35 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2023
    1. Glossary of some important musical terms
  2. Nov 2023
  3. Jul 2023
    1. To answer your question about register, register doesbelong to the domain of timbre but differs from instrumentation that also belongs to timbre. I understand that in organ music the word "register" is synonymous to characteristic timbres of musical instruments. But confusion like this is inevitable with any of the 11 aspects: "melody" can have its own "harmony" (e.g., solo flute sonatas by CPE Bach), rhythm can be "metric" (e.g., compositions written in the genre of "perpetum mobile", e.g., Paganini or Weber), articulation can be dynamic (e.g., accent), etc..

      The distinction between register and instrumentation is that register is bound to pitch and underlies instrumentation. Every instrument and vocal usually breaks into 3 registers that can be classified in 2 general types: intensity growing towards the top (vocals and brass) or 5towards the bottom (reed woodwinds and strings). This typology goes against and across the distinctions between different timbres of the instruments. However, the distinctions between registers can be greatly reduced. For instance, the bel canto training can completely conceal a breaking point between neighboring registers. Also, the timbral differences between different instruments (and vocals) greatly exceed the timbral differences between different registers of the same instrument (or voice type).Yet another important distinction is that register plays a formative role for tonal organization of modes of timbre-oriented music that are characterized by indefinite pitch (relative and variable pitch values), such as ekmelic and khasmatonal modes. In such modes, the degrees are defined in regards to their position within a vocal register(s). It is possible that the same principles are in play in the instrumental forms of music of the same ethnicities that keep cultivating such vocal music (e.g., music for Jaw Harp or musical bow). The aspect of instrumentation completely misses this formative melodic modal function. Combinations of timbral colors of different instruments do notform specific musical modes. Timbral coloration is known to be modally formative only in instrumental ensembles consisting of the sameinstrumental types -e.g., a set of gongs. But then, such cases fall within the domain of register rather than instrumentation.On the other hand, instrumental timbres often blend, forming new composite colors (for example, clarinet + oboe). There is nothing remotely similar in the domain of register -registers don't blend.It can be generalized that register fundamentally opposes instrumentation: register is based on timbral similarity, whereas instrumentation -on timbral contrasts. Composers select a specific instrument to "color" constituent sounds in a musical composition in different colors. Singers (and possibly instrumental players) usually select a specific register to secure unityin timbral coloration for the pitch-classes of a musical mode. Timbral contrasts are important in khasmatonal music, where a mode is defined by the group of pitch classes of one register contrasting the other register (e.g., falsetto or rasping). However, such music is rather rare and is still operated by the principle of integratingtimbral colors into a melodic phrase rather than by differentiation of timbral color to color the music textures, as it occurs in instrumentation. The only exception is Schoenberg's experiments with Klangfarbenmelodie that did not work -and could not work, because changes of instrumental timbres within the same melodic stream has been demonstrated to segregate this stream into fragments that obstruct phrasing.

    1. PROCEDURE FOR CHORD CONSTRUCTION The priori~y order dIe is not set up cornplecely by rhe &crates ~Facoustics. There are adjust- ments made to the table thar are more reflective of"c~rnrnon pracrice." That is, taking prefer- ence in the order of notes chat emphasize the modal quality of a primary mne or sel~cting notes that conform to documented use in recordings or printed music. It will be explained in each example when an adjuscrnent is made. Although a11 spacings will be represented in the examples, it is restated here that the most interesting are the mixed spacings. Still, ane should be familiar with the consrmction and use of a11 spacings. 1. Select che general tessitura and soar of rhe chord. 2. Select the kind of spacing. 3. Place the primary color tone somewhere within the seIecced ressitura. 4. FiIl inJ up or dawn, the remaining coIar cones wirhin the specified incervaI of che selected spacing to the number of notes desired in the chord (four or five plus root is ypical). 5. Keep in mind the rules of supporr and balance if good support and balance are desired. One should be abIe to create a balanced chord on assignment. 6. If constructing mixed spacings, try co create balanced chords first, then experiment with exotic (imbalanced) spacings. Some of them sound surprisingly good. 7. Erase and adjust if needed. If consrructing an assigned spacing (quartd, e tc.) you may need to shift the prioricy tabIe to fuIm the requlred spacing- 8. Doublings are acceptable and wen desired in some cases. commendations wilI be made within rhe comments of each example. At this time it should be pointed out hat there is a problem with rhe standardization ofmodal chord symbols. Throughoutthe remainderofthe text, the chord symbols given in the examples are a compilation ofsuggestions that I have received from the many studerm I have had from all parts of the world. These suggested symbols work, but are open ro criticism
  4. Jun 2023
  5. Feb 2023
  6. Jun 2022
  7. Feb 2022
    1. The %rip register on x86-64 is a special-purpose register that always holds the memory address of the next instruction to execute in the program's code segment.

      %rip 有什么作用?

    1. • %rax: return value• %rsp: stack pointer• %rdi: 1st argument• %rsi: 2nd argument• %rdx: 3rd argument• %rcx: 4th argument• %r8: 5th argument• %r9: 6th argument

      有那几个常用且重要的 register?

    1. To manage a variable-size stack frame, x86-64 code uses register %rbp to serveas a frame pointer

      frame pointer 什么情况下会使用?

    2. convention, registers %rbx, %rbp, and %r12–%r15 are classified as callee-saved registers. When procedure P calls procedure Q, Q must preserve the valuesof these registers, ensuring that they have the same values when Q returns to P asthey did when Q was called

      callee-saved register 有什么作用,应该如何理解?

  8. Jan 2022
  9. Dec 2021
  10. Nov 2021
    1. As with themov instructions, the two operands cannot both be memory locations.

      binary operation 的两个操作数可以是 memory location 吗?

    2. This operand can be either a register ora memory location.

      unary 的操作数可以是什么?

    3. The destination operand must be a register.

      load effective address 的 destination 需要是什么?

    4. The ability of the leaq instruction to perform addition and limited forms ofmultiplication proves useful when compiling simple arithmetic expressions suchas this example.

      leaq 在什么情况下有用?

    5. local variables such as x are often kept in registers rather thanstored in memory locations. Register access is much faster than memory access.

      local variables 通过会存在哪里,为什么?

    6. One important feature is that memoryreferences in x86-64 are always given with quad word registers, such as %rax, evenif the operand is a byte, single word, or double word.

      memory reference 属于那种 register 类型?

    7. logicallybe named movzlq, but this instruction does not exist. Instead, this type of datamovement can be implemented using a movl instruction having a register as thedestination. This technique takes advantage of the property that an instructiongenerating a 4-byte value with a register as the destination will fill the upper 4bytes with zeros.

      为什么在 movz 的指令中缺少 movzlq?

  11. Jul 2021
  12. May 2021
  13. Mar 2021
  14. Aug 2020
    1. Facebook has apologized to its users and advertisers for being forced to respect people’s privacy in an upcoming update to Apple’s mobile operating system – and promised it will do its best to invade their privacy on other platforms.

      Sometimes I forget how funny The Register can be. This is terrific.

  15. Jul 2020
  16. Jun 2020
  17. Jan 2020
  18. Dec 2019
  19. May 2019
    1. in June 1955 he wrote his final report, “Sequences with Randomness Properties”—which would basically become the foundational document of the theory of shift register sequences.
  20. Mar 2018
    1. The old high-born hag, who called herself her protectress, and was her tyrant, had seen me, also; she hobbled, panting, up the terrace; a page, as ugly as herself, held up her train, and fanned her as she hurried along, and stopped my fair girl with a "How, now, my bold mistress? whither so fast? Back to your cage--hawks are abroad!"

      HA! I think this may be high register because he does not like the lady. She wouldn't let him and Bertha meet each other.

  21. Jun 2016
  22. screen.oxfordjournals.org screen.oxfordjournals.org
    1. my objective in The Order of Things1 had been toanalyse verbal clusters as discursive layers which fall outside thefamiliar categories of a book, a work, or an author. But while Iconsidered 'natural history', the 'analysis of wealth', and 'politicaleconomy' in general terms, I neglected a similar analysis of theauthor and his works; it is perhaps due to this omission that Iemployed the names of authors throughout this book in a naiveand often crude fashion. I spoke of Buffon, Cuvier, Ricardo, andothers as well, but failed to realize that I had allowed their namesto function ambiguously. This

      Goal of "Order of things" was to analyse verbal clusters as discursive layers that are not books but other types of discourse: natural history, wealth, political economy and so on.