325 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2024
    1. Cette adaptation a lieu grace a une créativité cherchant des solutions adéquates a un nouvel environnement, permettant en effet un semblant de continuité pédagogique.

      créativité, changements PLM

    2. Nous vous présentons dans cet article ce que nous avons expérimenté et observé pendant deux semestres de cours de FLE a des enfants.

      context - fle, enfants

  2. Oct 2023
    1. L’État offrira ainsi une base certifiée, sécurisée et transparente pour faciliter l’accèsaux démarches et services en ligne, ce qui ne lève cependant pas toute interrogation sur lesrisques qu’une telle identité unique fait peser au regard des impératifs de confidentialité etde respect de la vie privée.


    2. Les croisements de données effectués dans le cadre des API vont déboucher sur laproduction de nouveaux services numériques, utilisant l’État comme plateforme d’échang


    3. La création en décembre 2011 d’un « portail interministérielunique des données publiques », « data.gouv.fr » destiné à accueillir les données issues del’État et de ses administrations mais ouvert aux initiatives citoyennes en vue de leur enri-chissement, a répondu à cette exigence


    4. l’État-plateforme » : celui-ci implique en effet que les donnéespubliques soient mises à la disposition du public et qu’elles puissent être librement réutilisées.


    1. The stage director had set out the overall amount of time necessary for the play to berehearsed and defined when it would be presented to the general public. He had alsodefined the rehearsal schedule, delimiting the scenes that would be worked on, withwhom and with what type of props. Although actors and technicians were asked tomake different performing, lighting, costumes, and sound propositions all along therehearsal process, Meadow expressed the final decision when it came to choosing
    2. heater hal

      sala de teatro

    3. Task description therefore enables the researcher tomeasure the adequacy between audience participation as claimed for - that is to sayits role in the theater aesthetic - and the role played by this same audience in thedivision of labor that exists in the production and distribution process of a play

      Descripción de la tarea, por lo tanto, permite al investigador medir la adecuación entre la participación de la audiencia como se afirma para - es decir, su papel en el teatro estético - y el papel desempeñado por esta misma audiencia en la división del trabajo que existe en el proceso de producción y distribución de una obra

      patrons, students, teachers

    4. Simultaneously, the servicerelation offers the possibility for some categories to bring their relationshipwith actors closer to a state of symmetry and sometimes reverseasymmetry

      Simultáneamente, la relación de servicio ofrece la posibilidad de que algunas categorías acerquen su relación con los actores a un estado de simetría y, a veces, asimetría inversa

    5. Whensystematically conducted for all groups of participants, task description underlinesthat there is sometimes a huge gap between an aesthetic and the actual division oflabor.

      no a clear division among the participants: patrons, audience, director, etc

    6. empirical research


    7. It thus reveals the social drama of work (Hughes 1993) in theater but pointsto the transferability of some concepts to other worlds of art


    8. It brings to light the type of relationships needed forparticipants to be able to cooperate


    9. thus set back into questionthe conventional three-category typology restin

      por lo tanto volver a poner en duda la tipología convencional de tres categorías 1

    10. This paper aims to show that the symbolic interactionist perspective developedby Becker for artistic activities (1982) and adopted for the study of a theater hall andcompany improves our understanding of theater activity.

      objective of the text

      then, example studies : CIRCLE

    11. heater. But what exactly is thisactivity? How can it be socially defined?

      questions about the subject - and examples of diff perspectives

    12. All of them are active members of the CircleTheatre (referred to here as the Circle or CT)ii ; a theater company founded more thanthirty years ago by Alex Meadow a stage director and since then, artistic director.

      THE GROUP studied in question

    13. This paper shows how conducting the ethnographic study of a theater halland company can help define theater activity.



    1. MEDIA
      • the means of communicating (1st papers , 18th century when print was invented)

      • communication, means of communication (that transmit informatiom)

      • media: the tool of communication; but also intermediates in communication (working on it)

    2. CULTURE

      different meanings: related with agriculture at first, then has evolved to a more abstract later.

      3 definitons: no ethnographique perspective, but it is more about everything arounds art .

    3. ART

      art recognition:

      • institutions
      • public, audience
      • peers
    4. The sources of two of these we have alreadydiscussed: (i) the independent and abstract noun which describes a general process of intellectual, spiritual and aestheticdevelopment, from the 18 th c.; (ii) the independent noun, whether used generally or specifically, which indicates a particularway of life, whether of a people, a period, a group, or humanity in general, from Herder and Klemm. But we have also torecognize (iii) the independent and abstract noun which describes the works and practices of intellectual and especiallyartistic activity.




    1. it studies objects that keep moving (society, social facts, behaviors, etc.) which appear undervarious lights according to the times and priorities of the moment.


  3. Jun 2023
    1. towards syllabusesbased on needs analysis, oriented towards real-lifetasks and constructed around purposefully selectednotions and functions.

      na , t based

    1. Both plurilingual and translanguaging pedagogical practices in the education of language minori-tized students remain controversial, for schools have a monolingual and monoglossic traditionthat is hard to disrupt, even when the disrupting stance brings success to learners. At issue is thenational identity that schools are supposed to develop in their students, and the Eurocentricsystem of knowledge, circulated through standardized named languages, that continues toimpose what Quijano (2000) has called a coloniality of power

      named lgs system

    2. It de-natur-alizes, that is, the named languages that have been codified by the nation-state to develop govern-able subjects (Foucault 1997)

      foucalt- nation -state and lg ....power

    3. ation-state building and their often associated ventures of colonial expansion


    4. If plurilingualism was coined by the Council of Europe to ensure the political and economic cohesionof the European Union,

      motivo por pluri....VERDADERO

    5. This fact can easily transforms these classrooms into monolingual ones whereinstruction is, for all intents and purposes, only in the national language. In fact, plurilingual programsfor refugees are almost non-existent!

      english can be...tooo??

    6. n contrast, plurilingualism for brown and black refugees acts differently. A


    7. Plurilingualism for these speakers is thus compatible with the supranationalconcept of the European Union (an EU with distinct national languages that work together), aswell as with the national concept of European states (with a single national language). PlurilingualEuropeans continue to be conceived of as ‘native’ speakers of a national language, although theymay use different national languages as they see fit in their specific communicative situation. Thenational and linguistic identity of Europeans is not moved, even if their language repertoireexpands to consist of what are considered bits of other national languages, creating speakers withbroader horizons, and encompassing a more European persona. In this context, the interest in plur-ilingualism follows an economic imperative and might be complicit in what Flores (2013) notes is aneoliberal need for flexible workers and citizens

      white european plurilinguialism

    8. . We see, then, that despite the advent of a plurilingual philosophy in asociety that aims to be plurilingual, the goal of language education for white European citizensand brown and black refugees remains different and is embodied in persistently differentapproaches.

      theory si, pero no en la pra´ctica ..plurilingue

    9. We have remarked on the extension of the benefits of plurilingualism efforts to black and brownimmigrants. But there are still differences in how plurilingualism in education gets taken up depend-ing on the identity of the students. For white European citizens, we have seen that plurilingualismacknowledges that it is impossible for individuals to be two (or three) monolinguals in one. It isthus accepted that language education programs do not need to aim at making students fully com-petent in a second or third language. Instead, as we have discussed, what is important is that oneacquire competence to communicate to varying degrees. Differentiated language abilities are seenas required, as white European citizens cross borders to study, work, and live

      teaching english-some competence..as a competence

    10. The emphasis on linguistic rights promoted by the Language Policy Task Force of the Council ofEurope means that more attention is also being paid to the learner at the center of all plurilingualeducation initiatives, including CLIL and language awareness programs, but also in educational pro-grams that target refugee students


    11. hese multilingual awareness projects corre-spond to the goals of the Council of Europe of ‘education for plurilingualism,’ including educating ‘forlinguistic tolerance, raise awareness of linguistic diversity and educate for democratic citizenship’(Council of Europe 2003, 16)


    12. . In addition, the concept of pluri-lingualism has transformed traditional foreign language education, stressing that the goal should bepartial competence in multiple languages, rather than full competence in two or three. Plurilingual-ism, it is argued, should be the focus of language education and the goal for all European citizens.


    13. A plurilingual European citizen is thus said to have plurilingual competence in a ‘repertoire oflanguages,’ and holds values of plurilingual tolerance toward all languages and varieties. Toprepare these plurilingual European citizens, a plurilingual and intercultural education should be fos-tered. This plurilingual and intercultural education should protect the right to learn additionallanguages, but also the right to speak a first language and the right to a quality education in thelanguage of instruction

      right of quality education

    14. n doing so, language education programs have erased all tracesof heteroglossia in language (Bailey 2007), upholding the standardized versions of named languagestaught and valued in school, instead of valuing and recognizing the complex linguistic practices ofmultilingual speakers. But this traditional view of multilingualism has started to show fissures. Nextwe discuss how and why we are facing these ‘cracks’ in our conception of multilingualism andhow it is viewed and used in school

      the idea of multiling separatedly

    15. Not all language minoritized communities have been given access to even monoglossically-inspired additive bilingual education programs. Some have been given much less, others havebeen given more. Those given less include very threatened communities that have been simplyignored, erased, by the educational authorities, and who remain uneducated in monolingual (oreven multilingual!) programs where instruction is conducted in languages they do not know.Many tribal groups in India fall in this category

      minority lgs erased sometimes,sometimes not

    16. It is this Canadian immersion model that has spread today to the so-called English-mediuminstruction (EMI) programs that have proliferated all over the world, especially in Asia. These pro-grams are fueled by the desire to teach English so as to facilitate access to the symbolic goodsthat English supposedly represents (Adamson and Feng 2009; Hu 2007).

      english case

    17. As studies of multilingualism emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, the world wasundergoing an important socio-political change – the colonial structures of the European Empiresstarted to be dismantled. The independence movements of Asian and African countries unleasheda sense of ethnic, racial and linguistic pride, as more minoritized groups clamored for greater politicaland economic rights (Fishman 1985). These were often accompanied by demands for a different typeof education, one that respected and leveraged the cultural and linguistic practices of local commu-nities (García and Lin 2017a). And in some contexts, language majorities, threatened by the increasedpower of the speakers of the ‘other’ languages started also clamoring for an education that woulddevelop the bilingualism of their own children. The stage was set for the development of a newtype of bilingual education – immersion programs


    18. considered monolingual representatives of the nation-state, are taught an additional language,which is always seen as second to their first. Foreign language education programs reinforce the con-struction of named languages as spoken in specified, and foreign, nation-state(s), the idea being thatthe learning of this language will contribute to increased communication between people of differentcountrie


    19. e describe how, in the past and continuing today, thetraditional view of multilingualism has impacted the teaching of additional languages in second-and foreign- language programs, as well as in bilingual educatio

      where the idea comes from

    20. Bilingualism; languageeducation; multilingualism;plurilingualism;translanguaging

      Cuándo se deben utilizar los términos multilingüe y plurilingüe? En pocas palabras, el término "multilingüe" se utiliza para describir un país, un lugar o una institución que utiliza varias lenguas. En cambio, el término "plurilingüe" lo utilizamos para describir a una persona que habla varias lenguas


    1. the lack of relevance that traditionalmaterials for teaching English as a foreign language have for refugees. To solve these issues,teachers will have access to the following resources:1. Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants (LIAM)Toolkit (Council of Europe): Tools andresources designed to assist organizations, and especially volunteers, providing languagesupport for adult refugees.https://www.coe.int/en/web/language-support-for-adult-refugees/home?desktop=true2. Language for Resilience (British Council): Theoretical resources that examine theimpact of language on refugees and host communities, identifying how language skillsenhance resilience and providing suggestions to address key needs.https://www.britishcouncil.org/language-for-resilience3. The English Hub for Refugees: Teaching materials tailored to meet the specificlanguage learning needs and challenges of refugees and asylum seeker

      material sur internet - extra

    2. nally, it is important to clarify that this course is specifically designed to support the languageteaching/learning process of refugees and asylum seekers.

      goal of course- explicit



    1. in this specific learning context

      context refuges explicit

    2. Finally, it is important to clarify that this course is specifically designed to support the languageteaching/learning process of refugees and asylum seekers.

      purpose explicit



  4. May 2023
    1. In the United States, translanguaging has more ofa social justice focus and is seen as empowering minority students


    2. It also distinguishes pedagogicaltranslanguaging from spontaneous translanguaging and provides a definitionand theoretical principles

      diff b pedagogial and spontaneous translanguaging

    3. It is obvious that extended exposure tothe target language(s) is necessary, but there is also a real need to build on whatstudents already know


    4. hich proposes planned activities involving two or more languagesso that languages reinforce one another and multilingual students make the mostof their linguistic repertoire and their experience as language learners andlanguage users.

      ped ..what is this about?

    5. Students link newinformation to old information and pedagogical translanguaging aims at reinfor-cing that process. It is also natural for multilingual speakers to use languages ina flexible way and to translanguage spontaneously (García & Li, 2014; Duarte& Kirsch, 2020). Pedagogical translanguaging has as its point of referencemultilingual individuals and multilingual societies because they represent theway people communicate


    6. Languages can reinforce each other and prior linguistic know-ledge is an advantage that can be used in the classroom. Another argument isthat using two or more languages in the same lesson does not imply lessexposure to the target language even if this is a minority language. The timeallocated to activating resources from the majority language in the space of theminority language can easily be compensated for when pedagogical trans-languaging is implemented across the curriculum and the minority language isalso used in the majority-language lessons.


    7. edagogical translanguaging is about activatingmultilingual speakers’ resources so as to expand language and content learning.Multilinguals have broader repertoires than monolinguals, and they are oftenmore experienced language learners
    8. The richtrajectories multilingual students often have are useful resources for learningadditional languages and academic subjects

      citation - idff lgs use



    1. that each ofthese and other groups needs varies greatly, however, meaning thatlanguage teaching using generic programs and materials, not de-signed with particular groups in mind, will be inefficient
    2. Participant and non-participant observation have theadvantage of allowing direct, in-depth, contextualized study of whatparticipants actually do, of the activities of interest in their naturalenvironment (natural, that is, except for the presence of the outsideobserver in the case of non-participant observation


    3. Language audits aredifficult to define because in practice they often include someactivities and produce some of the same data typical of a NA

      auditoría lingüística

      Una auditoría lingüística pretende adecuar el funcionamiento comunicativo de la organización, preparar a todo el personal lingüísticamente y mejorar los resultados obtenidos.

    4. An audit is useful for providing a quick overview of a situation andidentifying mismatches between perceptions and reality, betweenwhat is going on and what should b


    5. uestionnaires, especially if mailed, group-administered or adminis-tered by third parties, can procure sizeable amounts of focused,standardized, organized data, potentially from a large sample ofrespondents, and do so relatively quickly and cheaply. They canaccomplish all this, moreover, with the option of anonymity (shouldthat be important to respondents) and with less chance of interviewerbias, since the questions asked, the order in which they are asked,and the precise way they are asked can all be carefully planned andfixed. On the other hand, response rates can be low, and the type ofinformation and range of responses obtained are likely to be limitedby the use of pre-determined questions and response options andformats. In a sense, that is, unstructured interviews serve to identifyrelevant questions, whereas questionnaires assume knowledge of theright questions and test hypotheses about answers

      why questionnaires

    6. The interview is a keydata-gathering tool in many branches of the social sciences, mostnotably in anthropology and linguistics fieldwork.


    7. hey includeboth inductive and deductive procedures (Berwick, 1989). Theformer involve use of expert intuitions, participant and non-participant observation, and unstructured interviews, from whichcategories of needs are derived; the latter include use of devices andinstruments, such as structured interviews, questionnaires, andcriterion-referenced performance tests, with pre-set categories

      inductive, deductive methods

    8. When different sources and/or methods produce conflicting find-ings, it is important to pursue the matter. Which sources are right, ormore likely to be, and which to be followed when designing aprogram? Are none of them right? Or are all of them right (at leastthose involving different sources)? Assuming one rejects the post-modernist and epistemological relativist view that different views ofreality, including tasks, simply reflect the fact (sic) that all of them are'socially constructed' (in which case, there would be no such thing as'facts', and one would not be bothered by conflicting findings, orindeed by 'findings' at all), this is exactly where triangulation, asopposed to informal cross-checking, can help the needs analyst. So,too, can one or more independent measures of the variable con-cerned, e.g., students' L2 proficiency or a flight attendant's know-ledge and competenc

      important for n a

    9. Not to be confused withany of the above, checking findings from two (or two hundred) moreindividuals of the same type using the same procedure, e.g., thefindings from one faculty interview against those from anotherfaculty interview, simply constitutes what Lincoln & Guba (p. 305)call 'multiple copies' of one type of source, not triangulation ofdifferent sources. Similarly, comparing findings from faculty inter-views with reading requirements listed on course syllabuses writtenby the same faculty members would be a case of comparing differentmethods of accessing the same information from the same source, nottriangulation of sources

      importan for method of analysis

    10. All these individuals cansometimes provide useful information on such matters as theirlearning styles and preferences,

      find their learning styles and preferences

      but needs too!: lg involved in ceratin target, task

    11. There is an urgent need for courses of all kindsto be relevant - and to be seen to be relevant - to the needs of specificgroups of learners and of society at large.

      citation !!!!

    12. he backgroundknowledge, cultural knowledge, and sociolinguistic and pragmaticskills required are sometimes difficult even for native speakers toacquire, and harder still for the two populations targeted in herstudy: recent immigrants, and workers with an intellectual disability.


    13. n

      textbooks, material analysis !!!

    14. Having described the NAs themselves, Lett moves on to discussseveral important reliability and validity issues that should be ofconcern to needs analysts everywhere, but which have very rarelybeen discussed in the NA literature. These include the use ofconvenience samples of subject matter experts, the lack of readyexternal criteria for assessing the validity of analyses, the lack ofindependence of proficiency level ratings obtained via the collabora-tive group process, possible response bias, and the halo effect. Heidentifies potential solutions to several of the problems, e.g., stratifiedrandom sampling, use of surrogate or partial test-retest and modifiedsplit-half procedures for improving reliability, and relating DLIgraduates' language proficiency ratings to supervisors' field reportson their subsequent job performance in predictive validity studies. Hepoints out, however, that the increased costs in time and personnel,among other problems, would often render them inadequate, or insome cases preclude their adoption altogether.

      example of NA (à voir)

    15. This and an accompanying cost-benefit analysis allowthem to distinguish 'private marginal value' - what an individualconsiders when deciding to learn or maintain skills in a language, and'social marginal value' - the societal need for that language.

      private vs social marginal value !!

    16. findings and rationales for recommendations need to beexplicit, empirically-supported and expressed using concepts andterminology familiar to them

      conseil pour gouv - addressing it

    17. In the opening chapter, 'Methodological issues in learner needsanalysis', I provide a summary and evaluation of various sources ofinformation for a NA (published and unpublished literature, thelearners, applied linguists, domain experts, triangulated sources);methods of obtaining that information (expert and non-expert in-tuitions, interviews, questionnaire surveys, language audits, partici-pant and non-participant observation, ethnographic methods,journals and logs, language proficiency and competency measures);and source x method combinations.

      book organisatiion !!

    18. discourse communities of which they seek to becomemembers. As a recent discussion of discourse communities in aca-demic disciplines concluded:Communities ... differ from one another along both socialand cognitive dimensions, offering contrasts not just in theirfields of knowledge, but also in their ways of talking, theirargument structures, aims, social behaviors, power relations,and political interests. (Hyland & Hamp-Lyons, 2002, p. 6)

      different communities

    1. n the UK, r

      Modos de interacción entre grupos culturales y la consiguiente 'aculturación' se han descrito en una variedad de términos, desde ''integración'', donde hay un equilibrio entre la cultura de la persona y la del país de acogida, a través de ''asimilación'' y 'separación,Rechazo de la propia cultura de la persona en el primer país y de la cultura del país de acogida en el segundo; marginación cuando la persona es excluida del país de acogida y de su propia cultura o la rechaza (Berry, 2001). Estos procesos interactúan con diversas estrategias de integración del país anfitrión. En el Reino Unido,

    2. participants associatedlearning English with increased autonomy and the development of a renewed socialidentity. A qualitative study by Miller

      impact of local lg- in other studies

    3. The impact of English on participants’ lives consisted of moving from dependenceto autonomy, a sense of achievement, and learning English was associatedwith hopes for further changes including in employment and education

      summary - positive impacts of learning local lg

    4. he association between poorlanguage proficiency and psychological problems may also be mediated by employ-ment status (Hinton et al., 1997; Westermeyer et al., 1989); unemployment is itself arisk to mental health (Dooley, 2003).

      employement and lg link, host country lg importance

    5. Refugees’ psychological problems are better understood in thecontext of the challenges of adaptation to many difficult circumstances than inpsychiatric terms


    6. Many refugees and asylum seekers arrive in the host country having incurredextensive material and social losses (United Nations High Commissioner forRefugees [UNHCR], 2007).


    1. destination country prior ttination country or have friincentive to learn


    2. assimilationdegree of return aWestern Europe (Engin the pre-accessionof the implica

      possibility of return- intra european countries....en europa

    3. xts. The selectivity of migrant groups relative to their origin countrycounterparts as well as compared with other groups may also affect their integrationprocesses (Ichou, 2014), but the implications of such selectivity across economic andcultural domains can only be understood if we know what characteristics, resourcesand orientations they arriv

      La selectividad de los grupos de migrantes en relación con sus homólogos de los países de origen, así como en comparación con otros grupos, también puede afectar sus procesos de integración (Ichou, 2014), pero las implicaciones de tal selectividad a través de los dominios económicos y culturales solo pueden entenderse si sabemos con qué características, recursos y orientaciones llegan.


    4. data - that reveal how integration outcomes differsubstantially between immigrants from different origins across a number of WesternEuropean cou

      difference b/ host countries ARRIVAL

    5. norities inconcept of multiculturalismlarge flows of migrants fromthe issue of migrant i

      condition, refugges

    6. The goal of the project was to obtain a more complete picture of integrprocesses in Europe and of the role of individual traits, group characteristics and retion contexts

      integration programmes -



    1. The recovery framework provides a foundation for government andnon-government organizations seeking to improve the quality of their ser-vices to refugees.


    2. Over the past eighteen years, VFST has provided counsellingand advocacy interventions for individuals, families and groups of refugeesfrom many different countries. It has developed a framework that linkstraumatic events, namely, the experience of violence, systemized persecu-tion and forced displacement to their social and psychological effects.These effects can include anxiety, helplessness, loss of control, isolation,loss of trust, erosion of meaning and identity, guilt and shame

      solutions in another countries, CONDITION OF ARRIVALS

    3. As a new and emerging community, many of the Sudanese are pro-foundly affected by their experiences of war, flight and the hardship ofcamps or other places where they first seek asylum.

      condition or arrivals

    4. Two cultures: one lifeJenny Mitchell, Ida Kaplan and Louise Crowe

      studies. Community capacity-building could link all levels of the system: Mitchell et al. (2007) used a community recovery model with refugees resettled in Australia in which refugees’ concerns were addressed by integrating findings from collaborative research with the promotion of leadership and participation within the community. Even where the community is not as cohesive as in the Mitchell et al. study, the process of research and of identifying refugees’ concerns might foster community ties, and enable refugees and asylum seekers to gain control in another area of their lives.

      from "If i speak, what am i?..."

    5. Acknowledgement of the strong communal culture of the SouthSudanese people is critical to the engagement and the formulation ofculturally-responsive services to support their resettlement in Australia

      migrates integration




    1. In

      . En los debates sobre educación, la educación bilingüe es frecuentemente despreciada como una 'vaca de oro' y reclamada como enemiga de la civilización americana (Gingrich 1995), sin embargo al menos 33 agencias federales tienen más de 34.000 posiciones que requieren dominio de idiomas extranjeros (Lo Bianco 1997). Se trata de lenguas en las que se considera que el dominio es una habilidad, en las que las lenguas son deseables como lenguas verdaderamente extranjeras o TFL y, por lo tanto, se consideran capaces de 'añadir o mantener una competencia nacional' (Walton 1992). El dominio de lenguas extranjeras, hablado lejos 'en otros países', es algo suficientemente divorciado de la vida cotidiana que puede ser apreciado como una habilidad. Su dominio es probable que sea menos que el dominio y el apego al Inglés, Sin embargo, cuando las lenguas son menos extranjeras, cuando el apego emocional y el dominio pueden ser altos, su estudio, uso público y mantenimiento 'amenazan la civilización'. Ya no es una habilidad, sino una sedición.

    2. Mastery of foreign languages, spoken far away ‘in other countries’, issomething sufficiently divorced from daily life that it can be appreciated as a skill. Its mastery is likelyto be less than the mastery and attachment to English, not thereby challenging presumed deepattachments of national allegiance. However, when the languages are less foreign, when emotionalattachment and mastery may be high, their study, public use and maintenance ‘threatencivilisation’. No longer a skill, but sedition.

      maybe treated as a skill, but we must be careful!!

      sedition : conduct or speech inciting people to rebel against the authority of a state or monarch.

    3. Even as the technological changes that accompany and make globalisation possible themselvesmultiply and diversify, and as communication becomes progressively multimodal, the universalisingand homogenising force of absorption into a common underlying ethic and process of signification isobliterating language diversity.

      why lg diversity

    4. The effect, then, of these forces for change is to make every nation need to come to grips, in publicpolicy and in educational practice, with polyglot populations. Languages serve functions of affect andsolidarity as much as the more obvious communication function.

      lgs function

    1. Claude Hagége est convaincu que sans défense de la part des Etats l’an- glais fera disparaitre les langues ethniques. Nicholas Ostler argumente dans The Last Lingua Franca : English until the return of Babel que la domination de l’an- glais finira, comme celle des autres langues globales. C’est la diversité qui est naturelle pour l’histoire et la globalisation est toujours imposée. Elle se produit seulement parce qu’elle promet quelques biens économiques ou culturels. Bientét une langue globale ne sera méme plus nécessaire di aux outils technologiques de la communication. Cela est un peu utopique, mais il y a des prévisions plus réalistes.

      hoy ingles, mañana otro...adaptacion

    2. La globalisation communi- cationnelle vient donc de deux facteurs : le postcolonialisme et la globalisation réceptive de l’anglais. La domination actuelle de l’anglais est inédite. C’est pour- quoi on parle souvent de la globalisation seulement dans le contexte contem- porain. Pourtant, ces processus existent depuis l’aube de l’humanité.

      globalizacion, no es algo nuevo

    3. AU XVII‘ siécle le frangais commence a dominer.

      l'espagnol pendant epoque de colonisation et en suite le francais

    4. titre de comparaison on peut men- tionner l’Europe médiévale avec ses trois langues de culture : latin, grec et arabe. Le plurilinguisme des élites n’était rien d’extraordinaire. Le statut de Vitalien comme une langue de culture et de la diplomatie a l’époque de la Renaissance constitue le premier exemple de la globalisation purement réceptive. Son succes est dai uniquement a l’influence culturelle de la Renaissance italienne : sa littéra- ture, ses beaux-arts et sa musique.

      après l'italien

    5. Au Moyen Age, c’est l’empire arabe

      le latin, le grec, et ap`res l'arabe

    6. II faut souligner que dans 1’Anti- quité, il y avait aussi des langues globales, car le monde pour l’homme antique a d'autres dimensions que notre monde aujourd’hui. II suffit de regarder la carte de Claude Ptolémée, ot! le monde comprend seulement la région méditerranéenne, l'Inde et la Chine. Pour l’empereur Auguste, le latin était une vraie langue globale qui se répandit a la suite des guerres impliquant la terre entiére.

      antes, otras lenguas "globales"

    7. Et la globalisation réelle ? Son outil, c’est une langue naturelle supra-ethnique et supra-nationale que l’on appelle aussi langue globale, universelle, mondiale, internationale, lingua franca ou interlingua.

      lingua franca

    1. his situation can be remedied if pedagogical translanguagingis also implemented in the Basque and Spanish classes and students work with thethree languages in the three language classes.


    2. An important benefit of pedagogical translanguaging is that learners can have greateraccess to information when they can use different languages.


    3. The school languages can be national lan-guages which are widely used in the country where the school is located, minority lan-guages which are used in the region where the school is located or other second andforeign languages such as English.


    4. In this article we look at language classes, but pedagogicaltranslanguaging is also relevant for the learning of academic content because contentis learned through the medium of language

      medium of lg

    5. Multilingual speakers have a rich repertoire, which can be used as a resource to commu-nicate and to learn additional languages more effectively. It is natural for multilingualspeakers to try to use resources from other languages because they try to link theirprior knowledge to new knowledge. ‘Focus on multilingualism’ also looks at thesocial context of communicative interaction. When multilingual speakers communicate(face-to-face or digitally) they use multilingual resources in their repertoire and translan-guage to a greater or lesser extent depending on the social context.


    6. Pedagogical translanguaging has these characteristics (Cenoz and Gorter,2021):1) It can be applied not only to two languages, as in Wales, but also to three or morelanguages and even to students’ home languages, which are not in the schoolcurriculum

      clear definition and use

    7. We argue that learning can be enhanced when hard boundaries that isolate languagesare replaced by soft and permeable boundaries so that students can use their prior knowl-edge when teaching and learning a second or additional language. We discuss the conceptof pedagogical translanguaging as compared to other uses of the term translanguaging. Inthe second section we look at the way it can be applied in language programmes for stu-dents of different backgrounds. Then we address practices based on pedagogical trans-languaging in language classes. The final section discusses the challenges and futureperspectives of pedagogical translanguaging.Cenoz and Gorter 343


    8. In the context of language learning, themost important knowledge that students have is the knowledge of previously acquiredlanguages. To exclude this knowledge could have a negative effect on the learningprocess.

      wy using 2 or more lgs

    9. ultilingual speakers are different frommonolingual speakers in that they have the possibility of using resources from differentlanguages when they communicate




    1. s así como los pueblosoriginarios del sur de Chile y los desaparecidos de la dictadurade Pinochet se urden en un entramado con el desierto deAtacama, la astronomía, las mujeres buscadoras de Calama, elagua y los botones de nácar, entre otros hilos de la historia.

      puntos que se entrelazan por la fotografia



    1. Desde esa altura sería además el primero en ver la nube de polvo anun­ciando la llegada de la mensajería, ya dos días demorada, en la cual para que la ilusión lo sostuvie­ra decidió inmotivada­mente que llegaría por fin el agri­mensor

      parte de extracto

  5. revel.unice.fr revel.unice.fr
    1. Avec audace et créativité, il compose et construit alors des œuvres structurées entre réalité pragmatique et inventivité fertile et imagée. Ainsi, à travers l’écriture en français, Confiant transcrit ses particularités linguistiques, culturelles, sociales et même ethniques.
    1. Le temps du récit est fixé dans les années soixante et l’auteur semble profiter de l’émergence de plusieurs quartiers populaires dans cette ville martiniquaise. Il s’approprie également le rythme qui caractérise le centre ville pour pouvoir glisser les indices et construire les leurres.

      characteristique de cette roman policier

  6. Apr 2023
    1. r playing the game. This isto as seeing s


    2. tions. The firstperspective holds that occupational segreducation, experience and s


    3. This review suggests that (a) racial minpositions, and (b) that the under-represdecision makers. The purpose of this sSpecifically, we examined whether spromotability ratings of applicants difframework, design an


    4. (1998). Specifically, these authors demonstrated thbeliefs about African Americans, held by employed White adults, wwith the characteristics believed necessary to succ


  7. Mar 2023
    1. "There were four things we tried to teach these kids," Carter said. "It was accountability, integrity, how to be a great follower before you can ever be a great leader, and it was all about team and family."

      his words

    1. he difference is that 93 percent of SouthKorean students graduate from high school, compared withjust JJ percent of American students—only about 2 percent ofwhom receive athletic scholarships to college

      numbers - 2013

    2. Our analysissuggests that the most engaging environment you can offer stu-dents is one of cognitive challenge combined with individual-ised pedagogical support," he told me in an e-mail. "Ifyou offerboring and poor math instruction and try to compensate thatwith interesting sport activities, you may get students interestedin sports but I doubt it will do much good to their engagementwith school

      argument against sport

    3. In these communities, the dominant argument is usuallythat sports lure students into school and keep them out oftrouble—the same argument American educators have madefor more than a century. And it remains relevant, without adoubt, for some small portion of students

      argument of movie

    4. N MANY S C H O O L S , sports are so entrenched that noone—not even the people in charge—realizes their actual cost

      school sports cost

    5. The National Collegiate Athletic Association had emergedby this time, as a means of reforming the increasingly brutalsport of college football. But the enforcers were unable tokeep pace with the industry. Once television exponentiallyexpanded the fan base in the mid-2Oth century, collegiatesports gained a spiritual and economic choke hold on Amer-ica. College scholarships rewarded high-school athletes, andthe search for the next star player trickled down even to gradeschool.

      the beguinning of everythinggggg

    6. But what to make of this other glaring reality, and the signalit sends to children, parents, and teachers about the very pur-pose of school

      the question in this article

    1. o gen-uinely improve the life chances of poor urban youth wouldrequire a sustained political and economic commitment byall segments of society. Now that would be a story worthtelling on the big screen

      but we nees- social and political change

    2. California Governor Gray Davis was abig fan of Carter’s at the time of the lockout. He attended thefirst basketball game held after the lockout and proclaimedCarter a hero who epitomized the governor’s approach toeducation

      context at those times

    3. he urban public high school. In




    1. The problem for the England selectors is perhaps similar to that facing England as a nation. For 30 years or more thosewith authority in education, assisted by politicians and those in the mass media, have conspired --- in the sociologicalsense of creating a climate of opinion --- to produce a public ideology designed to remove any sense of pride or senseof place in the hearts of those who are unequivocally English

      not in sports, but mostly social issue

    2. elsonian eye adopted

      blind-eye knowledge



    1. Second, he shows howtriangulation by sources (scholars, company representatives, domainexperts, and documents) and methods (unstructured and structuredinterviews, introspections, non-participant observation, and ques-

      otro ejemplo de NA

    2. ence, methodo-logical issues in NA constitute a major focus of this volume, andcontributors include explicit discussion of their very varied method-ologies in their chapters

      in this book

    3. ery language courseshould be considered a course for specific purposes, varying only(and considerably, to be sure) in the precision with which learnerneeds can be specified

      long- quote

    1. nage everydaamong most migmigrants only pthe Netherlands).general logic amWhen looking atmore integrated isince we studiedthro

      language proficiency in host country....results

    1. Results

      questions - interesting

    2. They gradually became more involved inthe teaching process and participated more actively. Drawing from their ownvoices:

      description of a class notes: what happened

    3. Our data analysis meth-ods were qualitative thematic analysis and critical discourse analysi

      to check , too

    4. 2 MethodologyConcerning the research methodology, both projects were team-based and inter-disciplinary


    5. e conductedneeds analysis (Long 2005), which was perceived in a more societal way

      buscar article about it to theory

    6. The two projects had four main characteristics

      example: description of courses

    7. A qualitative approach was adopted using interviews, focus groups, ethnograph-ic observation, and written reports. B

      QUALITIVE APPROACH -to analize the case

    1. Mears emphasizes the connection between researcher and participant, seeking to breakdown barriers between researcher and participants through empathy and the developmentof an insider perspective.

      method: empathy

    1. Film is the reflection of our society, and Coach Carter reflects not only the reality of sports in Americanhigh school but also the reality of education. Sports are 1mportant but not enough.


    2. Coach Carter is all about a teacher who taught his students about life. The movie goes against thebelief that education can only happen inside classroom and tell us that the education on life can belearnt anywhere. In this case, sports takes an important role but its significance has been obscured


    3. The movie has sent a strong message against the common belief ofsuccess can be found in sports but the classroom, especially for African American young menparticularly, and minority populations in general.


    4. Nonetheless, Coach Carter is still more or less a typical sports movie and it is understandable if themovie follows some conventional and stereotypical formula, especially the biased reactions from thecommunity, the portrayals of the girls or the depiction of school


    5. ell let me tell you what I see, I see a system, that is designed for you to fail, now I know thatall of you like stats so let me give you some, Richmond high only graduates 50% of it's students,and of those that do graduate only 6% go to college, Which tells me when I walk down thesehalls and look in your class rooms, maybe only one student 1s going to go to college, Well damnCoach Carter if I ain't going to college where am I going to go? Well that's a great question andthe answer for young African-American men in here is this, probably to prison, 1n this county20


    6. This storyprovides an msight on how the boys see their future, with and without guidance. The second sidestory was about Cruz and his process of becoming a man, when Cruz with the influence from hiscousin can easily become a drug dealer or a thug in the futur


    7. In fact, there is a common myth that sport can be the way to the richness andsocial class, especially in minority populations. ‘Thus, the movie challenges this idea through the storyof sport.


    8. However, the designingprinciple or how the stories are told is what makes Coach Carter standing out and different from others.At the beginning, it started as a normal sports movie with a coach and team struggling to be better.However, the main conflict of the movie revolves around the idea of which is more smportant: a gloryseason in high school or a secure place in college and life.


    9. Sport is not the life-changing subject for students in education movies. The lessons of sports were notbelieved to be educational, certainly to the sense of conventional education system. Film genre-wise,sports movies is also a separated genre from education movies because education movies talk aboutschool, teacher, and students while sports movies can be outside school. However, Coach Carter wasset in high school and the movie’s content is about education. Hence, how does Coach Carter reflectthe debate between sports and academics 1n reality? And what does Coach Carter say about the idea ofeducation?


    10. Most of these research is focus on the teaching, however, there are also other matters and questionscan be raised. First and foremost is a deeper focus on the problems inside the school through thefilmic depiction, especially inner-city school, and racism is one of the most circulated problems.


    11. le the outside classroom education is highly personal and subjective, with differentimpacts a case by case basis, the inside classroom education 1s more universal and relatable. For thosewho have been through school, the memories of an inspiring teacher, a best friend or an unforgettablelesson will always linger on.

      cinematic study

    12. n the other hand, Bowenand Hitt (2013) argued that both sport and academic success require focus and dedication, thus, thesuccess 1n one field will likely to benefit the other.

      benefits of sport - in education

    13. n the modern education system, sports are irrelevant to the education of the mind. Sir Ken Robinson(2006) suggested that there is a hierarchy of subject 1n education system around the world, whichbasically was built to serve industrialism, with mathematics and languages on top, then humanities,and finally arts, at the bottom; and the public education was built upon two ideas: what is essential forwork and what is required for college.

      education and sport in general



  8. Feb 2023
    1. rnanen, Mirja, Tatjana Rynkänen & Sari Pöyhönen. 2015. Kielen käyttö ja oppiminenaikuisten maahanmuuttajien integroitumisen ja identiteettien rakennusaineena[‘Language use and learning in integration and construction of identities among adultmigrants’]. In Teppo Jakonen, Juha Jalkanen, Terhi Paakkinen & Minna Suni (eds.),AFinLA vuosikirja 73: Kielenoppimisen virtauksia – Flows of language learning. 56 – 72.Jyväskylä: Finnish Association for Applied Lingu


    2. Well, it’s better for me to say also in Eng-lish, I can refresh my English and can keep it alive” (Laura, volunteer)

      good quote

    3. In general, the informants learnt Finnish by participating in various activi-ties and events organised in the workplace.

      eg activities that help to integration

    4. How do migrant NGO practitioners learn andmaintain languages in the workplace?”


    5. The Finnish integration policy supports migrants in learning national lan-guages, Finnish and Swedish, and in maintaining their mother tongue,regardless of their legal status


    6. “Crawlers, footers and runners”: language ideological attributions to adultlanguage learners in a Dutch as L2 classroom 37


    7. Integration ... needs language, the language of the workplace”:The contribution of work-related second language learning to the integrationof adult migrants 303Table of Contents / Sommaire XIII

      plus ou moins context

    8. Language skills and employment status of adult migrants in Europe

      plus ou moins context

    9. Research-driven task-based L2 learning for adult immigrants in times ofhumanitarian crisis: results from two nationwide projects in Greece


    10. Les besoins langagiers des adultes migrants : une notion complexe àappréhender

      ver tecnique

    11. L’intégration linguistique des migrants adultes : la mise en œuvre despolitiques publiques dans la région suisse alémanique de Zurich

      politique d'interpretation

    12. Integration trajectories of adult (im)migrants in minority and minoritizedcontexts: Ottawa and Barcelona 97

      para la técnica



    1. I want to explore the idea of education and also theidea of sports education through the cinematic representation of Coach Carter. More specifically, howdoes Coach Carter reflect the debate between sports and academics in reality? What does Coach Cartersay about the idea of education?

      sport and education



    1. Los alumnos que cuenten con una preparación plurilingüe tendránmayor facilidad de integración en la realidad actual internacionalizada, conuna visión plural de la sociedad (Kramer y Nugent, 2014). Serán así individuosy profesionales en un contexto global donde el conocimiento de una lenguaextranjera les brinda una apertura constante a los demás y un vínculo entreculturas diversas. En suma, podrán operar de manera plena comoprofesionales y fomentar la integración y cohesión en los planos profesional ypersonal.

      ver kramer

    1. But the stars shone out as brightly as if such things had never been, the blushingfruit-trees poured their fragrance on the evening air, and the scene was ascalmly sweet and quiet as if Man had never marred the glorious beauties ofEarth by deeds of cruelty and wrong

      man vs nature

    2. , that did not bear each its own sad burden of thoseunhappy ones, whose only crime is that they are not strong and wise.


    3. the buyer, who now heldall their happiness in his hands


    4. Some of them regarded the sale with perfectindifference, never making a motion, save to turn from one side to the other atthe word of the dapper Mr. Byran,


    5. Blighted homes, crushed hopes and broken hearts


      because they were being divided, not bc they were treated as slaves

    6. demeanor were quite as unexceptionable as they would have been had theybeen the highest ladies in the land, and through all the insults to which theywere subjected they conducted themselves with the most perfect decorumand self-respect.

      slaves conduct - voc

    7. where the slave liked the appearance of the proposed buyer, and fanciedthat he might prove a kind "Mas'r

      still good- voc

    8. s were examined with as little consideration as if they had beenbrutes indeed;


    9. brutes
    10. It is true they were sold "in families"; but let us see: a man and his wife werecalled a "family,"

      concept of family in slavery bussinness,

      • dinnouncing
    11. intertwined

      twisted together or closely connected so as to be difficult to separate:


    12. shambles

      a state of total disorder.

    13. two happy little communities


    14. were torn asunder,

      archaic : into parts torn asunder 2 : apart from each other