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    1. PROCEDURE FOR CHORD CONSTRUCTION The priori~y order dIe is not set up cornplecely by rhe &crates ~Facoustics. There are adjust- ments made to the table thar are more reflective of"c~rnrnon pracrice." That is, taking prefer- ence in the order of notes chat emphasize the modal quality of a primary mne or sel~cting notes that conform to documented use in recordings or printed music. It will be explained in each example when an adjuscrnent is made. Although a11 spacings will be represented in the examples, it is restated here that the most interesting are the mixed spacings. Still, ane should be familiar with the consrmction and use of a11 spacings. 1. Select che general tessitura and soar of rhe chord. 2. Select the kind of spacing. 3. Place the primary color tone somewhere within the seIecced ressitura. 4. FiIl inJ up or dawn, the remaining coIar cones wirhin the specified incervaI of che selected spacing to the number of notes desired in the chord (four or five plus root is ypical). 5. Keep in mind the rules of supporr and balance if good support and balance are desired. One should be abIe to create a balanced chord on assignment. 6. If constructing mixed spacings, try co create balanced chords first, then experiment with exotic (imbalanced) spacings. Some of them sound surprisingly good. 7. Erase and adjust if needed. If consrructing an assigned spacing (quartd, e tc.) you may need to shift the prioricy tabIe to fuIm the requlred spacing- 8. Doublings are acceptable and wen desired in some cases. commendations wilI be made within rhe comments of each example. At this time it should be pointed out hat there is a problem with rhe standardization ofmodal chord symbols. Throughoutthe remainderofthe text, the chord symbols given in the examples are a compilation ofsuggestions that I have received from the many studerm I have had from all parts of the world. These suggested symbols work, but are open ro criticism
    1. SOUND SUPPORT PHRASINGThe last performance directive to cover is quite important, and one that is often overlooked~ that of sound support phrasing ~ the direction as when to start and when to stop produc-ing a sound irrelative to pitch change.Whether the sound is produced by blowing, plucking, scrapping or hitting, there is a pointwhen the performer needs to take a breath, raise the arm, or move the bow toa starting posi-tion; all affect the phrase qualicy ofa melody. There are two considerations the composermust make; (1) how long the sound production can last depending on the tempo of theperformance and the abilities of the performer, and (2) how will the pause ro take a breathor raise a bow affect the phrasing of the melody. Careful preplanning is required to assure asuccessful interpretation of your melody.
    2. ARTICULATIONS AND EFFECTSThis subject is beyond the scope of this book ~ one really should refer to an orchestrationor arranging text for this, bur to provide a quick access and a review, the following descrip-tions of articulations are included.ARTICULATIONSIchasbeenstatedthatforajazzperformance,onlytwoarticulationsareneeded:staccatoandtenuto-thereisnoneedtobesospartan.To review:Staccato and tenuto refer to note length ~ how long the pitch is held - with no change in vol-ume or emphasis.
    3. Non-western scales (octatonic and more)
    4. THE ELEMENTS OF A MELODYThe elements ofa melody are comprised of the following groups: source materials, a meansof creation and development, phrase organization, tessitura, contour and expressive devices.In addition, a goal and point of climax should be devised for each section or phrase of amelody.A, SOURCE MATERIALSMelodies may be based on any of the following sources:1. Single notes2. Tritonic scale fragments3. Tetratonic scale fragments (tetrachords - see Vol. 1)4. Pentatonic scales(a) diatonic(b) altered(c) add note (sextatonic)(d) blues scalesDiatonic and altered diatonic modes (septatonic)Symmetric scalesHarmonic references(a) arpeggiations/guidetones(b) common tones/pivot points_(c) leading tones/neighbor tones8. Quotes9. Non-western scales (octatonic and more)AWA melodic source is the pitch organization of a motif, phrase, section, or any area of a melodythat shows musical unity. A group of asymmetrically organized pitches numbering four ormore in a scalar format can imply a modality and its perceived emotional qualicy (see Vol. 1,Chapter IV).If an example is not scalar - having consecutive skips - in most cases it will have notes incommon with a particular modality. Ir is possible char if the phrase is long enough, morethan one scalar source can be detected. In addition, the modal qualicy of the motif or phrasecan be enhanced or obscured by its relationship to the harmonic foundation of that partic-ular area.EXAMPLES OF MELODIC SOURCE MATERIALSThe following, like most of the examples found in the remainder of the book, are excerpts,ofa length sufficient to illustrate the defined concept. To put the example in context, it issuggested the student refer to the recommended listenings and readings found at the end ofche chapter as a source of scores and recordings for further study1. SINGLE NOTEThe starting point of the categories of melodic source materials, having no pitch compari-son it is a melodic device in which the rhythmic development of the motif or phrase createsmusical cohesion. Very effective in jazz melodies, it is a device chat Horace Silver and JoeHenderson use extensively.Example 1.1a: “Caribbean Fire Dance” (B section) by Joe HendersonG- F E Eb Db Eb
    5. STYLEThe styles of jazz melodies can be categorized into two main groups:ROMANTICJazz ballads, bossa novas, boleros and some medium and fast tempo songs have melodiesthar are constructed following the developmental procedures that have come from the melo-dic style of Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninoffby way of the popular music composers of the20s to the 50s. Included are the efforts of expert film composers from the earliest to con-temporary times. With this in mind, it is very importanc chat the jazz composer as well asthose aspiring to compose for the popular market: CDs, radio, television and films, be ableto compose a romantic melody.IDIOMATICThesejazzmelodiesareconstructedtoconformtoparticularqualitiesthataredefinedbyanhistoricera:bebop,swing,Dixieland,hardbop;afolk/ethnicreference:blues,Caribbean,pentatonic,pop;orbytheperformancepeculiarities ofaninstrumentorvoice.Melodiescanalsobedescribedbyanynoteworthyuseofcheelements:angular,lyrical,programmatic,symmetric,tetrachordic,oranyoftheothers.THE GENERAL MELODIC STYLE CATEGORIESRomantic/Ideal: these melodies/compositions are based on the Romantic period philosoph-ically, melodically and to some degree, harmonically.Romantic/Melodic: these melodies show consistencies with romantic melody writing proce-dures but differ in philosophy, harmonic materials and emotional goals.idiomatic/Referential:modeledonthemelodicdescriptionsofastyleera,folkreferenceorinstrument/voiceperformancecharacteristics.Idiomatic/Abstract: these melodies are constructed to have a quality described as jagged,smooth, consonant, chromatic and similar depictions.Idiomatic/Programmatic: the construction ofa melody to define an emotional, modal orprogrammatic goal: pastoral, energetic, dark, mysterious and so forth.In the main, jazz melodies are either romantic or non-romantic. The non-romantic melodiesare so diverse - having so many variables in their descriptions - that a comprehensive repre-sentation of how the elements of melody writing were co be applied for each would bebeyond the scope of this book. In addition, there are many melodies that have mixed influ-ences: folk/modal, riff/pentatonic, and many more,Another point to consider is that many compositions have different styles of melodies indifferent sections. Some examples arSONG SECTION STYLE - Contrasted and Combined Melodic Styles
  3. Jun 2023