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  1. Mar 2019
    1. The anxiety perspective and academic performance is adopted from Catastrophe theory which explains about the relationship of anxiety and performance in terms of sport performance. It is important to understand the theory and the influence of anxiety upon performance. Martin in Robb (2005) proposed that cognitive anxiety would have negative correlation with performance and physiological anxiety have curvilinear relationship with performance. The cognitive anxiety is the component that most strongly affects performance

      Providing secondary evidence helps the authors construct the basis of the research subject and support the main claims.

    2. Conclusion Previous studies demonstrated that students with higher level of anxiety tend to obtain lower marks in their end-of-semester examination. Anxiety while studying is a major predictor of academic performance (McCraty, 2007 and McCraty, et al., 2000) and various studies have demonstrated that it has a detrimental effect. Engineering student has many situations which it is appropriate and reasonable to counter with some anxiety. Therefore, study anxiety should be investigated for engineering students. The result shows a significant correlation between study anxiety and academic performance. Students who have high level anxiety achieve low academic performance. These findings support previous research that high level of anxiety brings about lower academic performance (Sena et al., 2007 and Luigi et al., 2007). High anxiety also predicts that student has low ability to study. High score of STAI indicates that students who have a higher score in anxiety achieve low GPA. For further research it is suggested found large of sample size to strengthen the coefficient correlation.

      The author concludes the study with stating the findings and results of it as well as summing up the main claims of the paper.

    3. The Relationship of Study Anxiety and Academic Performance The Pearson correlation examines the relationship between study anxiety and academic performance. The result show mean and standard deviation of STAI (M=95.53; SD=12.008) and GPA (M=2.18; SD=0.250), a significant correlation (p=0.000), the correlation coefficient is small with r=-.264, and finally the sample size yield n=205.Study anxiety is negatively related to academic performance with a Person correlation coefficient was small. Nonetheless, the result proven that students who have high anxiety levels achieve low academic performance with anxiety level > 95 and academic performance < 2.50. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between high level anxiety and low academic performance among engineering students. Consistently result with previous studies found a negative correlation between high levels of anxiety and low academic performance (Soler, 2005 and McCraty, 2007). In otherwise, El-Anzi (2005) describes a positive relationship between high degrees of academic achievement and low anxiety. Small of coefficient correlation is linked with the small of sample size yield seventy participants. Others expressed the opinion that the high level of anxiety will be associated with low academic performance (Luigi et al., 2007, and Sena et al., 2007). The finding support with McCraty (2000) where anxiety plays significant role in student's learning and academic performance, moreover it was revealed that a high facilitating achievement anxiety was related to low debilitating achievement anxiety. Similar statement cites to support the finding a fair number of engineering students that there are many situations which it is appropriate and reasonable to counter with some anxiety. That they may not find jobs in the future, express these feelings with ambivalence, confusion, lack of confidence and worry (Ercan et al., 2008). Researchers generally agree that high level anxiety will construct of low academic performance. Table 4 present the finding as follows
    4. Procedure The test aimed to find the relationship of study anxiety and academic performance among engineering students. Immediately participants giving a test, testing also aims to select trainees who have been identified in high anxiety and low academic performance were to participate in this training. The participants came to the lab and fill in the questionnaire include the S-Anxiety scale (STAI Form Y-1) and T-Anxiety scale (STAI Form Y-1). The STAI has 40 items of question and took approximately 20 minutes to complete. The students first read and answered if they had problems the researcher will guide students to answer the questions. This test was based on the faculty, after two weeks who have high levels of anxiety and low academic performance were offered to participate in this study. Result of the test was used to find out correlation between anxiety and academic performance.

      The authors explain the steps and procedures of the study and gives information about the way the research experiment will be executed. This is primary evidence as it is new information formulated and analysed by the authors to generate useful outcomes.

    5. Prima Vitasari et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 8 (2010) 490–497491Anxiety while studying is a major predictor of academic performance (McCraty, 2007 and McCraty, et al., 2000) and various studies have demonstrated that it has a detrimental effect. Little is known that there exist a possible association between high level of anxiety and low academic performance among students. Researchers revealed that high levels of anxiety influence on the decrease of working memory, distraction, and reasoning in students (Aronen et al., 2005). Tobias in Ibrahim (1996) has been recognised that anxiety plays significant role in student's learning and academic performance, moreover anxiety has been known to have both facilitating and debilitating effects on academic achievement

      The authors mention secondary evidence to discuss the correlation between high anxiety levels and academic progress. This is done to establish the main claim and building blocks of the study that is to be conducted.

    6. Anxiety is a subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with arousal of the nervous system (Spielberger, 1983). The high level of anxiety causes a persons normal life being difficult such as interfered activities and social life. Anxiety is one of the wide varieties of emotional and behaviour disorders (Rachel and Chidsey, 2005). Students with anxiety disorder exhibit a passive attitude in their studies such as lack of interest in learning, poor performance in exams, and do poorly on assignments. The anxiety’s psychological symptoms among students include feeling nervous before a tutorial class, panicking, going blank during a test, feeling helpless while doing assignments, or lack interest in a difficult subject whereas the physiological symptoms include sweaty palms, cold, nervousness, panic, fast pace of breathing, racing heartbeat, or an upset stomach (Ruffins, 2007). The prevalence of anxiety among university students has been acknowledgement by students and educators. However, study anxiety is a real

      The author's explain the disorder's symptoms to give a brief overview about the topic

    1. The authors use primary sources as they formulate their own study and gain quantitative results out of it

    2. The authors start off with qualitative research as they try to understand the prevalence of social anxiety and the underlying reason that might have led to affected individuals developing it


      The author establishes credibility through the use of cited trustworthy secondary sources


      The authors explain how their research is different from previous ones as they highlight its original elements and aspect concerning the use of different measurement instruments to identify the link between social anxiety and academic achievement which other researches lacked.


      Citing a secondary source, the authors help the readers imagine the kind of atmosphere freshmen have to deal with and how it can later develop social issues with them. This prompts the readers to visualize the context of the problem and be able to understand the importance of this study.


      This statements is used to support the authors' main ideas and debate


      This is a great introduction to the topic as it establishes the subject to be discussed in a way that captivates the readers to continue reading




    1. WorkThe aim of this work is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety disorders especially GAD in school students (prep, middle and secondary students), and the correlation between adolescence and socio psychological factors that lead to anxiety disorders in adolescents. Subjects and MethodsThe study included prep, secondary and university students from Cairo and Kafr El-Sheikh governorates. The schools were chosen randomly. In Cairo, Zaki Mobark Prep school (Nasr city), Al-Seddik secondary school (Al-Salam), Ammar Ibn Yasser prep, middle and secondary school (Shubra), Sedi Salem prep middle and secondary school,. The study included 1200 student (600 from rural area, and 600 from urban area), their age ranged from 12-18 years with a mean age of 13.54 years. Only 519 from urban area and 585 from rural area completed the study. Males were 493 represented 44.7% and females were 611 represented 55.3%. Tools of the Study1- General health questionnaire (GHQ, 28 items with cut point 14)[22].2- The anxiety scale; prepared by Castello and Comrey, 19533- The structured clinical interview for those obtained 15 degree and above in GHQ or 75 degree and above on anxiety scale. 4- Psychiatric disorders evaluation questionnaire

      The detailed titles and organized headlines make it easier for the readers to identify each part of the paper and what it mainly is about

    2. The studies about anxiety disorders in children and adolescents were scarce [23].Thus, the aim of this study was the estimation of the prevalence of anxiety (especially GAD) and its risk factors in the children and adolescents.

      The authors state the necessity of this research paper and the goal they possess to inform the readers and prompt them to comprehend why reading such a study paper will prove to be of use to them.

    3. ifficulties, and impaired school adjustment.Despite high prevalence and substantial impact of GAD in older adults, a dearth of instruments adequately assesses symptom severity of the disorder, especially among older adults.

      The authors explain the consequences of the disorder if it is left untreated and unpaid attention to, which directly highlights the importance of the study reported in this paper and the vitality of the information and the aim within it

    4. To complicate diagnosis further, older adults are less likely than their younger counterparts to attribute their somatic symptoms to psychological problems, which diminish the likelihood of being asked about anxiety by their physicians. Primary care physicians recognize that most patients with GAD experience emotional distress, but only 25% to 50% receive diagnoses

      The authors explain that anxiety symptoms are not commonly or usually associated with psychological problems by adults which makes it difficult to diagnose it as said adults do not think the symptoms they have are related to a particular psychological disorder

    5. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most frequent anxiety disorders seen in primary care and is particularly prevalent among older adults in this setting [11]. GAD is a complicated diagnosis consisting of many physical symptoms and persistent worry lasting a minimum of 6 months

      There is some sort of repetition in this part as this has already been established in previous parts

    6. A number of epidemiological studies have shown that depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in the general population and in primary care [1,2]

      The authors break down the elements of the paper from the very start for readers to be able to clearly understand what they are about to read

    7. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by chronic worry, anxiety and tension and frequently occurs concomitantly with other disorders, mainly depression.Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), primarily characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worry accompanied by physical symptoms (e.g., muscle tension, irritability, sleep disturbance) [6], is one of the most common disorders among older adults, with prevalence as high as 7.3%, second only to specific phobia

      The authors define the term and explain its symptoms and nature in details before proceeding to present the study the paper is about

    1. of the learning process.We also found that social anxiety was associated indi-rectly with academic achievement through social ties. Thisfinding is in line with our hypothesis of an indirect effect,which pulls together two areas of research,

      Highlighting the indirect relationship between social ties and academic performance through stating the findings of the study/survey

    2. In summary, our findings support past research that out-lines the many benefits of friendship, including intimacy andcompanionship (Berndt1982), emotional or social support(Furman and Buhrmester1992), favorable short and longterm adjustment (Rubin et al.2010), positive self-esteem andbetter psychosocial adjustment (Buhrmester1990), as wellas its capacity to provide an overall ‘‘protective function’

      Summing up and restating the findings

    3. The participants were 1132 students that were part of acohort enrolled in a mid-sized university in southern On-tario, Canada, who were surveyed for three consecutiveyears.

      In details, the authors point out the large number of students who were tested as a sample for the study

    4. we hypothesized that sex may be a significant moderator ofthe results, given that socially anxious females, for exam-ple, often report less intimacy in their friendships thansocially anxious males, and the link between social anxietyand social functioning often is stronger for females thanmales (e.g., La Greca et al.1992). Finally, we tested forreciprocal effects over time between social anxiety andsocial ties, and academic achievement and social ties,although these analyses also were exploratory since therewas a scarcity of research investigating these reciprocalrelationships. A measure of general anxiety was controlledfor in all analyses in order to assess the unique effect ofsocial anxiety (over and above any general anxiety) onsocial ties and academic achievement (e.g., Epkins andHeckler2011). As well, depressive symptoms were in-cluded as a covariate to control for the known co-morbiditybetween social anxiety and depressive symptoms (e.g.,Starr et al.2011). We also included age, sex, and parentaleducation as covariates in the analyses given that thesevariables often are associated with academic achievement

      The authors are cohesively and thoroughly documenting their thought process and the way they attempted to tackle the core of the problem by going after each point that might prove to be of some relation to social anxiety's effect on academic progress

    5. First, given past research, we hypothesized that theremay be a negative direct relationship between socialanxiety and academic achievement over time (Duchesneet al.2008; Van Ameringen et al.2003). Second, we hy-pothesized that there may be a negative indirect relation-ship between social anxiety and academic achievementthrough social ties. We also investigated the opposing di-rection of effects (e.g., academic achievement to socialanxiety), although this analysis was exploratory given the

      The authors are narrating their hypothesis and thought process to explain what led them to their current results and outcomes

    6. Specifically, the purpose ofthis three-wave longitudinal study was to test in a largesample of university students the pattern of associationsamong social anxiety, social ties, and academic achieve-ment.

      The purpose of the study is to test a large sample of university students in contrast to previous studies where small sample sizes were used thus the results failed to meet the expected accuracy levels

    7. Although the accumulated evidenceindicates that social anxiety is more likely to have astronger effect on female as opposed to male social ties,there also is research that supports an opposing view.Tillfors et al. (2012) found that social anxiety predicteddecreases in friendship support for males, but not for fe-males. Collectively, these results indicate that sex shouldbe examined as a moderator of the relationship betweensocial anxiety and social ties

      The authors maintain a constant style of writing where they present a study/ theory and then present an opposing one right after. It seems like a good way of compiling data, but i personally find it confusing and difficult to understand on which side they are and what kind of main argument they are going for as they keep going back and forth with the studies

    8. Likewise, sex differences in the pattern ofresults have been revealed with respect to the associationbetween social anxiety and social ties. For example, so-cially anxious girls have reported less support, compan-ionship, and intimacy in their close friendships thansocially anxious boys, and both socially anxious boys andgirls displayed poorer social functioning than those whowere less socially anxious but the relationships werestronger for girls

      They provided an example to point out that girls were more likely to report symptoms of social anxiety rather than boys reporting them.

    9. Overall, the evidence from theliterature quite strongly supports a connection betweenfriendships or social ties in university/college and aca-demic outcomes, and to a much lesser extent, an opposingdirection of effects.

      This basically, again, stresses on the direct relationship between social anxiety and social ties and the positive correlation they possess

    10. In summary, data from a number of studies supportthe suggestion that there may be a direct relationship be-tween social anxiety and social ties, while much less re-search hints at an opposing direction of effects

      Social anxiety is believed to have a direct relationship with social ties and an indirect relationship with academic performance

    11. newly formed close friends mayhave difficulty overcoming their fear of being negativelyevaluated or participating in the numerous social eventsthat occur as a normal part of post-secondary educationalpursuits.

      Poor social skills weaken the self worth of an individual which in turn makes them unwilling to participate in any kind of activities whatsoever as they feel that they are not good enough and that they will not be able to handle them without cracking

    12. however, it is expected that socially anxiousstudents in university/college may be more withdrawn andhave greater difficulty forming new friendships (Biggset al.2012) than their peers at a time when engagement andinvolvement are important to successful university/collegeoutcomes

      This part is to correlate social ties with academic chances at university as the former leads to the latter one way or another

    13. Despite both concurrent and longitudinal support for alink between social anxiety and social ties, the evidenceseems to rest almost exclusively on younger adolescentpopulations, except for one study by Parade et al. (2010)that focused on female university/college students. Paradeand colleagues found that socially anxious students hadsignificantly more difficulty forming friendships than stu-dents who were not socially anxious, although the directionof effects between social anxiety and ease of formingfriendships was unclear as they were measured concur-rently.

      A theory suggests that social anxiety affected students are more likely to find it difficult to form social ties with others which relates to the struggles of social adjustment in university settings

    14. We next outline research thatprovides support for this hypothesis, albeit through sepa-rate lines of research—one line that assesses the asso-ciation between social anxiety and social ties, and anotherline that examines the link between social ties and aca-demic achievement

      Coherently, the authors prepare the readers for what is next to be explained in the following paragraphs

    15. Although Strahan (2003) did not find a direct link be-tween social anxiety and grade point average in her re-search, she speculated that the effect between socialanxiety and academic achievement might be indirect; thatis, social anxiety might impact on academic achievementthrough difficulties in the formation of new social con-nections. Indeed, Strahan found that social anxiety wassignificantly correlated with overall university/college ad-justment (e.g., social integration), and university/collegeadjustment was significantly correlated with academicpersistence and grade point average, although the indirecteffect from social anxiety to academic persistence andgrade point average through university/college adjustmentwas not formally tested in the study

      The authors discuss a hypothesis which states that the relationship between social anxiety and academic performance is actually an indirect one

    16. Given the limited research assessing the lon-gitudinal relationship between social anxiety and academicachievement specifically, a direct test of this hypothesisover time with a larger sample size of university/collegestudents is needed

      The author first presented different viewpoints about the topic then used them to support his claim by proposing that more studies are needed to verify the correlation between social anxiety and poor academic performance as the previous studies were insufficient and lacking in sample sizes and accuracy

    17. Strahan (2003) found that social anxiety was not asignificant predictor of college persistence or grade pointaverage over time

      presenting different perspectives and opinions regarding the issue to tell the readers that he is aware of different claims

    18. inversely associated with academic achievement in uni-versity/college. In a study of 253 university/college stu-dents,

      two secondary sources/ studies which will be the basis of further discussion related to social anxiety's effect on academic performance

    19. Social Anxiety and Academic AchievementTo the best of our knowledge, only two research groupshave tested the hypothesis that social anxiety is directly and

      The author gets to the main point of the article and establishes the main concept by citing two sources that will later be explained in further details

    20. Overall, these theoretical perspectives on the impor-tance of engagement, psychosocial development, and self-presentation in the university/college context suggest thatsocial anxiety may interfere with achieving academic suc-cess, perhaps through difficulties in establishing social ties

      concluding paragraph to sum up the information presented in the text

    21. chlenker and Leary hypothesizedthat individuals likely become socially anxious when theywish to make a good impression on others but anticipate thatthey will be unsuccessful. Leary (2010) further proposed thatsocially anxious individuals perceive most relationships tobe unbalanced by default, through a predisposing fear thatothers will not value the relationship as highly as they do.The consequence of this ‘‘relationship devaluation’’ is aninability for socially anxious individuals to obtain their ownparticular interpersonal objectives through their relation-ships with others

      The author once again uses a secondary source to support his claim and provide credibility to his opinion.

    22. As a consequence, feelings of socialdistress and avoidance in the university/college contextmight prevent socially anxious individuals from takingadvantage of the learning opportunities that are designed tobolster academic success in school

      Restating the main idea

    23. From this perspective, indi-viduals who are socially anxious might perceive the uni-versity/college social environment as somewhatthreatening, which, in turn, would restrict their openness tochange

      The author used a secondary source to propose a different viewpoint about the matter and why socially anxious individuals might be perceiving socially demanding situations as some sort of a threat

    24. Thus, fromthis viewpoint, socially anxious or withdrawn individualsmight be at a disadvantage academically if they tend to avoidthe social and academic communities of an institution

      The author builds a conclusion and reinforces the main claim based on previous citations and the last example

    25. How-ever, thoughts of engaging or interacting with others mightfoster the social fears that are central to social anxiety, hin-dering any attempt to participate in the classroom, join inconversations, or ask for help in order to successfully ma-neuver through the university/college system

      The author proceeds to directly state the consequences that arise from students' social anxiety which inhibits itself in the form of fear of interaction and avoidance of any sort of participation even when it is vital to the student's understanding

    26. For example, the collegeimpact theories of Tinto’s Theory of Student Departure(2006) or Astin’s Theory of Involvement (1999) suggest thatengagement and integration in the social systems of uni-versity/college life (i.e., experiencing rewarding encounterswithin the university/college community that lead to thesharing of normative values and attitudes with both peers andfaculty) are critical predictors of successful academicachievement (also see Chickering and Reisser1993)

      The author is giving an example to support his claim that indeed social ties develop the student's character and self-presentation and worth which can show how those who lack social skills and suffer anxiety can suffer as a result of the absence of basic social survival instincts.

    27. It is important to note that in this paper werefer to social anxiety symptoms found within the generalpopulation and not to clinically diagnosed Social AnxietyDisorder (also known as Social Phobia) diagnosed inclinical populations

      The author is being specific about the terms used and is pointing them out to help the readers fundamentally understand his mindset before diving into the core of the subject

    28. The goal of the present study was to test whether socialanxiety is directly associated with academic achievementover time among university/college students, and second,to investigate a proposed indirect mechanism throughwhich social anxiety might be linked to lower academicachievement—that is, through the restricted formation ofnew social ties in university/college

      The author directly states the reason and aim of this study to let readers on the reason why his insight on this issue matters and why they should continue reading which is an effective way of demonstrating the goal of the research paper. Also, it is stated early in the introductory paragraph which makes figuring out what the study is about an easy task.

    29. In fact,Russell and Topham (2012) propose that social anxietymay have a negative impact on university/college students’academic achievement

      The author cites a secondary source to present his claim through a similar opinion

    30. Given that engagement and integration(i.e., involvement in the various social and academic ac-tivities of university/college life) are considered key tosuccessful academic achievement (see Tinto2006), theidentifying features of social anxiety, including fear ofnegative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new orall social situations (Ginsburg et al.1998), may be espe-cially disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts

      The author provides context for the problem to be clearly understood by the readers and those who do not have any sort of background information concerning the topic

    31. Depending on the threshold of diagnosis,prevalence rates of social anxiety in university/collegestudents range from 10 to 33 % as compared to 7–13 % inthe general population

      The author uses secondary sources to back up his claims with evidence and support his argument

    32. achievement over the university/college years. A fear ofnegative evaluation alongside a greater tendency of feelingdistressed and avoiding social situations seemed to inter-fere with academic achievement.

      The author sums up the main point and ideas to wrap up the article in the last paragraph

    33. The findings of this study impact two traditional areas ofresearch: social anxiety and academic achievement. Wefound that social anxiety had a direct effect on academic

      The author sums up the main point and ideas to wrap up the article in the last paragraph

    34. f

  2. Local file Local file
    1. Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioural components.

      Anxiety's definition


    1. Harris Shah Abd Hamid and Muhamad Karimi Sulaiman (2014) stated that the students from Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Malaysia who took a statistics course seemed to have a high level of statistical anxiety which due to a student’s negative self-perception in solving mathematical issues. According to the data found by the researchers, another predictor that contributes to the highest statistics anxietywas aroused by the teacher or course instructor. So, in this issue, the instructors may focus on verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviorsto reduce students’ anxiety (Williams, 2010 as cited by Harris Shah Abd Hamid & Muhamad Karimi Sulaiman, 2014)

      The author effectively used a secondary source to propose an explanation and a theory for the reason students may suffer from anxiety symptoms. The source provides a credible basis on which the author was able to build a claim upon.

    2. In short, students who are facing this problem might not be able to secure a career in the future due to confusion, lack of confidence and continuous worries, and unable to express their feelings with ambivalence

      good concluding sentence to sum up the paragraph

    3. It is rather unclear what the purpose of the paper is as the author continues to discuss or mention other sources' viewpoints about the problem and not his own. There is basically no argument whatsoever in the article.

    4. Looking at the side effect of anxiety on poor academic performance, people might wonder factors behind this problematic mood disorder.

      I find the term "mood disorder" confusing because it was not introduced beforehand and it is unclear if the author is just using it as some kind of synonym to anxiety

    5. Lama M. Al-Qaisy (2011) conducted research on identifying the impact of mood disorder particularly depression and anxiety among a sample of students of Tafila Technical University, Jordan for their academic performance. He claimed that whenever students have medium level of concern, in which not to the extent of disturbing one’s own mood experiences, they will achieve higher in academic performances

      The author used a secondary source as evidence and to make a point that mood has an effect on the performance as well, explaining that students who were less anxious or concerned seemed to score higher grades

    6. mood disorde

      mood disorder is only being mentioned now without any kind of definition beforehand which may disrupt the viewers' reading and make them assume that anxiety disorder and mood disorder are one and the same, so it is better to briefly define the term before talking about any aspects of it so that the sentence and evidence used could be more effective

    7. The literature has revealed that anxiety was one of the predictors which contribute to several results of academic performance specifically to students at high school and university level. Therefore, in order to achieve better academic performance, students must be able to control and present themselves in a moderate and appropriate level of anxiet

      main claim again is discussed along with the way the author thinks the affected students should deal with the disorder

    8. which can lead to poor academic performance

      The author used the definition to draw connection and reach the conclusion that academic performance is affected by anxiety, using the source to support the claim

    9. Spielberger (1983) and Vitasari (2011) referred anxiety to “a subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with arousal of the nervous system”.

      The author uses the mentioned secondary sources as a basis to establish a connection between the provided definition of anxiety and the concept that it has negative effects on the lives of students

    10. anxiety can affect academic performance among students as we

      clear thesis statement

    11. n short, anxiety disorderis one of the most crucial mental illnesses with a persistent worries and constant fears throughout an individual life

      This sentence along with a few others contains many grammar mistakes which makes smooth reading a difficult task and comprehending the text as well

    12. In addition, people as well as students with anxiety disorders have a change in the structure of the brain that controls memory associated with strong emotions

      No citation that indicates the source of this piece of information