10 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2022
    1. 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor of serotonin, is therapeutically used for several psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression in the clinic. However, severe side effects, including abnormal mental functions, behavioral disturbances and intolerance are associated with this treatment. 5-HTP-induced elevation of plasma and brain serotonin levels may affect blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, edema formation and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbances. Breakdown of BBB to serum proteins leads to vasogenic brain edema formation and cellular injuries. However, 5-HTP-neurotoxicity is still not well known. In this investigations 5-HTP induced elevation of endogenous plasma and brain serotonin levels and its effect on BBB breakdown, edema formation neuronal injuries was examined in a rat model. Furthermore, potential role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated. In addition, several neurochemical agents such as p-CPA (5-HT synthesis inhibitor) indomethacin (prostaglandin synthase inhibitor), diazepam (ant stress drug), cyproheptadine, ketanserin (5-HT2 receptor antagonists) and vinblastine (inhibitor of microtubule function) were examined on 5-HT neurotoxicity. Our observations suggest that 4 h after 5-HTP administrations, the endogenous serotonin levels increased by fourfold (150 mg/kg) in the plasma and brain associated with profound hyperthermia (+ 3.86 ± 0.24 °C, oxidative stress and NO upregulation. Breakdown of the BBB to Evans blue albumin (EBA) in 8 brain regions and to [131]Iodine in 14 brain regions was observed. The CBF exhibited marked reduction in all the brain regions examined. Brain edema and cellular injuries are present in the areas associated with BBB disruption. Drug treatments reduced the BBB breakdown, edema formation NO production and brain pathology. These observations are the first to point out that 5-HTP-neurotoxicity caused by BBB breakdown, edema formation and NO production is instrumental in causing adverse mental and behavioral abnormalities, not reported earlier.View chapterPurchase bookRead full chapterURL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S007477421930025X
    1. L-tryptophan Availability and Brain Serotonergic Activity In serotonergic neurons Trp serves as the precursor for 5-HT. The 5-HT metabolic pathway is initiated by Trp being hydroxylated to the intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is subsequently decarboxylated to become 5-HT. Tissue levels of 5-HTP are usually low since this substance is rapidly decaroxylated by the enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase [for review see (21)]. Thus, the rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of 5-HT is the hydroxylation of Trp which is catalyzed by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) (Figure 1). This enzyme is specific for 5-HT producing cells, however, it is present in two different isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2 [reviewed in (22, 23)].

      5-htp metabolic pathwayIn serotonergic neurons Trp serves as the precursor for 5-HT. The 5-HT metabolic pathway is initiated by Trp being hydroxylated to the intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is subsequently decarboxylated to become 5-HT.

  2. Sep 2021
    1. Lee, J. W., Su, Y., Baloni, P., Chen, D., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A. J., Yuan, D., Duvvuri, V. R., Ng, R. H., Choi, J., Xie, J., Zhang, R., Murray, K., Kornilov, S., Smith, B., Magis, A. T., Hoon, D. S. B., Hadlock, J. J., Goldman, J. D., Price, N. D., … Heath, J. R. (2021). Integrated analysis of plasma and single immune cells uncovers metabolic changes in individuals with COVID-19. Nature Biotechnology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-01020-4

  3. May 2020
  4. Dec 2019
    1. Application of synthetic biology is limited by the capacity of cells to faithfully execute burdensome engineered functions in the face of Darwinian evolution
  5. Nov 2019
    1. HGT typically adds new catabolic routes to microbial metabolic networks. This increases the chance of new metabolic interactions between bacteria
  6. Jun 2019
  7. May 2016
    1. Slower metabolisms were not the only reason the contestants regained weight, though. They constantly battled hunger, cravings and binges. The investigators found at least one reason: plummeting levels of leptin. The contestants started out with normal levels of leptin. By the season’s finale, they had almost no leptin at all, which would have made them ravenous all the time. As their weight returned, their leptin levels drifted up again, but only to about half of what they had been when the season began, the researchers found, thus helping to explain their urges to eat.Leptin is just one of a cluster of hormones that control hunger, and although Dr. Hall and his colleagues did not measure the rest of them, another group of researchers, in a different project, did. In a one-year study funded by Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council, Dr. Joseph Proietto of the University of Melbourne and his colleagues recruited 50 overweight people who agreed to consume just 550 calories a day for eight or nine weeks. They lost an average of nearly 30 pounds, but over the next year, the pounds started coming back.