272 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. By contrast, Lst1 acted exclusively in ER-phagy

      A conclusion summarized by the authors based on experiments that have been done to distinguish the bulk autophagy and selective autophagy that happened in various organelles, and only ER-phagy is required by Lst1 coat protein.

      To draw a conclusion which exclusively functional in one particular experiment, the designs of various experiments are needed in order to rule out other possibilities.

    2. How sites on the ER are targeted for ER-phagy is unclear. We reasoned that the cytosolic machinery that recognizes and binds to ER-phagy receptors may play a role in marking specific sites on the ER where autophagy will occur. Because COPII coat subunits are known to participate in membrane-budding events at the ER (1), we investigated whether coat subunits play a role in sequestering ER domains into autophagosomes during ER-phagy.

      Key question raised by the authors, how the dispersed site throughout the ER are recognized by the selective autophagy receptors to deliver the cargo for degradation.

      The authors hypothesized that, COP11 coat proteins which involved in membrane-budding at the ER, could involve in ER-phagy.

    1. Donations

      To add some other intermediary services:

      To add a service for groups:

      To add a service that enables fans to support the creators directly and anonymously via microdonations or small donations by pre-charging their Coil account to spend on content streaming or tipping the creators' wallets via a layer containing JS script following the Interledger Protocol proposed to W3C:

      If you want to know more, head to Web Monetization or Community or Explainer

      Disclaimer: I am a recipient of a grant from the Interledger Foundation, so there would be a Conflict of Interest if I edited directly. Plus, sharing on Hypothesis allows other users to chime in.

  2. Nov 2022
  3. tantek.com tantek.com
    #TwitterMigration, first time? Have posted notes to https://tantek.com/ since 2010, POSSEd tweets & #AtomFeed. Added one .htaccess line today, and thanks to #BridgyFed, #Mastodon users can follow my #IndieWeb site @tantek.com@tantek.com No Mastodon install or account needed. Just one line in .htaccess: RewriteRule ^.well-known/(host-meta|webfinger).* https://fed.brid.gy/$0 [redirect=302,last] is enough for Mastodon users to search for and follow that @tantek.com@tantek.com username. Took a little more work to setup Bridgy Fed to push new posts to followers. Note by the way both the redundancy & awkwardness (it’s not a clickable URL) of such @-@ (AT-AT) usernames when you’re already using your own domain. Why can’t Mastodon follow a username of “@tantek.com”? Or just “tantek.com”? And either way expanding it internally if need be to the AT-AT syntax. Why this regression from what we had with classic feed readers where a domain was enough to discover & follow a feed? Also, why does following show a blank result? Contrast that with classic feed readers which immediately show you the most recent items in a feed you subscribed to. Lastly (for now), I asked around and no one knew of a simple public way to “preview” or “validate” that @tantek.com@tantek.com actually “worked”. You have to be *logged-in* to a Mastodon instance and search for a username to check to see if it works. Contrast that with https://validator.w3.org/feed/ which you can use without any log-in to validate your classic feed file. Why these regressions from the days of feed readers? - Tantek
    1. https://forum.obsidian.md/t/alternative-checkboxes-icon-bullets-copy-and-paste/35962

      A list of alternative checkboxes or icon bullets for Obsidian (and potentially other platforms). Potentially useful for search and filtering as well.

      • [ ] to-do
      • [/] incomplete
      • [x] done
      • [-] canceled
      • [>] forwarded
      • [<] scheduling
      • [?] question
      • [!] important
      • [*] star
      • ["] quote
      • [l] location
      • [b] bookmark
      • [i] information
      • [S] savings
      • [I] idea
      • [p] pros
      • [c] cons
      • [f] fire
      • [k] key
      • [w] win
      • [u] up
      • [d] down
    1. https://dainty-sable-264aa3.netlify.app/project/measuring_thinking_tools.html

      Openness should be broken out into smaller subsections to highlight the importance of supporting standards as a primary item by itself. Many of these axes are easier, low-hanging fruit that developers will iterate on anyway. Focusing on the harder and more subtle features like standards is a better way to go for the audience that can really use this now.

      Many of these axes are better for a commercial market.

    1. How Shipping Containers Took Over the World (then broke it) by Calum on YouTube

      Oct 5, 2022

      The humble shipping container changed our society - it made International shipping cheaper, economies larger and the world much, much smaller. But what did the shipping container replace, how did it take over shipping and where has our dependance on these simple metal boxes led us?

  4. Oct 2022
    1. standards are documentation, not legislation. We have been working in the w3c Social Web Working Group to clarify and document newer, simpler protocols, but rough consensus and running code does define the worlds we see

      Marks says standards should be descriptive (doc) of actual things used/happening, not prescriptive (legislation). Usable distinction. Interesting to me is that the EU data strategy does both, legislation that has a mechanism to point to documentation and declare it a rule or instigate the creation of such documentation.

    1. For the second time Goutor mentions using different size cards for different note types, but doesn't specifically advise for it or provide a reason. Perhaps his advice for consistency and card size applies only to cards of particular types? (p28)

      link to: https://hypothes.is/a/XPphjkNZEe2s3i9VV4qt1g

      Incidentally he also specifically mentions 7x9" cards here too. How frequently used were these as a standard?

    2. While he previously recommended using note cards of the same size, the examples in Goutor (1980) have 3x5" cards for bibliographic notes and 5x7" or larger cards for content notes. (p19, 21)

      Is there a reason stated anywhere here for this discrepancy or change? One would ostensibly keep them in different places/sections of one's card index, but does the size difference help to differentiate the two to aid in sorting? Is the larger card intended to hold more long form writing?

      Goutor is in Canada, so were 5x7" cards more common or standardized there in the late 1970s and early 80s?

      A5 measures 148 × 210 millimeters or 5.83 × 8.27 inches, so is a bit larger than 5x7".

      5x7" is a more standard photo size, so was this chosen as the result of storage options from the photography space?

      5x7" is scantly available in America in 2022, but only from Hamilco. A few others make cardstock in that size but not specifically as index cards.

    1. “I always thought that was sort of black magic,” Vint Cerf, a pioneer of Internet infrastructure, told me.

      Vint Cerf on NTP

      If Vint Cerf thinks it is black magic, you know it is going to be deeply complex code. The rest of the article bears this out.

  5. Sep 2022
    1. Posted byu/jackbaty4 hours agoCard sizes .t3_xib133._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; } I've been on-again/off-again with paper for PKM, but one thing remains consistent each time: I don't enjoy using 4x6 index cards. I much prefer 3x5-inch cards. I realize that it's irrational, but there it is.My question is if I dive into building an antinet, will I regret using 3x5 cards? I already have hundreds of them. I have dividers, holders, and storage boxes for them. I just prefer how they _feel_, as weird as that sounds.I'd like to hear if people are using 3x5 cards successfully or if you've come to regret it.

      While it may be slightly more difficult to find larger metal/wood cases for the 4x6 or 5x8 cards, it's a minor nuisance and anyone who wants them will eventually find the right thing for them. Beyond this, choose the card size that feels right to you.

      If you don't have an idea of what you need or like, try things out for 10-20 cards and see how it works for you, your handwriting size, and general needs. People have been using 3x5, 4x6, and even larger for hundreds of years without complaining about any major issues. If Carl Linnaeus managed to be okay with 3x5, which he hand cut by the way, I suspect you'll manage too.

      Of course I won't mention to the Americans the cleverness of the A6, A5, A4 paper standards which allows you to fold the larger sizes in half to get the exact next smaller size down. Then you might get the benefit of the smaller size as well as the larger which could be folded into your collection of smaller cards, you just have to watch out for accidentally wrapping ("taco-ing") a smaller card inside of a larger one and losing it. I suppose you could hand cut your own 5" x 6" larger cards to do this if you found that you occasionally needed them.

      For the pocketbook conscious, 3x5 does have the benefit of lower cost as well as many more options and flexibility than larger sizes.

      At least commercial card sizes are now largely standardized, so you don't have deal with changing sizes the way Roland Barthes did over his lifetime.

      My personal experience and a long history of so many manuals on the topic saying "cards of the same size" indicates that you assuredly won't have fun mixing different sized slips together. I personally use 3x5" cards in a waste book sense, but my main/permanent collection is in 4x6" format. Sometimes I think I should have done 3 x 5, but it's more like jealousy than regret, particularly when it comes to the potential of a restored fine furniture card catalog. But then again...

  6. Aug 2022
    1. While the admin-istrative scientist Luhmann ignores the librarian’s dictum in his consideration of theproper paper for the project out of spatial concerns, DIN 1504, which, apart from theInternational Library Format, only allows DIN A 6 and DIN A 7 for “literature cards,”18regrettably goes unused.

      Despite his career as an administrative scientist, Luhmann eschewed the International Library Format which allows for DIN A6 and DIN A7 for "literature cards."

      Cross reference:

      1. See Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN), Publikation und Dokumentation 2. Erschließung von Dokumenten, Informationsverarbeitung, Reprographie, Bibliotheksverwaltung, Normen, vol. 154 of DIN-Taschenbuch , 2nd ed. (Berlin, Kö ln: Beuth, 1984), 64f.

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/hKgd_t1jEeyxoxOujPZNkg

    1. Depending on the scope of the notes that need to be taken, one uses either the A6format, or the next bigger one, which is A5 (21 x 14.8 cm), or the double sized A4 (29.6 x 21cm). After filling them with words, sheets of A5 size will be folded once, A4 size twice, sothat they return to our basic A6 size.

      This is the first time I've seen in the literature the suggestion to write notes on larger sheets and then fold them up. This is largely only recommended here because of the standardization of the paper sizes in such a way that folding an A4 makes an A5 and folding an A5 gives an A6 and so on...

    2. alphabetical rules as presented by the Reich’s Committee on Economy
    3. the date “2nd of August 1932” turns into 1932-08-02 according to the“Classification bibliographique” IV (Tableau auxiliaire: Temps. Brüssel 1904).
    4. For use on the desk, papersheets are the right choice.

      paper over card in terms of sheet thickness, particularly over time

    1. shall I adopt the 3x5 slip or the 4x61

      Dow indicates in 1924 that 3 x 5" and 4 x 6" are both commonly had in a range of materials the US as well as boxes or cases to keep them in. He does mention that one can also cut their own paper, indicating that this is a possibility.

    1. Mechanical form.Use standard size (8t/,xll in.) type-writer pa er or the essay paper in standard use a t the in-stitution. %or typing, use an unruled bond paper of goodquality, such as “Paragon Linen” or “Old Hampshire Mills.”At the left of the page leave a margin of 1% to l’/e inches;and a t the top, bottom, and right of the page, a margin of1 inch. Write only on one side of the paper. In ty in thelines should be double-spaced. Each chapter shouyd feginon a new page. Theses for honors and degrees must be typed;other essays may be typed or legibly written in ink. Whetherthe essay is typed or written, the use of black ink is prefer-able. The original typewritten copy must be presented. Incase two copies of a thesis are required, the second copymust be the first carbon and must be on the same quality ofpaper as the original.

      Definitely a paragraph aimed at the student in the manner of a syllabus, but also an interesting tidbit on the potential evolution of writing forms over time.

      How does language over time change with respect to the types and styles of writing forms, particularly when they're prescribed or generally standardized over time? How do these same standards evolve over time and change things at the level of the larger pictures?

  7. Jul 2022
    1. Because I wanted to make use of a unified version of the overall universe of knowledge as a structural framework, I ended up using the Outline of Knowledge (OoK) in the Propædia volume that was part of Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition, first published 1974, the final version of which (2010) is archived at -- where else? -- the Internet Archive.

      The Outline of Knowledge appears in the Propædia volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica. It is similar to various olther classification systems like the Dewey Decimal system or the Universal Decimal Classification.

    1. https://udcsummary.info/php/index.php?lang=en

      Interesting defined vocabulary and concatenation/auxiliary signs for putting ideas into proximity.

      Could be useful for note taking. Probably much harder to get people to adopt this sort of thing with shared notes/note taking however.

      Somewhat similar to the Dewey Decimal classification system.

    1. https://www.zylstra.org/blog/2022/06/spring-83/

      I've been thinking about this sort of thing off and on myself.

      I too almost immediately thought of Fraidyc.at and its nudge at shifting the importance of content based on time and recency. I'd love to have a social reader with additional affordances for both this time shifting and Ton's idea of reading based on social distance.

      I'm struck by the seemingly related idea of @peterhagen's LindyLearn platform and annotations: https://annotations.lindylearn.io/new/ which focuses on taking some of the longer term interesting ideas as the basis for browsing and chewing on. Though even here, one needs some of the odd, the cutting edge, and the avant garde in their balanced internet diet. Would Spring '83 provide some of this?

      I'm also struck by some similarities this has with the idea of Derek Siver's /now page movement. I see some updating regularly while others have let it slip by the wayside. Still the "board" of users exists, though one must click through a sea of mostly smiling and welcoming faces to get to it the individual pieces of content. (The smiling faces are more inviting and personal than the cacophony of yelling and chaos I see in models for Spring '83.) This reminds me of Stanley Meyers' frequent assertion that he attempted to design a certain "sense of quiet" into the early television show Dragnet to balance the seeming loudness of the everyday as well as the noise of other contemporaneous television programming.

      The form reminds me a bit of the signature pages of one's high school year book. But here, instead of the goal being timeless scribbles, one has the opportunity to change the message over time. Does the potential commercialization of the form (you know it will happen in a VC world crazed with surveillance capitalism) follow the same trajectory of the old college paper facebook? Next up, Yearbook.com!

      Beyond the thing as a standard, I wondered what the actual form of Spring '83 adds to a broader conversation? What does it add to the diversity of voices that we don't already see in other spaces. How might it be abused? Would people come back to it regularly? What might be its emergent properties?

      It definitely seems quirky and fun in and old school web sort of way, but it also stresses me out looking at the zany busyness of some of the examples of magazine stands. The general form reminds me of the bargain bins at book stores which have the promise of finding valuable hidden gems and at an excellent price, but often the ideas and quality of what I find usually isn't worth the discounted price and the return on investment is rarely worth the effort. How might this get beyond these forms?

      It also brings up the idea of what other online forms we may have had with this same sort of raw experimentation? How might the internet have looked if there had been a bigger rise of the wiki before that of the blog? What would the world be like if Webmention had existed before social media rose to prominence? Did we somehow miss some interesting digital animals because the web rose so quickly to prominence without more early experimentation before its "Cambrian explosion"?

      I've been thinking about distilled note taking forms recently and what a network of atomic ideas on index cards look like and what emerges from them. What if the standard were digital index cards that linked and cross linked to each other, particularly in a world without adherence to time based orders and streams? What does a new story look like if I can pull out a card either at random or based on a single topic and only see it or perhaps some short linked chain of ideas (mine or others) which come along with it? Does the choice of a random "Markov monkey" change my thinking or perspective? What comes out of this jar of Pandora? Is it just a new form of cadavre exquis?

      This standard has been out for a bit and presumably folks are experimenting with it. What do the early results look like? How are they using it? Do they like it? Does it need more scale? What do small changes make to the overall form?

      For more on these related ideas, see: https://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3A%22spring+%2783%22

  8. Jun 2022
    1. Is it just me or is there something quirky with the rel="canonical" links for docdrop so that there isn't URL parity for the annotations on docdrop and the equivalent youtube videos. I thought it used to work, but when I visit the youtube version, there are no annotations on the page. I thought this used to work the way one would expect. What changed?

      I'm noticing that in this particular case there are two rel-canonical links when one might expect only one:

      <link rel="canonical" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgMh6iuFbT4"><br /> <link rel="canonical" href="http://docdrop.org/video/XgMh6iuFbT4/">

      Maybe the docdrop link should be a rel="alternate" instead?

      cc: @dwhly

    1. https://briansunter.com/graph/#/page/logseq-social

      Brian Sunter (twitter) using Logseq as a social network platform.

      What simple standards exist here? Could this more broadly and potentially be used to connect personal wikis, digital gardens, zettelkasten, etc?

      Note that in this thread Dave Winer asks about how it can be tied into other standardized pieces to interconnect?

      How can I hook my outlines into your net if I’m not running Logseq?

      — dave.rss (@davewiner) June 13, 2022
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
  9. May 2022
    1. Despite the librarian card-theoreticalrecommendation of only using cardboard or strong paper as a bearer of information,17Luhmann relies on plain typewriter paper for spatial economy, which can quickly lead,however, to the deterioration of the medium with frequent browsing.

      For Luhmann's time, the librarian recommendation for substrate was either cardboard or strong paper as the carrier for information, but he eschewed this recommendation in favor of plain typewriter paper because it took up less space. This came at the cost of deterioration of many of his cards through regular use however.

    1. Text file You can provide a simple text file that contains one URL per line. The text file must follow these guidelines: The text file must have one URL per line. The URLs cannot contain embedded new lines. You must fully specify URLs, including the http. Each text file can contain a maximum of 50,000 URLs and must be no larger than 50MB (52,428,800 bytes). If you site includes more than 50,000 URLs, you can separate the list into multiple text files and add each one separately. The text file must use UTF-8 encoding. You can specify this when you save the file (for instance, in Notepad, this is listed in the Encoding menu of the Save As dialog box). The text file should contain no information other than the list of URLs. The text file should contain no header or footer information. If you would like, you may compress your Sitemap text file using gzip to reduce your bandwidth requirement. You can name the text file anything you wish. Please check to make sure that your URLs follow the RFC-3986 standard for URIs, the RFC-3987 standard for IRIs You should upload the text file to the highest-level directory you want search engines to crawl and make sure that you don't list URLs in the text file that are located in a higher-level directory. Sample text file entries are shown below. http://www.example.com/catalog?item=1 http://www.example.com/catalog?item=11

      There's been a plaintext sitemap standard this whole time??? Lmao I'm an idiot.

  10. Mar 2022
    1. The current situation is deteriorating as the proliferation of formats reduces the capacity of users to share their work.

      Already in 1998, Ben Shneiderman has presaged and highlights the point of the classic XKCD comic #927 on standards.

  11. Feb 2022
    1. In preparing these instructions, Gaspard-Michel LeBlond, one of their authors, urges the use of uniform media for registering titles, suggesting that “ catalog materials are not diffi cult to assemble; it is suffi cient to use playing cards [. . .] Whether one writes lengthwise or across the backs of cards, one should pick one way and stick with it to preserve uniformity. ” 110 Presumably LeBlond was familiar with the work of Abb é Rozier fi fteen years earlier; it is unknown whether precisely cut cards had been used before Rozier. The activity of cutting up pages is often mentioned in prior descrip-tions.

      In published instructions issued on May 8, 1791 in France, Gaspard-Michel LeBlond by way of standardization for library catalogs suggests using playing cards either vertically or horizontally but admonishing catalogers to pick one orientation and stick with it. He was likely familiar with the use of playing cards for this purpose by Abbé Rozier fifteen years earlier.

    2. It seems to be the fate of libraries that a particular order always coincides with a director ’ s term of service. As soon as a new director, prefect, or manager takes over, one of the fi rst acts tends to be rejection of the present order in favor of establishing a new, often completely different one, mostly legiti-mized by the allegedly encountered chaos that almost forces reorganiza-tion.

      This reorganization of library books and location systems with the change of library directors in the late 1700s sounds similar to the sorts of standards problems today.


  12. Jan 2022
    1. Depuis longtemps, je suis d’avis que la rigueur d’un cours ne se mesure pas à la quantité de connaissances dont l’enseignant fait étalage, mais aux apprentissages que les étudiants font.

      Which can lead to an assessment of pedagogical efficacy. It's funny, to me, that those who complain about "grade inflation" (typically admins) rarely entertain the notion that grades could be higher than usual if the course went well. The situation is quite different in "L&D" (Learning and Development, typically for training and professional development in an organizational context). "Oh, great! We were able to get everyone to reach the standard for this competency! Must mean that we've done something right in our Instructional Design!"

    2. baisser les attentes
    1. it’s insecure unless the credentials are served over an encrypted HTTPS connection

      The same is true for login systems that use cookies, but no one cites that as a downside. There's an asymmetric standard being applied to HTTP native authentication.

    1. standards and formulate relevant assessments as a sort of quality control for instruction

      That is one way to look at it, but it's a teacher centered approach. How do standards help students? If they do not help students, then they are useless and should be abandonned.

    2. have familiarity with the properties of various types of equipment

      Standard for review

    3. how to move safely in dynamic situations

      Standard for review

  13. Dec 2021
    1. Post-test histology demonstrated photoperiod-dependent reduction and induction of TH-IR neurons

      Histology staining of three dopamine-synthesizing sources in the hypothalamus support the findings in Figure 5E. The amount of TH cells (dopamine-synthesizing cells) in these regions decreases with 6-OHDA and can be partially rescued with short-day photoperiod exposure.

    2. The behavioral results of focal ablation of TH-IR neurons were partially reversed by exposure to the short-day photoperiod, demonstrating behavioral rescue

      Even with 6'OHDA treatment, exposing the animals to short-day photoperiod resulted in some behavioral rescue, reflected by the animals spending more time spent in the open arm in the EPM test and less time spent immobilized in the forced swim test. The difference in behavior is significant comparing results of the short- vs long-day photoperiod exposure. One additional comparison that could be insightful are the results of 6'OHDA on 12L:12D photoperiod exposure; these can be found in Figure 5 B, and do not appear to be significantly different from the long-photoperiod exposure results. Thus, a follow up idea for the researchers is to consider when the effect of increasing the duration of light-exposure in a day begins to saturate.

    3. then exposed animals to the long-day photoperiod, so as to further reduce their number

      Here, dopamine synthesis is being stopped by two things: the neurotoxic agent 6-OHDA and long-day light exposure, a stressor for nocturnal animals. Both treatments should reduce the presence of dopamine-making neurons.

  14. Nov 2021
    1. just because ESG is about virtue signalling and risk management, does not mean it is meaningless. On the contrary, the very fact that company executives feel the need to “signal” ESG virtues shows how the interplay of digital transparency and shifting social norms is creating a feedback loop that cannot be ignored. If that encourages companies to change strategy, say by cutting carbon emissions, it is good. If it puts pressure on governments to make crucial reforms, like introducing a carbon price, it is even better, particularly if companies are shamed into demanding such policy actions.

      Also, aren't ESG standards and goals are supposed to ratchet up as time goes on?

  15. Oct 2021
  16. Sep 2021
    1. counts of TH-IR neurons in A13 after 6-OHDA treatment were not affected, demonstrating that dopaminergic nuclei located as close as 200 μm were spared by focal toxin delivery

      These findings validate the specificity of 6-OHDA's delivery. In the dopaminergic cell group A13 just 200 μm away from the treatment site, the effects of 6-OHDA are not observed.

    2. Are presynaptic changes in transmitter identity matched by changes in postsynaptic receptor populations

      Following action potential firing, transmitters will be sent from the presynaptic, or sending, neuron to the postsynaptic, or receiving, neuron; the received transmitter will thereby alter the likelihood of that postsynaptic neuron firing its own action potential. The experimenters had observed that at certain clusters of neurons in the CNS, short photoperiod exposure increased production of the transmitter dopamine, and long photoperiod exposure led to an increased production of somatostatin. Consequently, the experimenters are questioning whether expression of those cognate postsynaptic receptors, i.e., dopamine receptors or somatostatin receptors, follow suit.

    3. Long-day exposure produced the opposite effects

      For rats, nocturnal mammals, increased photoperiod exposure is a stressor. Consequently, in both the EPM and FST, rats exhibit more depressive/anxious behaviors following long photoperiod exposure. In the EPM test, these rats spend less time in the open arm, and in the FST, they give up swimming and become almost immobile much sooner than the control group. For the short-day exposure group, the rats have more open arm activity, and in the FST persevere for longer, indicating reduced anxiety relative to the control group.

    4. if receptor activation is more substantial than the level of presynaptic SST.

      When expression of a receptor is greater than that of its transmitter, the likelihood of those transmitters binding to the receptor will be high. Thus, if levels of SST2/4R are high compared to the presynaptic SST, then presynaptic SST will likely be able to bind to the cognate receptor, and induce its inhibitory effects.

    5. The number of TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons decreased with long-day exposure and increased with short-day exposure in relation to control

      A decreased amount of TH-IR neurons means that less dopamine is being produced; this was observed when the rats were given long-day exposure (19 hours of light, 5 hours of darkness). Short-day exposure (5 hours of light, 19 hours of darkness) resulted in the number of TH-IR neurons increasing, a sign of greater dopamine production. These results were all relative to the control group, rats that experienced a balanced-day with 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.

    6. Genetic programs establish initial expression patterns of neurotransmitters in different classes of neurons (1–3), and activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification modifies them during development, either adding or switching transmitters (4–9). It is unknown, however, whether sensory stimuli promote transmitter switching in addition to other neuroplastic changes (10) in the adult brain.

      It is known that the young developing brain is able to add or switch the transmitters that their neurons express. The question guiding this research is whether sensory stimuli can cause the already mature (adult) brain to experience changes in the types of transmitters that are produced by their neurons.

  17. Aug 2021
    1. This seamless integration works with any LMS (Open edX, Moodle, ...) thanks to the LTI standard for interoperability.
    1. I'm wondering exactly what problem that LOUD standard is meant to be solving exactly? It doesn't appear that any of the meta data they're listing is over and above anything that's already extant?

      If you're going to propose a new set up, why not add some bits to fix the newer problems that have popped up like for paying creators? Being able to inject ads? Better track the number of listens? How far into the file did the listener get? How many ads did they hear?

      And let's not forget:

  18. Jul 2021
  19. datatracker.ietf.org datatracker.ietf.org
    1. It is similarly intended to fail to establish a connection when data from other protocols, especially HTTP, is sent to a WebSocket server, for example, as might happen if an HTML "form" were submitted to a WebSocket server. This is primarily achieved by requiring that the server prove that it read the handshake, which it can only do if the handshake contains the appropriate parts, which can only be sent by a WebSocket client. In particular, at the time of writing of this specification, fields starting with |Sec-| cannot be set by an attacker from a web browser using only HTML and JavaScript APIs such as XMLHttpRequest [XMLHttpRequest].
    2. The WebSocket Protocol is designed on the principle that there should be minimal framing (the only framing that exists is to make the protocol frame-based instead of stream-based and to support a distinction between Unicode text and binary frames). It is expected that metadata would be layered on top of WebSocket by the application Fette & Melnikov Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 6455 The WebSocket Protocol December 2011 layer, in the same way that metadata is layered on top of TCP by the application layer (e.g., HTTP). Conceptually, WebSocket is really just a layer on top of TCP that does the following: o adds a web origin-based security model for browsers o adds an addressing and protocol naming mechanism to support multiple services on one port and multiple host names on one IP address o layers a framing mechanism on top of TCP to get back to the IP packet mechanism that TCP is built on, but without length limits o includes an additional closing handshake in-band that is designed to work in the presence of proxies and other intermediaries Other than that, WebSocket adds nothing. Basically it is intended to be as close to just exposing raw TCP to script as possible given the constraints of the Web. It's also designed in such a way that its servers can share a port with HTTP servers, by having its handshake be a valid HTTP Upgrade request. One could conceptually use other protocols to establish client-server messaging, but the intent of WebSockets is to provide a relatively simple protocol that can coexist with HTTP and deployed HTTP infrastructure (such as proxies) and that is as close to TCP as is safe for use with such infrastructure given security considerations, with targeted additions to simplify usage and keep simple things simple (such as the addition of message semantics).
  20. Jun 2021
  21. stoa.anagora.org stoa.anagora.org
    1. Some conventions may be emerging in a new batch of personal knowledge management tools, or amenable to them; for the duration of this document, we'll refer to these tools as [[personal knowledge management]] tools, [[roam like]] or (preferred as of the time of writing) [[wiki like]].

      It would be incredibly useful to have a list of these [[Roam Research like]] tools so that they can be documented as to what level of input they can/could take and remain compatible from text, to text+[[wiki links]], to the various flavors of markdown up to full HTML perhaps.

      I know a handful are documented at indieweb.org/commonplace_book

  22. May 2021
    1. Whether or not digital gardens should follow any standards is an interesting question.

      What features/functionality should a digital garden have? Is there a canonical list yet?

      I wish more supported Webmention to enable the Memex dream...

    1. why do we have an <img> element? Why not an <icon> element? Or an <include> element? Why not a hyperlink with an include attribute, or some combination of rel values? Why an <img> element? Quite simply, because Marc Andreessen shipped one, and shipping code wins.That’s not to say that all shipping code wins; after all, Andrew and Intermedia and HyTime shipped code too. Code is necessary but not sufficient for success. And I certainly don’t mean to say that shipping code before a standard will produce the best solution.

      Shipping code is necessary, but not sufficient for success.

    1. He proposed the standardized paper size system used globally today except in Canada and the US defined by ISO 216, which has A4 as the most commonly used size.

      This is an interesting bit of trivia.

  23. Apr 2021
  24. Mar 2021
    1. In terms of defining the “open” in open web annotation, I tend to take a standards approach: the Hypothes.is tool is built upon, and our organization advocates for, open standards in web annotation.

      This explanation also highlights an additional idea of open itself. I have heard many in the W3C space criticize the open standard of web annotation arrived at because of the ultimate monoculture of the space. Most of the participants of the process were all related to Hypothes.is in some way and the result was a single product that implemented the standard. To my knowledge no other companies, groups, or individual programmers have separately implemented the standard.

      In this sense, while the "standard" is openly defined, it isn't as open as other standards which were mote slowly evolved and implemented gradually and more broadly by various programming languages and disparate groups.

  25. Feb 2021
  26. Nov 2020
    1. Capacitor's origins lie in Ionic's mission to provide a holistic framework for developing hybrid apps—apps that run on mobile devices, on desktops, and in the browser. It does not only replace Apache Cordova as a “bridge” to native platform access in new Ionic projects but also “provides a consistent, web-focused set of APIs”.
    1. 1.Austausch von Wissen und Erfahrungen, gegenseitige Unterstützung. 2.Aufbau einer Interessengemscheinaft. Gemeinsame Entwicklung, soweit das mit den unterschiedlichen Programmen möglich ist.3.Einen Software-Standard für Verwaltungssoftware entwickeln (also die Programme zueinander kompatibel zu machen, soweit das möglich ist), damit·man diese Komponenten gemeinsam entwickeln kann·diese später vielleicht sogar untereinander austauschbar oder miteinander kombinierbar sind·neue Programmierer mitmachen können, statt allein von vorne anzufangenBetrifft z.B.:·Datenbankstrukturen·Dateiformate·interne und externe APIs4.Entscheidung für eine Software, die wir zukünftig unterstützen, finanziell und entwicklungstechnisch. Die Software soll durch möglichst viele Solawis und Solawi-Typen nutzen können und soll gleichzeitig modular und selbständig durch die Solawis erweitert werden können.

      Die Beispiele können erweitert werden durch die Vorarbeiten die @yova im internationalen Kontext mit Solidbase und in seiner wissenschaftlichen Abschlussarbeit untersucht hat.

  27. Oct 2020
    1. Sometimes we can’t implement a solution that’s fully spec-compliant, and in those cases using a polyfill might be the wrong answer. A polyfill would translate into telling the rest of the codebase that it’s okay to use the feature, that it’ll work just like in modern browsers, but it might not in edge cases.
    1. Preservice Teacher Experience with Technology Integration: How the Preservice Teacher’s Effica-cy in Technology Integration is Impactedby the Context of the Preservice Teacher Education Pro-gram

      This article discusses the need for teacher education to focus just as much on technology knowledge (regardless of grade level taught) as on educational theory and methods. It argues that teachers cannot be effective if they are not trained in not only current technologies, but also taught to be familiar with navigating new technologies as the emerge. 5/10 Very specific to K-12 teacher education.

  28. Sep 2020
  29. Aug 2020
  30. Jul 2020
    1. A growing number of platforms, vendors, and partners support the AMP Project by providing custom components or offering integration with AMP pages within their platforms.

      I guess AMP is actually open-source software, but it still feels like it's something non-standard. I guess it's just an alternative open standard to the "main" web open standards.

  31. Jun 2020
  32. May 2020
    1. Firefox is the most compliant with the proposed standard, and is, therefore, your best place to start when developing browser extensions
  33. Apr 2020
    1. 1Password wasn’t built in a vacuum. It was developed on top of open standards that anyone with the right skills can investigate, implement, and improve. Open tools are trusted, proven, and constantly getting better. Here’s how 1Password respects the principles behind the open tools on which it relies:

      I found it ironic that this proprietary software that I have avoided using because it is proprietary software is touting the importance of open tools.

    1. And if the closed platforms prohibited DRM in apps, then the large content providers would simply distribute their own set-top boxes and game consoles as the only way to watch their stuff.

      This sounds a bit naive to me. Who would buy those set-top boxes and game consoles? And do not only consider the United States' and European markets. Wouldn't the large content providers have to adapt to how the web works if they want to reach a broader audience?

    2. embed Netflix content in their own web pages,

      Now that the w3c has recommended eme, Is this possible?

    1. Extensions are built using web technology and can use the same APIs the browser provides to the open web.

      Wonder what they mean by "open web". Web standards, presumably.

    1. During the first era of the internet — from the 1980s through the early 2000s — internet services were built on open protocols that were controlled by the internet community. This meant that people or organizations could grow their internet presence knowing the rules of the game wouldn’t change later on.
    2. During the first era of the internet — from the 1980s through the early 2000s — internet services were built on open protocols that were controlled by the internet community
  34. Feb 2020
    1. socially-recognized standards of measure

      See Simon Schaffer, "Ceremonies of Measurement: Rethinking the World History of Science," Annales HSS, 70, no. 2 (April-June 2015): 335-360. [PDF].

      Schaffer: "No doubt all this explains why some historians have identified the advent of European modernity with the rise of the quantitative spirit, and, simultaneously, with the capacity of these Europeans to travel, loot, accumulate, and dominate beyond the limits of their own world and, in principle, everywhere."

  35. web.hypothes.is web.hypothes.is <