southerners couched their defense of slavery as a preservation of states rights. But in order to protect slavery, the Confederate nation created a central government that ruled over the states even more than what the constitution called for—an irony not lost on many.
    14. The Committee of Thirteen ultimately voted down the measure and it likewise failed in the full Senate vote (25-23).
    15. The Confederacy even veered from the American constitution by explicitly invoking Christianity in their founding document.
    16. Abraham Lincoln’s nomination proved a great windfall for the Republican Party. Lincoln carried all free states with the exception of New Jersey (which he split with Douglas)
    17. The parties leaders refusal to include a pro-slavery platform resulted in Southern delegates walking out of the convention
    18. The American Civil War, the bloodiest in the nation’s history, resulted in approximately 750,000 deaths
    19. foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery… is his natural and normal condition.

      why made them think this way?

    20.  Confederate nationalism was based on several ideals, foremost among these being slavery. 

      they cared more about slavery

    21. On December 20, 1860, the South Carolina convention voted unanimously 169-0 to dissolve their Union with the United States.

      They wanted to leave the Union just because they wanted the right to own another human being

    22. all future Confederate states, with the exception of Virginia, excluded Lincoln’s name from their ballots.2

      was that even legal to do?

    23. but the war ultimately transformed into a struggle to eradicate slavery.

      it became the war against slavery.

    24. The American Civil War, the bloodiest in the nation’s history, resulted in approximately 750,000 deaths

      could this war have been prevented?

    25. The American Civil War

      Why and how did the Civil War started?

    1. while in the process shattering the longstanding assumption that African slaves could not also be rulers.

      This should have proved that slaves are capable of governing their selves.

    2. Southerners demanded a national commitment to slavery

      It just seems that even though the southerners demanded slavery, they morally knew that it was wrong.

    3. While Northerners appealed to their states’ rights to refuse capturing runaway slaves, Southerners demanded a national commitment to slavery.

      Southerners were pro slavery while Northerners didn't.

    4. Slavery had long divided the politics of the United States.

      slavery played a big part in the U.S history

    5. The acquisition of so much land made it imperative to antislavery leaders that these lands not be opened to slavery.

      they wanted the new land to be free of slavery.

    6. South had become known as “Doughfaces

      why were they called Doughfaces?

    7. The Democratic Party tried to avoid the issue of slavery and instead sought to unite Americans around shared racial anxieties and desires to expand the nation.

      why did they avoid slavery issues?

    8. The Dred Scott decision signaled that the federal government was now fully committed to extending slavery as far and as wide as it might want.

      They rather make slavery bigger then to end it

    9. The Dred Scott decision, Scott v. Sandford, ruled that black Americans could not be citizens of the United States

      Even though they were born in the states they weren't considered citizens

    10. The conclusion of the Mexican War gave rise to the 1848 Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo. The treaty infuriated antislavery leaders in the United States.

      made an issue that was already big even bigger

    11. Slavery briefly receded from the nation’s attention in the early 1820s,

      never heard about this

    12. Revolutionaries in the United States declared, “All men are created equal,”
    13. Revolutionaries in the United States declared, “All men are created equal,”
    14. Missouri’s admission to the Union in 1821 exposed deep fault lines in American society

      Whats the "fault lines" that exposed in American society?

    15.  Debates over slavery in the American West proved especially important

      why would it be especially important in American West?

    16. Northerners and Southerners came to disagree sharply on the role of the federal government in capturing and returning these freedom seekers

      what made them have a different view of slavery?

    17. 13. The Sectional Crisis
    18. Revolutionaries in the United States declared, “All men are created equal,”

      every one is the same no matter what color skin they are

    19. French visionaries issued the “Declaration of Rights and Man and Citizen”
    20. A new transatlantic antislavery movement began to argue that freedom was the natural condition of man was freedom.
  4. Nov 2015
    1. They no longer shared the bonds of their trade but were subsumed under a new class-based relationships: employers and employees, bosses and workers, capitalists and laborers.

      People were not viewed with high regard unless their status was high.

    2. Soon ten thousand workers labored in Lowell alone.

      modern American factory with ten thousand workers.

    3. Many Americans distrusted these new, impersonal business organizations whose officers lacked personal responsibility while nevertheless carrying legal rights.

      but yet these businesses still developed and today big businesses are untrustworthy

    4. Income became the measure of economic worth

      money becomes a staple of who people are

    5. By the 1830s, for instance, New England was losing its competitive advantage as new sources and locations of power opened up in other regions.


    6. The protection of child laborers gained more middle-class support, especially in New England, than the protection of adult workers.

      I guess child labor was a much bigger issue compared to protection of adult workers. There is still child labor in many countries around the world today.

    7. In England, an economic slump prompted Parliament to modernize British agriculture by revoking common land rights for Irish farmers.

      How does revoking land rights from Irish farmers modernize British agriculture?

    8. But a new system, “piece work,” divided much of production into discrete steps performed by different workers. In this new system, merchants or investors sent or “put-out” materials to individuals and families to complete at home. These independent laborers then turned over the partially finished goods to the owner to be given to another laborer to finish.

      This system reminds me of the assembly line. It's almost similar.

    9. Counterfeit bills were endemic during this early period of banking, as some individuals sought their own way to capitalize on the nation’s quest for wealth

      Fake bills were showing up which become a problem for the government.

    10. Economic growth, however, proceeded unevenly. Depressions devastated the economy in 1819, 1837, and 1857.

      People wanted too much and did not want to wait for things to develope.

    11. In 1816, for instance, $9 could move one ton of goods across the Atlantic Ocean, but only 30 miles across land.

      Strange but it is about $10 to go some places on bart today.

    12. Class conflict, child labor, accelerated immigration, and the expansion of slavery followed.

      Now children work for very low wages as well as expansion of slavery

    13. In the 1840s, labor activists organized to limit working hours and protect children in factories.

      well children shouldnt be working in the first place they have parents and adults for that. When they grow up then they can start working but as children they should be enjoying and playing before coming into adulthood.

    14. More than five million immigrants arrived in the United States between 1820 and 1860

      Why to United States but not other countries?

    15. These independent laborers then turned over the partially finished goods to the owner to be given to another laborer to finish

      huh why ? those laborers could just finish the products so they could get more money right?

    16. The market revolution shook other industries as well.

      They started to make mass quantities of products and made more profit

    17. By 1860 Americans laid more than 30,000 miles of railroads

      thats a really amazing length of railroads it made everything easier

    18. The cotton boom fueled speculation in slavery

      They used slaves to make them money.

    19. Masters-turned-employers now not only had fewer obligations to their workers, they had a lesser attachment.

      The relationship wasn't there anymore.

    20. Factories slowly replaced shops.

      Just like how machines are replacing people in factories.

    21. he modern American factory was born. Soon ten thousand workers labored in Lowell alone. Sarah Rice, who worked at the nearby Millbury factory, found it “a noisy place” that was “more confined than I like to be.”21 Working conditions were harsh for the many desperate “mill girls” who operated the factories relentlessly from sun-up to sun-down.

      Machines helped but the work hours were still long. And the working condition were bad

    22. II. Early Republic Economic Development
    23. As early as the 1790s, however, merchants in New England began experimenting with machines to replace the “putting-out” system.

      just like what is happening now

    24. But a new system, “piece work,” divided much of production into discrete steps performed by different workers. In this new system, merchants or investors sent or “put-out” materials to individuals and families to complete at home.

      Work was divided between people and was taken home

    25. Robert Fulton established the first commercial steam boat service up and down the Hudson River in New York in 1807

      he opened the doors for others

    26. The so-called “Transportation Revolution” opened for Americans the vast lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. In 1810, for instance, before the rapid explosion of American infrastructure, Margaret Dwight left New Haven, Connecticut, in a wagon headed for Ohio Territory.

      transportation opened more land.

    27. With so many fake bills circulating, Americans were constantly on the lookout for the “confidence man” and other deceptive characters in the urban landscape.

      fake money has always been an issue

    28. In 1816, for instance, $9 could move one ton of goods across the Atlantic Ocean, but only 30 miles across land

      Now $9 wouldnt take you very far

    29. larger exchange network connected by improved transportations,

      transportation was chaging

    30. Waltham-Lowell System, created the textile mill that defined antebellum New England and American industrialism before the Civil War
    31. Robert Fulton established the first commercial steam boat service up and down the Hudson River in New York in 1807
    32. Depressions devastated the economy in 1819, 1837, and 1857
    33. The consequences of the transportation and communication revolutions reshaped the lives of Americans.

      what could possibly be the consequences? i thought the improvement on transportation and communication is better for the Americans well its supposed to improve their lives or something

    1. e WILL not longer submit to that arbitrary power which has for the last ten years been so abundantly exercised over us.

      They will stand up for themselves

    2. she must still continue to toil on, long after Nature’s lamp has ceased to lend its aid—nor will even this suffice to satisfy the grasping avarice of her employer;

      Women need to work longer, and its still not enought

    1. Inspired by a strategy known as “moral suasion,” these young abolitionists believed they could convince slaveholders to voluntarily release their slaves by appealing to the their sense of Christian conscience.

      So they believed that they could convince slaveholders to release their slaves by using their faith and religion againts them.

    2. In order to accomplish their goals, abolitionists employed every method of outreach and agitation used in the social reform projects of the benevolent empire.

      This shows how dedicated they were to helping the blacks and African Americans.

    3. They argued that if women were to take charge of the education of their children, they needed to be well educated themselves.

      Simple and very valid point

    4. Additionally, women could not initiate divorce, make wills, sign contracts, or vote.

      Women had a lot to fight for

    5. Women were expected to be pious, pure, submissive, and domestic, and to pass these virtues on to their children.

      Women were expected to be these things while men were expected to be what?

    6. Among these were issues including married women’s right to property, access to the professions, and, most controversially, the right to vote.

      These women fought for our rights and should be acknowledged as an important person. We did not have any rights to our property or to even vote. But because they fought for our rights, women have rights as of today and some parts of the country has ended slavery.

    7. . As a result, women actually became more visible and active in the public sphere than ever before

      And women should be treated equally as men.

    8. Alcohol consumption became a significant social issue after the American Revolution

      This is much needed after all this war.

    9. The prominence of African Americans in abolitionist organizations offered a powerful, if imperfect, model of interracial coexistence.

      They defended their cause by example.

    10. Moral suasionists, led most prominently by William Lloyd Garrison, felt that the United States Constitution was a fundamentally pro-slavery document, and that the present political system was irredeemable.

      The nation was set up to maintain slavery

    11. colonization was an inherently racist project and that African Americans possessed a hard-won right to the fruits of American liberty.

      African Americans deserved the fruits of American liberty just as much as anyone else.

    12. Abolitionists fought to save slaves and their nation’s soul.

      Their nation's soul

    13. This effort was ultimately unsuccessful, but was significant for its introduction of the kinds of arguments that would pave the way for women’s political activism for abolitionism and women’s rights.

      Unsuccessful but a starting point for women's activism.

    14. In the 1830s, Americans drank half of what they had in the 1820s, and per capita consumption continued to decline over the next two decades.

      The movement was a success.

    15. As alcoholism became an increasingly visible issue in towns and cities, most reformers escalated their efforts from advocating moderation in liquor consumption to full abstinence from all alcohol.

      This was probably a good idea at the time

    16. hard liquor became a staple beverage in many lower- and middle-class households.

      If it's made cheaply and people enjoy it then they will consume more.

    17. cheap whiskey that was frequently more affordable than milk or beer and safer than water,

      was the water dirty?

    18. In Congress, Whigs and Democrats joined forces in 1836 to pass an unprecedented restriction on freedom of political expression known as the “gag rule,” prohibiting all discussion of abolitionist petitions in the House of Representatives.

      They didn't want to hear anything about it

    19. Anti-removal activism was also notable for the entry of ordinary American women into political discourse. The first major petition campaign by American women focused on opposition to removal and was led (anonymously) by Catharine Beecher.

      Women started to voice their opinions.

    20. It supported lecture campaigns, produced temperance literature, and organized revivals specifically aimed at encouraging worshippers to give up the drink.

      Aimed to alter one's way of life

    21. They built orphanages and free medical dispensaries, and developed programs to provide professional services like social work, job placement, and day camps for children in the slums.

      Good deeds

    22. Consumption among adults skyrocketed in the early nineteenth century, and alcoholism had become an endemic problem across the United States by the 1820s.

      alcoholism was and still is an issue

    23. Commercial distilleries produced readily available, cheap whiskey that was frequently more affordable than milk

      just like how fast food is cheaper then healthy food now

    24. nder the leadership of preachers and ministers, reform societies attacked many social problems.

      they helped each other out

    25. their leadership signaled a dramatic departure from previous generations when such prominent roles for ordinary women would have been unthinkable.

      women start to play a bigger role

    26. alcoholism became an increasingly visible issue in towns and cities

      well this is still an issue today i think some of the incidents happening nowadays are caused by drug addicts or drunks.

    27. IV. The Benevolent Empire

      Week 14 Video Lecture

      Video Study Questions:

      What shift occurs in evangelical religion from the 1700s to the 1800s? How does this shift change the view of sin?

      What is significant about David Walker's Appeal? What is the response to it?

      What is immediatism? What shift does it reflect?

    1. I can’t read, but I can hear. I have heard the Bible and have learned that Eve caused man to sin. Well if woman upset the world, do give her a chance to set it right side up again

      There is a valid point here. If women were the reason why everything went bad, then they should be given the chance to make up for it.

    2. [“Intellect,” whispered someone near.] That’s it, honey. What’s that got to do with women’s rights or negro rights?

      Very good point.

    3. I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And aren’t I a woman?

      I can't imagine a woman going through this today and it wasn't uncommon a little over 150 years ago.

    4. I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And arn’t I a woman?

      She could take anything a man could take and works hard. How come she is not given rights?

    5. Then that little man in black there, he says women can’t have as much rights as men, because Christ wasn’t a woman! Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him….

      Men thought that women didn't deserve rights because god was a man not a women, but god was born from a woman

    6. I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And arn’t I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And aren’t I a woman?

      she can work as hard as any man, but no one was there to help when she cried.

    7. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And arn’t I a woman?

      Men say women should be treated but care but because her skin is different color no one treated her with are

    8. she dedicated her life to abolition and equal rights for women and men.

      she fought so that everyone could have equael rights

    1. but they had souls large enough to feel the wrongs of others, without being scarified in their own flesh.

      So basically even though they haven't been through tragic, unjust situations, they still understand the feeling of it.

    2. This call, without signature, was issued by Lucretia Mott, Martha C. Wright, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Mary Ann McClintock

      These 3 women were the ones who called for the meeting.

    3. but they had souls large enough to feel the wrongs of others, without being scarified in their own flesh.

      They could see the wrongs in others, while others were looking for, but could not describe, the wrongs in them.

    4. The reports of Peace, Temperance, and Anti-Slavery conventions were examined, but all alike seemed too tame and pacific for the inauguration of a rebellion such as the world had never before seen.

      They are saying that the world was not ready for these causes to go into action.

    5. He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns.

      women onwed nothing

    6. He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.

      women didn't get to choice for what law to vote for, they just had to follow it.

    7. These four ladies, sitting round the tea-table of Richard Hunt, a prominent Friend near Waterloo, decided to put their long-talked-of resolution into action, and before the twilight deepened into night, the call was written, and sent to the Seneca County Courter

      they put their plans into movement

    8. e Declaration of 1776, and read it aloud with much spirit and emphasis, and it was at once decided to adopt the historic document, with some slight changes such as substituting "all men" for "King George.

      i think the change makes the women feel more like they are included

    1. Africans brought to the Americas the greatly varied cultures of their homelands, including folklore, language, music, and foodways.

      It's things we see even today. Many aspects of our culture today derived from the African/black culture.

    2. Christmas traditions of John Canoe, or “Jonkanoo,” took different forms in African diaspora communities in the Caribbean, Bahamas, and southern United States.

      Slaves took on the Christmas traditions in their own forms.

    3. Folklore often conveyed religious worldviews and beliefs while relating the more mundane routines of everyday life-from the way families functioned through the rituals of birth and death, to simple routines of cooking and clothing, and the local calendar of celebrations.

      Folklore could be about something deep like their beliefs or something simple like routines for cooking.

    4. Fearing the use of loud instruments to communicate rebellions, Europeans created laws in the Americas to prohibit large numbers of enslaved people from gathering on their own time for funerals or other events.

      Europeans constantly feared rebellion

    5. In this way, those belonging to distinct groups, lineages, and ethnicities tended to view others as “foreigners.”

      Africans labeled each other.

    6. Similarly, the folklore which evolved, normally in the adopted language of the Americas, was itself shaped by contact with other, non-African peoples of the Americas.

      Language was a key part of folklore.

    7. folklore of Africans and their descendants in the Americas was crucially fashioned not simply by an African past, but by the complex ways African cultures interacted with European and American peoples and cultures in the New World.

      their folklore was based on their lifestyle and encounters

    1. Each one receives, as his weekly allowance, three and a half pounds of bacon, and corn enough to make a peck of meal. That is all- - no tea, coffee, sugar, and with the exception of a very scanty sprinkling now and then, no salt....

      I always knew slaves didn't get much, but it's sick how another being could deprive another of so much.

    2. They do not dare to stop even at dinner time, nor return to the quarters, however late it be, until the order to halt is given by the driver.

      He says "they do not dare", which makes me think they were scared to ever stop unless told they could.

    3. Then the fears and labors of another day begin; and until its close there is no such thing as rest....

      This is basically where the title came from.

    4. Finally, at a late hour, they reach the quarters, sleepy and overcome with the long day's toil.

      How did they have the strength to perform these tasks?

    5. they are not permitted to be a moment idle until it is too dark to see

      There would be consequences otherwise.

    1. Over the course of the 1830s, 40s, and 50s, slavery became so endemic to the “Cotton Belt” that travelers, writers, and statisticians began referring to the area as the “Black Belt,” not only to describe the color of the rich land, but also to describe the skin color of those forced to work its fields, line its docks, and move the products of others’ lands.

      It shows how lowly civilians saw the people they forced to work as slaves.

    2. Although slavery arrived in the Americas long before cotton became a profitable commodity, the use and purchase of slaves, the moralistic and economic justifications for the continuation of slavery, even the urgency to protect the practice from extinction before the Civil War all received new life from the rise of cotton and the economic, social, and culture growth spurt that accompanied its success.

      Americans knew slavery was wrong, but they used cotton to justify the needs for slavery were still as strong.

    3. “Prime field hands,” as they were called by merchants and traders, averaged $1,600 at market by 1850, a figure that fell in line with the rising prices of the cotton they picked.

      These were basically boys who were younger and had a lot of energy for cotton picking.

    4. Here was capitalism with its most colonial, violent, and exploitative face.
    5. First, and most immediate, was the fear and risk of rebellion.

      Slave owners constantly feared rebellion

    6. In many cases, cotton growers, especially planters with large lots and enslaved workforces, put up slaves as collateral for funds dedicated to buying more land.

      Slaves were in demand.

    7. Perhaps the most important aspect of Southern slavery during this so-called “Cotton Revolution” was the value placed upon both the work and the body of the slaves themselves.

      The slaves were an in-demand object but the lives of the Africans were not valued at all.

    8. The free population of the South also nearly doubled over that period—from around 1.3 million in 1790 to more than 2.3 million in 1810.

      Does this free population include Africans? How were Africans capable of being free at this time?

    9. Although slavery arrived in the Americas long before cotton became a profitable commodity, the use and purchase of slaves, the moralistic and economic justifications for the continuation of slavery, even the urgency to protect the practice from extinction before the Civil War all received new life from the rise of cotton and the economic, social, and culture growth spurt that accompanied its success.

      Americans were looking for an excuse to keep slavery alive and the rise of cotton gave them their reason.

    10. The most tragic, indeed horrifying, aspect of slavery was its inhumanity. All slaves had memories, emotions, experiences, and thoughts. They saw their experiences in full color, felt the pain of the lash, the heat of the sun, and the heartbreak of loss, whether through death, betrayal, or sale.

      I don't get why people back then thought why it was ok to be able to own another human being and to treat them so badly

    11. A single bad crop could cost even most wealthy, landed planter his or her entire life,

      They had be very careful or they could lose everything

    12. Cotton had become the foundation of the Southern economy

      Cotton became the economy of the south just like tobacco was the economy of Jamestown

    13. Prices for slaves varied drastically, depending on skin color, sex, age, and location, both of purchase and birth.

      They sold these people like if they were selling an animals

    1. Knowing then they would betray me

      How did he know he was going to be betrayed?

    2. began to direct my attention to this great object, to fulfil the purpose for which, by this time, I felt assured I was intended.

      he found his purpose

    3. when the white people would not let us be baptized by the church, we went down into the water together, in the sight of many who reviled us, and were baptized by the Spirit

      even though whites tried to stop them they found another way

    4. And the Negroes found fault, and murmured against me, saying that if they had my sense they would not serve any master in the world.

      They told Nat that he should not believe what his master says, that he has a greater purpose.

    5. I began to direct my attention to this great object, to fulfil the purpose for which, by this time, I felt assured I was intended.

      Felt a meaning in life

    6. But the reason of my return was, that the Spirit appeared to me and said I had my wishes directed to the things of this world

      he believed that he saw something, like maybe a dream telling him to go back

    1. But Falconbridge also reports that African women faced other hardships, especially sexual abuse and rape:

      clearly this is a strong reason why rebellions were made.

    1. In 1740 a new law stated that killing a rebellious slave was not a crime and even the murder of a slave was treated as a minor misdemeanor.

      How come killing a human being isn't illegal? unbelievable

    1. Recent estimates count between 11 and 12 million Africans forced across the Atlantic between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, with about 2 million deaths at sea as well as an additional several million dying in the trade’s overland African leg or during seasoning. Conditions in all three legs of the slave trade were horrible, but the first abolitionists focused especially on the abuses of the Middle Passage.

      11-12 million Africans is a huge number, and about 2 million died, it is very sad how slavery was not seen as brutal.

    2. Skin color became more than superficial difference; it became the marker of a transcendent, all-encompassing division between two distinct peoples, two races, white and black.

      skin color is what separates races, white and black.