829 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2018
    1. The aural mode focuses on sound. Whether we are talking about a speech, a video demonstration, sound effects on a Web site, or the audio elements of a radio program, the aural mode provides multiple ways of communicating and understanding a message, including: • music • sound effects • ambient noise/sounds • silence • tone of voice in spoken language • volume of sound • emphasis and accent

      The Golden Record was definitely a form of the aural mode. This was a record that was changing over time depending on what was important during that time. But allof these changes stayed consistent in one thing; sound.

    2. The aural mode focuses on sound.

      Most prominent mode of communication from the vinyl.

    3. ltngu1stte, visual, aural, gestural, and spatial

      The linguistic, aural, and visual appeals used in the vinyl convey a very welcoming tone and the use of gold in the vinyl gives off the message of using one of the earth's most "finest" material.

    4. ~J~ e1~ e1~ e1~ ~1~ f;. l ~ ~ ~ ,;I~ f; l ~ e ~ ,;l~ ~]~ e el·~ eJ ~ el~ e1, ft]~ el~ el el: e ~ el ~ ... C : e ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ -~ ~ ~ f; ~ f;,l -. ,;. ~ .... .,,..__.......,..,_ . -.... ..,.....,._~ ... -fil---·~-·-· .-.. • .0-___,.._'ohe,1_1~41 .. -.a.i.. . •• _... .. * -.. D -,..-.--0.Q .;::;..;: .......... ,~ ................. ·--,.-.--. 41.Q ._ ................................... . • .,... ............... 0-.... ....,, .. ..,, ..... ·~--,.-.--•• Q .:..:-...·:..""'o••"""'....,.._. ..... ..._. ~---a...--......... .,,...,_,..., .... e--...... Figure 1.7 Kristin Arola's Twitter Feed

      The visual mode is probably the mode that many young viewers can relate to. The choice to incorporate Twitter as an example was interestingly important, because that is something that many people can relate to and that most people see everyday.

    5. Each of these modes plays a role in lhc advertiser's argument for why you should buy its product. The m~sic is selected to give the product a certain feel (young and hip, perhaps, or safe and reli-able). The gender of the announcer and Mullimodal lexls don'l have to be digital. The dissertation in Figure 1.2 was created on a computer but then was printed and bound into a book copy for the library. No matter whether a text is created on a computer, on paper, or in some other technology, writer/designers can still use the multiple combinations of words, photos, color, layout, and more to communicate their information. the tone, volume, and other qualities of his or her voice reflect whom the advertiser is trying to reach.

      The choice of music placed on the vinyl were music that human would interpret as calming and welcoming, and as well as the messages within the vinyl like saying "Hello from Earth" to have an inviting tone of voice. There were also samples of sounds of nature from Earth

    6. e linguistic mode is not always the most impor-~ tant mode of communication.

      We are very used to writing things when we are trying get a message to someone. The author is letting readers know that although this is the most well-known mode, its not the only way of doing so. In choosing to do this they have allowed for readers to now wonder in what ways could they now begin to communicate things.

    7. Writers choose modes of communication for every text they create.

      The samples of sounds, messages, and music put together on the vinyl that was sent into outer space and those were the chosen modes of communication for any other "intelligent" form of life out there

    8. multimodal.

      The supplemental text I am using is "40 Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl" as it incorporates different forms of communication such as the aural aspect being the music, the visual aspect being the gold material of the vinyl, and linguistic aspect being the language spoken through the music on the vinyl

    9. Although he likely ~ was referring to IW's commitment to helping individual citizens, his ~ choice of words-"small people" -infuriated the public because it • demeaned those impacted by the spill and implied that the disrup--I tion to their lives was not of great concern

      The way a speaker expresses their ideas is taking into consideration by listeners. Not only do they listen to the message but how it was given. This not only allows a person to determine authenticity, but it allows a person to compare their own ideas to the speakers and determine whether or not they agree. For example, when the BP president addressed those affected by the spill as "small people". This caused controversy because his statement made people feel as though he had no concern, interest, or relation to them.

    10. The Five Modes of Communication This chart of the modes is based on a diagram created by the New London Group.

      This may cause many peopletowonder, are these the only ways of communicating something, or are there more modes?

    11. ltngu1stte, visual, aural, gestural, and spatial

      These are the chosen modes of communication the author chose to point out. This broadens many ways that readers may choose to decide to carry on as far as their next papers or next time they are trying to get a point across to someone. They are now made aware the multiple ways of doing so. Which overall will make their arguments not only valid but interesting while doing so.

    12. !'he linguistic mode and the ability to use it carefully matter very ~ much in contemporary communication.

      This statement is claiming that the use of written or spoken words and the way we use the words, play a major role in the way we communicate. This statement is basically trying to say that it is important for us to communicate our ideas in a way that can be understood, so that our true meanings cant be misconstrued

    13. The choice of whether to use video or animation, color or black and white, slow motion or other special effects, arc all deliberate """'"' considerations based on what the advertiser is trying to sell and ~o whom.

      Does your audience determine the way in which you decide to organize your message being sent? The author is acknowledging readers that depending on what you are trying to sell or what message yo are trying to convey, is determined based off of who your audience is.

    14. A Performance Is a Multimodal Tex

      Many may wonder how exactly is a performance a formof a text. How can a dance be conveying a message. But the bigger question that should be formed is after knowing this, changing your view on every performance you see from here on out. Realistically, every performance has a deeper meaning than just for the mere purpose of entertaining the audience. Just a multimodals do they convey some sort of message.

    15. Writers choose modes of communication for every text they create.

      The ability to give someone multiple modes of communicating a idea allows a person to be creative and able to express a idea how they believe it should be presented. This can also pose a problem because of miscommunication, for example in the supplemental text the news station wanted to be able to inform not only normal people but the deaf of a emergency. But the way they chose to present the information lead to frustration, and confusion because the translator that was chosen could not communicate the correct message.

    16. A text can be anything from a lolcat to a concert tee shirt to a dictionary to a performance.

      Since text doesn't necessarily have to be words. This allows a wider medium for communication to be spread on. For example, if you were to see a picture of a dog running you would automatically be able to get a idea of the pictures text without any description or use of words.

    17. Multimodal describes how we combine multiple different ways of communicating in everyday life.

      The supplemental text i chose is "Deaf community outraged after interpreter signed gibberish before Irma" by Alex Mendoza. The most prevalent idea from the main text that can be seen in both of these texts is the use of multi-modality to express a idea.The purpose of multi-modality in the supplemental text is to show the importance of the different modes, linguistic, visual, aural, gestural, and spatial and how they affect communication.

    18. Academic essays, biology posters, statistical PowerPolnt presenta-tions, lolcats

      These are four completely different ways of getting an idea across to an audience. If someone is reading this for the first time they may ask themselves how can these completely different ways be similar in any way. It is reasonable to ask this question because it is difficult to see easily how an lolcat can be related to an academic essay. This toos off this reading because it starts off fromthe jump letting readers know what they are about to help make sense to readers.

    19. ommunicating in everyday life.

      Everyone has their own unique way of communicating some prefer to communicate linguistically while others prefer aural. In "Forty Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl" they communicate through aural, visual, and linguistic.

    20. music • sound effects

      In the "Forty Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl" in article in The Atlantic has an link attached to the article of the record and in the audio has male and female voices which is in several different languages and adds warm because the tone of the voice is welcoming. There is also a child's voice that adds a youthful touch.

    21. The spatial mode is about physical arrangement. This can include how a brochure opens and the way it leads a reader through the text. l·or example, sec the brochure in

      In the article "Forty Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl" made me realize that physical arrangement is a key element in your presentation of conveyance. By the Gold Record being presented visually with a person holding it with white gloves shows the significance it has to the world.

    22. mportant when communication takes place through virtual interac-tions on-screen

      In the article "Forty Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl" made me think of how times have changed from then until now. What an impact communication wise it has been on our society from social media platforms that have made it easily accessible to put your opinions out in world through the internet and memes, videos, and YouTube channels. I wonder how people will be communicating in forty years? telepathically? Makes me wonder in curiosity.

    23. Printing in color would have been prohibitively expensive, so black-and-white visuals and written text had to be used.

      In the article "Forty Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl" two decades ago it was a lot more expensive to print or visual show images in color. In that era majority of Television shows, newspapers and pamphlets were in presented in black and white and not color. Times have changed in just two decades and you can't find anything thats not in color or color coated.

    24. combine all five modes, including the aural

      In the article "Forty Years Later, The Golden Record Goes Vinyl"made me think that how amazing our technology has evolved over two decades. Being that the record was created in the vinyl era and how technology has evolved and today we have the options of watching it visually and aural with a few options either on TV, computer, and or our smartphones. Even when artist release new songs or music videos we have the privilege to access it on our time and not wait until the radio plays the song or we just so happen to catch it on TV.

    25. At other times, words may work better than images when we arc trying to explain an idea because words can be more descriptive and to the point. It m

      In the article is states"Forty years later, the Golden Record is now vinyl and can be ordered online for $98" this is straight to the point and wouldn't need an image to communicate that in a better or more effective way.

    26. But because we want to talk about the visuals, sounds, and movement that make up multi-media, we use the term text to refer to a piece of communication as a whole.

      This is how David Pescovitz, Tim Daly and Lawrence Azerrad two decades later put the Voyager Golden Record on the forefront of the media and launched a website using the internet and had a soundcloud page for people to hear the unheard talent before their time.

    27. he delivery of spoken or written text !) • the organization of writing or speech

      This is applicable in the article" Forty Years Later, The Golden Record Goes Vinyl", when NASA responds to Carl Sagan's request for a one keepsake copy of the record and the NASA respond with, no "You do understand our concern about the matter of highly favorable mementos being given to individuals". This could have been communicated better by using the linguistic mode using a better choice of words.

    28. multimoda

      For my supplemental text I chose "Forty Years later, The Golden Record Goes Vinyl" written by Marina Koren senior associate editor of The Atlantic. This article is interesting because it incorporates three (linguistic, visual, and aural) of the five multimodal modes that have been presented and defined as communication in "What are Multimodal Projects" essay which are linguistic, visual, aural, spatial, and gestural. In The Voyager Golden Record, which was not originally intended for human consumption but 40 years later was. The Golden Record is an audio creation of classical music snippets, nature sounds, and greetings in multiple languages. Koren in the article explains that the record was very limited that even Carl Sagan who led the records production was unable to get a one-keepsake copy. In 1978 Sagan wrote to NASA in regards to getting his hands on a copy and an administrator from NASA responded with a rejection message. The response from NASA was offensive and could have communicated better with the choice of words. Now fast-forward two decades later the Golden Record is now on vinyl and is for sale to the public online for $98. Using the original audio from 1970’s David Perscvitz co-produced he remembers as a little boy hearing of this Voyager launch. In a digital age now Tim Daly teamed up with graphic designer Lawrence Azerrad and they launched a Kickstarter campaign by using the Internet as a platform raised 1.3 million dollars. Shows how these professionals’ have made the unobtainable become obtainable by using the multimodal modes visual, linguistic, and aural.

    29. Other texts, such as video interviews on the Recovery.gov Web site, combine all five modes, including the aural.

      Do the usage of videos always signify the use of all five modes or are some videos simply display several multi modal modes? Do all videos that display gestures utilize gestural modes or must the actions be obviously meaningful and intentional ?

    30. Academic essays, biology posters, statistical PowerPolnt presenta-tions, lolcats ... what do all of these texts have in common? They are all multimodal.

      The supplemental reading I decided to read along with this reading is "Forty Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl" written by Marina Koren. Delving into the article and establishing the connection evident between them and establishing the Golden Record as a multimodal device became an interesting task.

    1. The Voyager Golden Record was never really intended for human consumption.

      Just like Ball says in the article "What Are Multimodal Projects when he states "the aural mode provides multiple ways of communicating and understanding a message", through the use of aural techniques we communicate emotions and beliefs through sound alone. This will transpire regardless of whether this newfound civilization understands the content and the same could be said for other mammal.

    2. exhumed

      The past tense of the verb exhume. To uncover earth or to excavate an area.

    3. The lack of a vinyl version, even in the days of digital, seemed like a missed opportunity.

      One could say that by transferring the content of the tape, onto a vinyl, that this confines the content to only the limitations of a record and that with digital media, there is greater versatility to communicate the message as an aural mode.

    4. “It was absolutely sublime,” Pescovitz said. “The quality was like nothing we’d ever heard.” Sound engineers then transferred the audio on the tapes to digital files.Here’s an excerpt of the remastered audio:

      After hearing a sample of the Voyager Golden Record I feel that it may be arguable whether this audio utilizes a spatial mode in tangent with an aural and linguistic mode. Could it not be said that the arrangement, presentation and structure of the audio gives the audio different connotations as well.

    5. “Yes, the Voyager record is a gift from humanity to the cosmos, but it’s also a gift to humanity,” he said. “It’s a manifestation of what we can accomplish through creativity, passion, and science. It instills a sense of hope and possibility in people.”

      Would making free listenings of this content free while proceeding to charge for the possession of the record further immortalize this piece ?

    6. Pescovitz and his collaborators called Sony about them, and an archivist eventually found the tapes sitting in an underground, climate-controlled warehouse in western Pennsylvania.

      The lengths gone to preserve the Voyager Golden Record iterates just exactly how important this record is.

    7. “When you’re seven years old and you hear that there’s a group of people who are creating a phonograph record that’s actually a message to extraterrestrials and attaching it to two space probes and launching it into the solar system and beyond—it sparks the imagination,” Pescovitz said. “That stuck with me.”

      As a prominent item that bears aural and linguistic qualities and that was meant to be distributed across the cosmos, that was most likely the first of its kind, this item strikes a chord within even the youth of this age. It expands upon previous limitations of humankind shines down onto the uncertain future. I for one, feel this instant to be a very momentous one in the history of civilization.

    8. Forty years later, the Golden Record is now on vinyl, and can be ordered online for $98.

      Has this artifact lost its value forty years later, in a era where record players are only kept in novelty?

    9. Even Carl Sagan, who led the record’s production, couldn’t get a copy.

      Is the exclusivity of the Voyager Golden Record supposed to preserve its value or is it because by prohibiting one of the creator's from the possession of the creation, they are continuing to keep this artifact classified?

    10. The target audience for the contents—popular songs, sounds from nature, photographs, spoken greetings in dozens of human languages and one whale language—was, and still is, an alien civilization capable of deciphering the instructions on the cover to learn about one small world in the universe.

      Through the sheer use of sound, the Voyager Golden Record attempts to fulfill its role as a aural mode and it may perhaps have been created in a manner that allowed the sound waves to trigger a deep psychological state or resonate deeply within its intended audience.

    11. The gold-plated versions, meanwhile, are hurtling away from Earth are more than 35,000 miles per hour, looking for an audience. They may go unheard forever. But that doesn’t really matter to Pescovitz.

      So cool how their are trying to reach things outside of this universe which could make all aspects of communication way more interesting.

    12. “It came to the point where I was calling Papua New Guinea at 2 o’clock in the morning, and working with amazing ethnomusicologists around the world to try to track down as much information as possible, to find out about who these people were, what the music was, who collected it and when,” Pescovitz said.

      Using other people to help you find better multimodal research for what you are looking for helped Pescovitz.

    13. “It was absolutely sublime,” Pescovitz said. “The quality was like nothing we’d ever heard.” Sound engineers then transferred the audio on the tapes to digital files.

      Their reaction to the new ways they were finding out how you can better here things and how much of a impact this was gonna have on the research of this audio.

    14. archivist eventually found the tapes sitting in an underground, climate-controlled warehouse in western Pennsylvania.

      How they found the original piece. An archivist found it and it must have been hard to find knowing it was put underground somewhere.

    15. They made 10,000 special-edition copies

      Visual aspect will also change the text when putting it onto vinyl. Everyone will see it differently than before especially if you were around during the time period the original one was being talked about.

    16. Davis, Sting, and others. They launched a Kickstarter campaign last year to raise money for the project, asking for $200,000 to make 2,000 sets.

      Spatial communication and others are being used to move the record to vinyl whihc is changing a big physical arrangement of the text.

    17. extraterrestrials

      a hypothetical or fictional being from outer space, especially an intelligent one.

    18. book of the photos that were encoded in the original record.

      The visual aspect that was on the original book will not be able to be apart of the vinyl but can be sent to you anyways through paper.

    19. Golden Record on vinyl for the first time.

      Using spatial communication to rearrange it onto something else. was an audio and now for the first time put onto golden vinyl.

    20. Using audio from the original tapes from the 1970s, a small team in California has put the Golden Record on vinyl for the first time.

      This is the Aural part of the communication since the vinyl record will have no images but just music and sounds.

    21. Forty years later, the Golden Record is now on vinyl, and can be ordered online for $98.

      Gestural and Linguistic communication is what have helped people be able to have this vinyl for sale now. it use to not be allowed to anyone but now can be bought online by anybody.

    22. Even Carl Sagan, who led the record’s production, couldn’t get a copy.

      Why cant he have what he is in charge of producing? Doesnt he already know what the content contains and is about. Its NASA's property but it doesnt make any sense why he cant have a copy for himself.

    23. popular songs, sounds from nature, photographs, spoken greetings in dozens of human languages and one whale language—was, and still is, an alien civilization capable of deciphering the instructions on the cover to learn about one small world in the universe.

      Involves with all 5 modes of communication and has something to do with how these things came about through different communications.

    24. Voyager Golden Record

      Ball says, "A text can be anything from a lolcat to a concert tee shirt to a dictionary to a performance."This means that this golden vinyl record can also be interpreted as a text.

    1. Social media users were outraged, writing that the bogus interpreter posed a “danger” to society.

      This reaction shows the importance of multimodality. If the county had a backup method of communication with the hearing-impaired, such as closed captioning as mentioned above, this fiasco could have been avoided.

    2. D

      The images on this sidebar are meant to attract as much attention as possible. This detracts from the credibility of the article, as it is generally a feature of "clickbait" websites such as Buzzfeed. However, the successful use of this kind of strategy shows a deep understanding of the visual and spatial modes on the part of the web designer for the New York Post.

    3. a

      What is surprising is why the county did not use closed captioning when there was no qualified interpreter available. Closed captioning is a visual and linguistic mode of communication, and would accomplish the same task as sign language.

    4. Meanwhile, we can see that the official communicating in spoken English is a lot more confident in what she is saying. She is providing none of the body language hints that suggest that the signer is nervous.

    5. News Share this:FacebookTwitterGoogleFacebook MessengerWhatsAppEmailCopy

      This website uses the spatial mode to attract attention to its advertisements and attract clicks.

    6. n

      In the video, we can use the gestural mode to deduce that the interpreter was flustered and recognized that he was unprepared for the task.

    7. 0:35

      The website itself is multimodal. This video is an example of the visual and aural modes.

    1. Languages evolve fast - the English of the 11th century bears scant resemblance to the English of the 21st - and places of human settlement also come and go, shaped by war, climate change and other forces.  Words not only change, they also die out. Today's dead languages include those that, in their halcyon days, belonged to the world's most advanced civilizations.  It took decades to unlock the meaning of Egyptian hieroglyphs only a few thousand years old, and Mayan symbols of even more recent vintage remain a mystery to this day.

      Conca is trying to reach a bigger demographic in this case, instead of identifying with just english user he gives an historical point to the mysteries and challenges that lie with every language. Not just for english users in the states but for the sake of every person in world communication and manner in which is presented is important to preserve.

    2. "No culture has ever tried, self-consciously and scientifically, to design a symbol that would last 10,000 years and still be intelligible," said David B. Givens, an anthropologist who helps plan nuclear-site warnings (LATimes). "And even if we succeed, would the message be believed?"

      Conca brings in different media information. He brings in a second medium into the mix to try to reach the audience from a different point of view. It does use several modes like linguistic and gestural. He uses words that can be quite subjective like "believed" or "intelligible". And does leave a link to the other media, to connect issue of similar subject to another point of view.

    3. Dr. James Conca is an expert on energy, nuclear and dirty bombs, a planetary geologist, and a professional speaker. Follow him on Twitter @jimconca and see his book at Amazon.com

      This is a more gestural mode of communication, it provides a more interactive form of communication. It provides the authors social media and a link to his published book. It provides a bio and a more detailed insight to who Dr.Conca is and what his mindset towards the subject is. It helps the reader better understand the authors point of view and purpose.

    4. There are 4 four requirements that must be met to successfully send a message to the future: • message must survive (durable) • message must be found (in plain sight) • message must be understood (build in a Rosetta stone) • message must be believed (so the message must be comprehensive enough for it to be judged as true)

      Conca is showing that all forms of multimodal communication must be used to get the maximum effect for the maximum amount of time. The better organized it is for the reader to understand the message.

    5. Oil&Gas production in the Permian Basin (that hosts the WIPP deep geologic nuclear waste repository) compared to production in the next largest fields.

      The data charge can further help readers understand the situation. By presenting data with visual aid readers can now see the changes that are happening rather than just try to think about them by reading it. Also it creates a better point of argument and persuasive tone by using data charts such as these.

    6. These will be supported by "information in multiple languages in multiple media" to try to convey the potential danger

      Again showing the importance of linguistic modes of communication by presenting multiple languages on information it allows for a more significant chance that it will be understood by a larger demographic.

    7. In Europe, there is a strong current of thinking that future sites of waste repositories should somehow be integrated into human society so that the warnings are transmitted from generation to generation, sort of Keepers of the Sacred Fire.  Instead of creating facilities that are totally cut off from society, disposal facilities could be made part of the fabric of the community, integrating its existence safely into the future.

      In this section Conca is suggesting a almost cultural vibe of safety to pass from generation to generation. It's similar to traditional practices passed down to from generation to generation like cow-tow or meditation. This idea is leaning more towards a spatial modal representation of message. By creating a more closer proximity between people and the ideas of safety it will allow for a more universal sign that will last for generations.

    8. The search for how to utter a crucial message through time involves many scholarly disciplines, including semiotics (the study of signs), linguistics, history and anthropology.  This last one is tricky. King Tut got it really wrong - both tomb raiders and archeologists didn’t believe his warnings of death.  The fourth point means the message we send to the future must include a great deal of information - much, much more than can be written on a granite monument.

      Showing signs of danger that are only prevalent in our time will not work. Conca is suggesting something further than what can written or what can be shown. The message has to present some aura around it to make it more intimidating when giving off cautions. This Aural mode of thinking can come from take elements from both visual and linguistic modes to create a more emphasis to the message someone is trying to portray.

    9. Many people think we need to put scary signs, warning humans of nuclear waste buried in the ground, in the distant future after we’ve had some kind of apocalypse

      Using a more visual presentation may be more efficient, if we are talking about thousands of years into the future. The use of the visual modal context of the photo shows a universally negative image, even if a person doesn't know the context of the photo, the dark colored imagery and overall negative vibe of the photo shows to anyone what is up ahead is not good.

    10. How will "STAY OUT!" be written 5,000 years from now? When we’ve had some kind of apocalypse, all society is gone, no one remembers America even existed, let alone how to read English. But we’re still drilling for oil.

      Conca brings a very interesting point to the matter, from the context of the article the reader knows that it's referring to the nuclear danger zones that people should not enter and have clear markings warning them. But Conca suggest that how will people understand the phrase and how will they interpret it? "STAY OUT!" can mean several things it could be someone's land or secured property by the government. Without the context of linguistic modal text ideas and message can be understood in a risky way.

    1. the most intimate part of their bodies is often used as a catchword for weakness.

      Could the use of modalities erase this stigma? The women's march and the pussyhat have tried and failed, but are there some other combinations of modalities that could make a larger impact?

    2. Access Hollywood recording

      Why was only one modality needed to convey trumps message? Yet the message of the pussy hat included visual,aural, gestural, and spatial modality and was still misunderstood?

    3. Access Hollywood recording

      This recording is considered aural modality. Normally when a modality is used you must weigh the affordances, to decide which type best gets your point across, or if a combination is needed. In this case only one type of modality was needed to convey his message.

    4. But the color has nothing to do with race, according to Suh, who is Asian American. She said the group chose pink because it is associated with femininity.

      This is an example of an affordance of using visual modality. Because only one form of modality was used the interpretation went astray. If for example linguistic modality of what the author actually meant was incorporated into the discussion of the hat, people wouldn't misinterpret its meaning.

    5. The cat-eared “pussyhat”

      The use of cat ears is a form of visual modality, and labeling the hat a "pussyhat" is considered linguistic modality. The use of both these modes is considered multi modality. This multi modality is used to represent a specific idea. Since this idea is misinterpreted, it begs the question of what type of modality could have been added to convey a clearer message. Perhaps aural modality from the creator explaining her vision.

    1. Thekeytogooddescriptionisarich,nuancedvocabulary

      Haltman is saying that to have a good description is to use descriptive words that would incite the reader to envision what is being described

    2. descriptiontellsushouranimagehasopeneditselfuptoaninterpretation.

      Haltman is asking for an in depth interpretation of an image than just what is visually seen

    3. Interpretiveanalysis

      One could say that John's article on the Machete is a interpretive analysis

    4. Specifically,whatinorabouttheobjectbringsthosefeelingsout?

      Any feeling that related to empowerment ties back to the Machete

    5. interrelation

      The way in which two or more things or people are connected and affect one another

    6. Materialculturebeginswithaworldofobjectsbuttakesplaceinaworldofwords

      The culture developed around the Machete may have been linked with words of power which made it an important symbol across many cultures.

    7. Thesepolarities,hesays,inturnfindmaterialexpressioninalanguageofformaloppositions,againincludingbutnotlimitedtothefollowing:smooth/roughshiny/dullhot/coldsoft/hardlight/darktransparent/opaqueup/downin/outstability/instabilityforward/backwardvertical/horizontalstraight/curvedorcrookedlight/heavythin/thickclean/dirty

      The details you could connect to the details of Machete

    8. evenmetaphysicalaspectsofthatculturethattheyquiteliterallyembody

      What were the metaphysical aspects of the cultures that viewed machetes as powerful?

    9. Whileonlysomeofculturetakesmaterialform,thepartthatdoesrecordstheshapeandimprintofotherwisemoreabstract,conceptual

      The cultural significance behind the machete

    10. Essays in Material Culture

      The supplemental text I chose to apply was "What is a machete anyways?" by John Cline which an article about the history of the machete across various cultures and time periods

    11. Themethodasthusconfiguredworksbecauseitworks

      Not quite sure how this makes sense. It seems like a kind of roundabout way of creating an argument. How does something work just because it works. That is like saying technology runs on magic.

    12. Asopposedtoapassiveinventoryonestrivestocraftanarrativeaccountinanattempttorecreateanobject'svisualandphysicaleffectinwords

      Useful in writing about panels where people got very attached to when making them. It is only right to give justice to these creators by making the panels sound as living as possible. CRT TVs would show narratives so they should have a narrative for themselves.

    13. functional-betweentheobjectandsomefundamentalhumanexperience,

      The CRT screens used to be very useful and functional for humans (worked as well as most electronics work for people). At this point, screens seem to be a fundamental part of human experience due to everything that can be seen, like computers and TV, to educational programming that can be used around the world (as long as there is wifi).

    14. Whatculturalworkmightitoncehaveaccomplishedoraccomplishstill:

      The panels and the CRT screens have both accomplished parts of what they are intended to be but both still have more to accomplish. The panels are to help keep the memory of individual people alive into the future while the CRT screens are still getting attention due to the challenge that it is to get rid of such an interesting piece of technology that changed the way that the majority of Americans live.

    15. bynarrowingyourfocustoofar.Foryou,simplyexplainthedirection(ordirections)inwhichyoufindyourselfheaded,thesortofresearchyouanticipateundertaking,andtheresearchproblemstheendeavorposes

      An important part of research in this project is to not go to narrow in topic as it causes trouble when trying to find sources. I could see the same thing happening if I were to write about CRTs, as I would want to look more into how they work and their history than looking at what they signify about American culture.

    16. Whatquestionsaremostfruitfultoaskinone'sworkwithanobjectandhowmightonebestgoaboutaskingthem?

      This is an especially good question when it comes to looking for sources for research. It can be very hard to figure out the right question to be asking when it comes to looking at panels of the quilt. I know that I finding sources is hard when the question is not right given experience. I was looking to closely at the details on the quilt instead of what inspired the creators of the Howard Ashman panels as there are so many different ones.

    17. Countlessdeductionsofthiskindsuggestthemselves.Theprocessoperates,infact,soquicklythatitseffectsarenaturalized,cometoseemtruebydefinitionratherthanasevidenceofmeaningfulinscriptionorconstruction.Onlyifweslowthisprocessdowndowefindourselvesenabledtorecognizeandsotoevaluate,indeedquestion,themyriadconclusionsweriskotherwisetodrawuncritically;onlythuscanwecontrolforourown-howeverwell-intended-carelessorprecipitousorculturally-biasedleapstoarguablywrongconclusions.

      Another reason to do Primary Source Descriptions. Our brains are wired to see patterns and connections, so it is harder to just stop and soak in information. If we do not stop, then we might just look at a panel through our biases without looking at the panels as a symbol for another group or individual.

    18. wedonotanalyzeobjects;weanalyzeourdescriptionsofobjects●writingconstitutesanalysis:wedonotreallyseewithclaritywhatwehavenotsaidthatwehaveseen

      This is a key concept of why we do Primary Source Descriptions of our panels. Without detailed descriptions, we might not have all we need to really analyze what we saw in the panels.

    19. “themostpersistentobjectmetaphorsexpressiveofbelief”seemembeddedinpolarities

      This is apparent in CRT screens as they show what is happening in the computer or TV using a vacuum system which cannot be seen. CRT screens have a polarity of seen and not seen.

    20. Essays in Material Culture

      The text that I examined is"A Terminal Condition: The Cathode Ray Tube's Strange Afterlife." I choose this text because of its significance in my house throughout my childhood and I still sometimes use a CRT. The text describes how the CRT came to be and how it was popularized. It then goes on to explain how CRT was replaced by newer technology and the challenges faced when trying to get rid of CRT screens or trying to replace them. All throughout the article, it is explained how CRT screens became important items in the lives of Americans.

    1. "Yes indeed -- you are going to write about things you can drop on your foot, and people, too. Green peppers, ears of corn, windshield wipers, or a grimy mechanic changing your car's oil. No matter how abstract your topic, how intangible, your first step is to find things you can drop on your foot."

      This shows follows the of haltman's ideals stating that the more self-conscious one becomes, the more complex one's relation ship to an object becomes physically and ocularly as well as psychologically. this creates relationship , experience, and ideas for the students to relate and write about

    2. If the professional writers whom Fowler and Orwell addressed had to be warned away from over-abstraction, how much more do our students need that advice? Yet the writing textbooks on the whole say nothing about abstractitis, mentioning it at most only in passing. And instructors do not focus on over-abstraction, even though that's the major problem young writers have.

      that even professional writes disapprove the idea of having too many ideas and specific objects and often teachers don't teach student's how to they because society trains the student's to follow. Korener disapprove their idea and argue that even objects can also perform what visual images can provide. This leads to saying that Haltmans ideas on visual images can also provide itself with an an interpretation and act as the best access

    3. They don't understand why this bias toward the physical matters nor why it works.

      "Description and deduction, really processes of enablement, make itpossible to defer and hence to control the interference of bias and assumption in recognizing what an object is"In Maguire article states "They don't understand why this bias toward the physical matters nor why it works." This will have an negative impact because it would affect how the reader obtain the information only seeing one side of the spectrum. This would only let the reader comprehend one side of the story.

    4. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualizing you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit.

      This supports Haltman ideas sayign "composing an objective description frees one ot move form a narrow focus on the object it self to a focus on the relationship between the object and oneself a its perceiver" that you have to find what your main point / focus that you want to point out

    5. Student papers are often unreadable not only because their grammar is bad and their sentences incomplete, but also because they are way, way too abstract. Assigned to write about some idea, students can't think of examples easily and get caught in the sphere of ethereal ideas and stay there.

      this shows that students didn't couldn't interpret and reaching importance of the object they are writing and they do not have a good rich description and a nuanced vocabulary stated in Haltman's text and next sentence explain why student keep using vague terms resulting the paper to be bad

    6. When you boil it down, Bernadette, all abstract ideas derive from objects. You can approach them in that concrete way and teach students to do the same. I wanted to remind her what she knew but had forgotten: that abstractions are what you get when you pull back from (or abstract from) concrete reality -- from the world of things

      this relates to Haltmans text becuase the teacher here stating that there ways to teach students to comprehend how to obtain ideas from object and Haltmans provides steps and methods to "gain an analytic hold and open upon interpretation"

    7. "Ideas are what matter," Bernadette said confidently. "Getting them to define and handle ideas is what's important, not things."

      This add's on to Haltmans idea saying that "without imagination or ideas nothing of the sort is possible little defeat the purpose of this exercise so well as rigor without reverie" This display that ideas are very important and without it the report is meaning less

    8. I do, in fact, take that approach. "If you are writing about markets, recognize that market is an abstract idea, and find a bunch of objects that relate to it," I say. "Give me concrete nouns. Show me a wooden roadside stand with corn and green peppers on it, if you want. Show me a supermarket displaying six kinds of oranges under halogen lights. Show me a stock exchange floor where bids are shouted and answered."

      This relates to Haltmans ideology by finding value and historical interpretations from everyday objects and in the article it said "students will find value principally in learning from the models that these reading offer of how such interpretation can be carried out".

    9. An alternate approach might be to start the course with physical objects, training students to write with those in mind, and to understand that every abstract idea summarizes a set of physical facts.

      This relates to Haltmans theory and provide a opportunity to write saying that first we must find value and understanding the object so we can create "fruitful" questions on an object.

    10. I'm obsessed with the importance of writing with objects, and know it works, but it's hard to get the idea across

      Haltman and the teacher ideas are similar because in Haltman'ts text mention" that the possibilities are limitless especially considering that no two individuals will read a given object in the same way" This means that object gives people ideas and it provides many options to work with.

    1. But they continue to shape the world, even after they are discarded

      Part of the CRTs material culture is how it changed the culture of how desk jobs work. It continues to shape the world in different ways than it was meant to. CRT screens keep the material culture that they gained in their heyday while also creating new material culture as we try to get rid of it in a way that is good for the environment, as taking care of the environment has become a larger focus of American culture.

    2. "man-machine interface"

      It became such a functional thing in human life, that it started to become an integral part of human life in the U.S. When something becomes that tied to human life, it often picks up meaning from the importance that human's give it.

    3. for the new medium to become an electric hearth at the center of family life

      Hearths used to be a main feature of roman houses. It was a very important part of family rituals to the roman gods so to compare a CRT tv to a hearth probably means that watching the tv is becoming a ritual like honoring a family god.

    4. The CRT is technologically fundamental to modern seeing, yet its inner workings depend on something completely invisible: a vacuum.

      CRT technology was for a long time the only way to see things like what would be on an old computer screen, but it is fascinating that one of the major components for making it work is something that cannot be seen. It is a kind of polarity which the Haltman text says is very important when looking at an object.

  2. Feb 2018
    1. marginalized

      A term used to describe a person, group, or concept as insignificant or peripheral. This term is important because it explains why the "pussyhat" was created in the first place. And also explains why there were so many marginalized people that had an issue with the hat. If this linguistic modality was used in conjunction with the visual modality of the hat, it's meaning wouldn't have seemed so myopic to those complaining in this article.

    2. cisgender (a person who identifies with their birth sex)

      This is an example of Linguistic modality in the form of spatial modality. This word is used to help the readers get through the text without difficulty by organizing people into categories.

    3.  People gather for the Women's March in Washington U.S., January 21, 2017. Shannon Stapleton / Reuters

      This photo is very multimodal. The signs are a form of linguistic modality used to portray the ideas of the people in the march. The visual aspect of a sea of pink hats and women shows us who the march is about. The gestural aspect of body language depicts a multitude of emotions. Emotions that are later expressed in this article.

    4. Pink 'Pussyhat' Creator Addresses Criticism Over Name

      My chosen supplemental reading is "Pink"pussyhat" creator addresses criticism over name." This reading mainly focuses on the how the visual modality of the hat evoked many different responses, and emotions based off the person viewing it. This article also mentions what the author really wanted the hat to symbolize.

    5. “The hat won’t prove anything. The actions of the people will."

      This is an example of what Ball means by affordances. The hat is an example of the visual and the interactions between people is considered spatial. The affordances of the visual modality i.e the hat limit the understanding of the message. The author is saying, the use of spatial modality is enough to convey the true message.

    6. She believes that in order for movements to be truly intersectional they must center around the most marginalized.

      She only believes this movement isn't inter-sectional because that was her interpretation of the visual modality of the color pink and the linguistic modality of the name "pussy hat." The use of different modalities would probably change her entire interpretation.

    7. the hat’s symbolism is disrespectful of grassroots movements that have tried to create a progressive conversation around the “anatomy of all people.”

      I believe she is stating that to her the hat is used as a form of spatial modality, representing the separation of all genders.

    8. “The fact that this hat is on the cover of [Time Magazine and The New Yorker] at a time where immigrants and refugees are being held captive essentially and being forced to reconcile that they may never be able to return to the place they call home, just shows how out of alignment America is with the things that really matter,”

      Don't both issues matter? The visual representation of the hat represents the slow moving struggle for women's equality. It's not just about the hat it's how the different modalities used represent various issues.

    9. “My belief is that pink is considered a little bit frivolous, girly, weak, soft, effeminate, and honestly, I don’t think it’s the color, I think it’s a code for women,” Suh said.

      Here the author explains how the visual modality of the color pink evokes a linguistic and in a way spatial modality, in that this language shows a separation between the genders.

    1. Without the capacity for distraction, you wouldn't hear the taxicab horn when you step off the curb

      Its within these situations, where multi-tasking would be moreover accepted. If you are following one task, whether it be checking your phone, and walking then you would not be able to scan your surroundings. If you were able to split your attention in between both, however, you would not be blind to your surroundings. Your senses would be more alert than to they would have been if you only focused on your phone. That being said, its not safe to be distracted on non-important tasks. When you're outside being a pedestrian, the only task you should have is being aware of your surroundings. Crossing busy streets or walking out onto the rode with no awareness of your surroundings can be fatal, especially if you were distracted by something else.

    2. "If we want to survive, we must under-stand the actions of others.

      According to Aristotle, "humans by nature are very social animals." So by that alone, humans would need to have high interactions with other humans in order to thrive. Which is why it is important to be able to understand the actions of other humans. If we don't have this sort of behavior, it leads us to being anti-social, and eventually segregating yourself from the public. Being alone with no social interaction can have many health problems, both physically and mentally. That is why most prisoners who are put into solitary confinement most of the time come out with psychological problems, which can lead up to being a danger to the rest of society, because they forget how to interact with one another.

    3. Stone grew even more intensely interested when others reported that they, too, sometimes held their breath while reading or writing email-a phenomenon that she started calling "email apnea." She told me that she came to realize that "breathing is the regulator of attention." Stone reminded me that holding one's breath is directly connected to the "fight or flight" response. When your ancestors and mine heard a noise, they held their breath until deciding whether to flee, fight, or ignore the sound, while their glands pumped energy-mobilizing hormones into their blood-streams, just in case. Holding your breath affects the body's balance of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. It activates the sympathetic nervous system, causing an increase in glucose and cholesterol levels in the bloodstream along with an increased heart rate as well as a sense of hunger. Stone remarked that regular breathing patterns, by contrast, activate the parasympathetic nervous system, causing relaxation, the release of diges-tive enzymes, and a sense of satiety-signs of a "rest and digest" mode. She pointed out that "we're putting our bodies in a state of almost constant low-level fight-or-flight. This is great when we're being chased by tigers. But how many of those 500 emails a day is a TIGER? How many are flies? Is everything an emergency? Our way of using the current set of technolo-gies would have us believe it is."23 Paying attention to your breath-the core technique of mindfulness meditation methods-is where Stone sug-gests starting to moderate our online reactions. I'll get back to that later. For now, I'm convinced that Stone is right to think that attention to breathing could be a tool to help moderate our unthinking, ultimately unhealthy reactions to many online stimuli.

      Stone brings up some interesting points about the deeper, scientific implications of the habits she's formed when reading emails. She says that she has a habit of holding her breath for long periods of time when reading emails. I find it interesting that she mentions that she is conscious about her breathing, as she mentions that she does morning meditations, but immediately fall into her habit of holding her breath as soon as she checks her email. This shows that our familiarity with constantly being connected and immersed in our technology can form subconscious habits. These habits are not necessarily bad, but they do raise questions about their lasting effects.

    4. lthough she isn't a cognitive psychologist or neuroscientist, Linda Stone was an obvious choice when I started inquiring into the connection between attention, always-on media, and health. Stone has in fact been immersed in creating online media for the twenty-five years I've known her. I first met her when she was one of Apple's multimedia researchers in the 1980s. In the 1990s, when she was director of Microsoft's Virtual Worlds Group, Stone and I sat in my garden to discuss virtual communities. Since she retired from Microsoft, Stone has been concerned about the ways social media use might be affecting our minds and bodies. She was kind enough to make another garden visit this past summer to converse about our mutual interest in literacies of attention. As we sat under my plum tree, Stone recalled that she had noticed some-thing crucial about her own online behavior while she sat at her computer one day. "I realized that I hold my breath sometimes when I am doing my email." She has recounted this little epiphany in print:

      It's assumed that people who are outsiders to the realm of technology are the biggest proponents, but I have seen many people in the field who are just as adamant. Rheingold agrees, and he cites Linda Stone, who has worked in online media for a long time.

    5. I don't argue with the Thoreau objection. I embrace it. Years ago, I cut a door in my office wall; it's now three steps to my garden. The fact that I acknowledge my attraction to distraction doesn't mean that I have to suc-cumb to the urge to be constantly connected. I simply ask myself when I reach for my iPhone while waiting in line, Why not stay disconnected for a minute and see what happens? Or I deliberately leave my podcasts at home when I take the dogs out for a walk in the neighborhood. Throw some sand into the machinery that automatizes your attention.

      I agree with Rheingold here. Rheingold acknowledges the benefits of disconnecting every once in a while and interacting with the outside world. While I admit, most times that I disconnect, it's because I have already exhausted all the social media I partake in. However, I think it's always good to let one's mind wander free every so often. This reminds me of the habit of reading shampoo bottles while in the bathroom, before cellphones. It was still absorbing information, but it was physical and of the outside world, so that counts, right?

    6. When I interviewed Nass, he proposed that a better way for getting things done than multitasking all day is to deliberately work on a single task for fifteen to thirty minutes before going with the multitasking flow for five to ten minutes. This insight is the basis for a simple attention-training methodology known as the "Pomodoro Technique."103 The method is easy enough. Write down your major tasks to accomplish each day on a piece of paper. Set the timer (which resembles a tomato; hence pomodoro) for twenty-five minutes and work on one task in whatever medium the task requires until you hear the alarm sound. Then take five minutes to do what you want. Repeat. Every four pomodoros, take a longer break. Train your-self to be present and aware of whether what you are doing online is going to help you achieve your own goal. Eventually you don't need the alarm clock

      I'm glad we were assigned this reading, because I have been searching for the Pomodoro Technique for months. I remember reading about it on a late night, and I forgot to save the article, so it's awesome that it happens to be in assigned reading for class. Some people are more attuned to jumping into assignments or tasks for the day at leisure, and can manage that way with ease. On the other hand, there are others, like myself, who have a hard time with managing time and keeping deadlines. This technique seems good for me because it has strict deadlines that are manageable. I have noticed that I am most productive at work in the last few hours, and I think it's because I subconsciously know I can leave the task to go home and do things that I enjoy, like homework. I think this technique could be a good way to train my mind to always think like it's the last hour before works end, and make my work streamline more efficient.

    7. I bring my attention back to my breath. I don't try to "think about nothing." I don't strive to do better than I did yesterday or last year. I simply observe the way thoughts emerge and pass away with or without my conscious intent. Attention! 71 If you haven't done it, watching your breath with your eyes closed and labeling your thoughts as they pass through your mind sounds like a colos-sal waste of time. I admit that I get antsy, and look forward to getting back to work, play, or whatever I had been doing. I don't assign the "fun" tag to meditation.

      Meditation is a practice that appears more and more challenging as the allure of your smartphone is just a few feet away. Artist Father John Misty has a lyric that relates to this on a song called, "The Memo."

      "And as the world is getting smaller, small things take up all your time Narcissus would have had a field day if he could have got online"

      While I have not tried yoga explicitly, I have noticed that reading books is kind of a mental break in the same way that yoga is to some. Sometimes, I can pick up a book and read for a few hours with ease. However, most of the time, it's hard to concentrate on the words on the page and often times I will reach for my phone for no inherent reason. The instant gratification of social media is tempting, but it is always important to take some time away and focus on yourself.

    8. Today's technology may be new, but using media to change (some would say expand) human consciousness at least goes back to forty-thousand-year-old cave paintings.

      Modern society's use of technology seems to get nothing but criticism. A few years ago, there seemed to be a final frontier on how technological advancements could improve our lives more and more.

      However, technology doesn't necessarily have to be something with a circuit board and a touch screen. Any big advancement, like building a fire or the first polio vaccine, can be considered technology. With every major advancement, society has always adapted, and that will likely hold true as we move deeper into the smartphone age.

    9. In one arena of daily life, distraction has proven to be life threaten-ing. Who hasn't witnessed the chilling sight of another driver in the next highway lane who appears to be texting while driving? A Harvard study in 2003 estimates that 2,600 traffic deaths and 330,000 accidents annually are caused by cell phone distractions. 24 A study in 2009 of professional long-haul truck drivers who equipped their cabs with video cameras for eighteen months claims that the collision risk became twenty-three times greater when the drivers texted.25 University of Utah researchers found that drivers who talked on a cell phone-just talked, not texted-were as impaired in driving simulation tests as subjects with blood-alcohol levels close to the legal limit.26 Although there are more subtle dangers to consider in this chapter, texting while driving kills; that's all that needs to be said about it. I'll only add that the fact that anyone would risk life and limb for an LOL is a clue that something about texting hooks into the human propensity to repeat pleasurable behaviors to the point of compulsion.

      The term "addiction" is not one that should be thrown around lightly. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) claim that 21.5 million American adults (aged 12 and older) battled a substance abuse disorder in 2014. As prevalent as texting while driving is, many opinions I have heard think this practice is one of those unavoidable things or a dirty little secret. In my opinion, I think this is a tell-tale sign that someone is addicted to their phone. I don't think any message is worth a life lost, especially if you are driving with other people in the car.

    10. This phenomenon, known as "selective inattention," is dramatically illustrated by the online video of the "awareness test" conducted by Dan-iel Simons of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Christo-pher Chabris of Harvard University.18 Subjects were asked to watch a short video of two groups (distinguished by black or white T-shirts) passing basketballs and count passes by one team, or keep track of bounce versus aerial passes. While the basketballs were passed, an actor walked through the scene wearing a gorilla suit, paused, turned to look at the camera, and walked on. When asked whether anything out of the ordinary occurred, around 50 percent of the subjects did not report seeing the gorilla. The assigned task created a frame for the subjects' attention, filtering out dis-tractions that didn't fit, to the point where a gorilla on a basketball court escaped notice.

      My first job ever was a neighborhood lifeguard. One of the most important abilities our company wanted us to work at was cognitive awareness. The instructor teaching the certification class showed us this same video and nearly the entire group missed out on the dancing panda.


      In this video, the same Daniel Simons cited in the text shows the audience different examples of street art that blend the external and internal information that makes these images appear multi-dimensional and life-like.

    11. While I was writing this book, my friend Duke University professor Cathy Davidson was also working on her own book about attention. 13 In her blog, Davidson recounts an incident that happened when she was tracking down footnote references requested by the editor. She was working at her desk, got up to put a teakettle on the stove, and went back to her writing. Hearing a garbage truck outside, she assumed it was the source of the burning rub-ber she was beginning to smell. When she started to see smoke, Davidson realized that the water had boiled out of the teakettle and the plastic handle had been melting. She had forgotten to pay attention to the stove while concentrating on her book.

      This piece of anecdotal evidence that ends being up being relevant reminds me of the supplementary reading article, "Mystery of Russian Fake on Facebook Solved, by a Brazilian". Rheingold discusses reading a blog by his friend, professor Cathy Davidson. She details a day where several incidents happened in a short span of time. She consciously told herself to be more mindful, instead of letting her mind drift. A few minutes later, she narrowly avoided hitting two dogs that ran in front of her car. In regards to "Mystery of Russian Fake on Facebook Solved, by a Brazilian", there was a tweet that faced scrutiny, claiming that one of the Parkland shooting survivors was actually a trauma actor. It seems that the person who tweeted this comment and image is in Moscow, Russia. Even then, who knows if this image was doctored or altered in any way?

      While Rheingold intended to use Davidson's conscious mental notes as a narrative for this chapter of his book, it reminded me of all the media bias in politics. There has been political bias since the house party system first became commonplace, but technology has blurred the lines between fact and fiction and that has impacted how people analyze media. One should always make an effort to do their own research on topics that they consider important, rather than just take their Facebook feed at face-value.

    12. Each week, I introduce a new attention probe to the classroom. I told a cohort of fifty students, for instance, that five of them could have their laptops open at any one time. "In order for somebody else to open their computer," I stipulated, "one of the current five will have to close theirs." This was not only an attention probe but also a collective action problem. It forced the current five to be aware of their own attention in the context of other students who were waiting to Google my lecture (or slay monsters in a role-playing game). Each class session, I reminded students that the objec-tive was "to get you to start paying attention to the way you pay attention. 1

      Just this exercise alone demonstrates how moving away from technology in the classroom changes the way the class works. It is apparent when open discussion is encouraged in a classroom, many tend to shrink into their laptop and avoid engagement. There are classes I have taken where open discussion is prevalent, but often times it takes the entire semester to get to that point, and I think phones and laptops can attribute to that.

    13. 1 Attention! Why and How to Control Your Mind's Most Powerful Instrument

      "How to Thrive Online" is a text written by Howard Rheingold about technology in modern society and its tremendous impact. Rheingold talks about topics such as focus, attention span, and learning in a classroom setting among many others. While Rheingold inherently believes technology has a positive impact on knowledge in our society, he argues that the overload of information can have negative effects.

      An interesting subject that Rheingold brings up is the core, scientific reasons why staying connected all the time is addictive. Rheingold uses the term "dopamine squirt" to refer to the hormonal stimulation the brain receives when engaging in frequent social media. Social media, at it's core, is about connecting people. Social media websites are meticulously crafted and engineered to remove the awkward long pauses and small talk normal conversation might have, and makes engaging with other people more fun. Streamlining this engagement makes the brain pump out frequent bursts of dopamine, enough to the point that not being on social media and not making those engagements feels boring.

      Rheingold presents a broad range of information about how the mind is altered when we become too comfortable with the easily-accessible technology that surrounds us. He cites the research of many noted psychoanalysts and researcher and this shows the reader that extensive research went into the development of this text.

      Source Rheingold, Howard. Net Smart: How to Thrive Online. MIT Press, 2012.

    14. Then I'll consider the dangers of distraction posed by social media, examine arguments that the Web is making us stu-pid,

      With the new trends of social media in our society, there poses a lot of threats to our well-beings or physical safety. A mass majority of our society, you can say, is addicted to social media. The dangers in that is the distractions that are caused by it. Nowadays, you see a majority of young people in our society using social media whenever they can. The dangers in the is that they would be blind to everything around them. For example, if you are driving while browsing twitter or instagram you cause a risk to you and everyone in your environment, because you are blind to the important tasks due to multi-tasking. When they say the web is making us, as a society, stupid, they aren't wrong. Primarily in today's society, we rely on social media for our news. So when we see some viral post about something, we just assume its true. In Reality, most of the content on social media are false and biased. We as a society will just accept it instead of knowing the truth. So instead of researching the truth, we just follow along with everyone like sheep in a herd.

    15. Humans pay a lot of attention to other humans

      This statement alone is very similar to the supplemental reading, How Terrorists recruit online. Within the Article, it talks about how ISIS would reach out to potential candidates for their cause through the internet. The same goes both ways as well, the candidates can reach out to ISIS too through out the web. On both sides they're can be intense research on each other. What happens next is that ISIS would flock their subject with heavy amounts of social inputs. If they subject stays they would have to cut off all ties to mainstream media, family, friends, etc. ISIS would encourage for their candidate to fly out to them or stay at their homeland and carry out attacks from there. All of these wouldn't even be a process if it hadn't gone back to the beginning, where one person on either side had some sort of liking to the other side.

    16. The executive control we all exercise when we maintain focus on one task becomes useful when we move from understanding attention to con-trolling it

      Understanding attention is similar to those of having focused attention. For example, it is like pointing a flashlight in a certain direction. You're paying attention to the most important details while still looking out for distractions. It's almost like multi-tasking, because while you're still focusing on the main important details, you are still being aware of everything around you, which can sometimes make you miss the important details. Controlling your attention would almost be like sustained attention, where you focus on a single-thought for a long period of time and how well you can hold this thought. Most teens and adults can hold their thoughts on a single thing for more than 20 minutes, it would be their choice afterwards whether or not they want to keep focusing on it again. This kind of scenario happens when you're watching a film or lecture.

      Link to Article: https://www.edubloxtutor.com/understanding-attention-concentration/

    17. Only you can know your goals, and only you can determine which stimuli are relevant at any moment.

      This statement I feel is very true, because when you are online, whether for entertainment or research, you are in full control of what your goals are. You can decide whether any form of information is relevant to you or not. Because you are able to determine what stimuli is important, it is also very easy for you to multitask. By multi-tasking, however, the information seeker is more prone to getting distracted by the various information that is being present for him or her. Once the information seeker gets distracted, the outcome is that there is little to no work being done. The only way to get past this is to focusing on one goal at a time, in an order of importance. Rheingold makes a good point of this throughout the reading about multi-tasking can be the downfall of productivity.

    18. "awareness test"

      (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahg6qcgoay4) This was a video made to raise awareness for drivers to watch out for cyclists. In the video you are to keep track of how many passes the players in the white shirts make. While you are so focused on counting the passes, you don't notice someone in a bear suit walk into frame and dance out of it. This awareness test shows that we, as a society, will easily miss something we are not looking for. The reason why we might not see the bear is because we are blind to the bear because of the task that was given to us in the beginning of the video, that's why we would ignore it or miss it completely. This kind of scenario is very similar to how people, teens more specifically, are blind to their surroundings. For example, with social media being a big thing in today's society, teens are more focused on their phone than they are with their surroundings. Because of this, they are not considering what's going on around them which creates a higher risk for everyone around them.

    19. People multitask because they believe they can get more done, but Nass has solid evidence that the opposite is usually the case.

      Common belief among many individuals in the age of information, including many millennials, show the belief in the power of multitasking in daily life. As stated by Rhiengold, this is common practice for many young individuals. But contrary to popular belief, mental health takes a great toll as multitasking is utilized more. A study by Time Magazine recently describes how neuroscientist, Dr. Kubu, took time to research the mental activity required in multitasking. His results showed that when trying to utilize it to complete tasks, many were not only unable to complete either task, but are having a false sense of doing two things at once, but doing singular tasks in rapid succession. This does not help in trying to complete work or in becoming efficient.


    20. I'll help us begin the process of learning to control attention by exam-ining how attention works

      As Rheingold goes on to explain, beginning to understand the importance of attention and beginning to utilize it in a efficient manner is the beginning to be successful, especially in our growing age of technology. One of the main ways to utilize our attention is from utilizing it from "distractions". Though some information seems to be beneficial, it might not be the primary information you are looking to analyze, study, or utilize. One of the points that he makes is "focusing attention on relevant portions in a tsunami of information". This allows us to take it piece by piece, fully understanding each piece of text and putting it together.

    21. When you shift your attention, there is always a short interval during which you must reorient, refocus, and filter out competing information in order to move from one stable theme to another,

      This text perfectly describes why multitasking does not succeed. As one embarks on a task, it is meant to take the full attention of your brain. As attention switches to other tasks and events, it shifts your perception on current tasks and the brain must re-align itself back to the task at hand. The deficit of attention is what deters from task completion and slows down the process. Many people in this technological do this and do not realize how detrimental it is to their health and well-being, as well as how it is not helping them to succeed.

    22. ~ It. .., '. · • ·~ 1 ~ • 1· r ' . '···· ,,, •• ,1 Net Smart

      The Supplemental Reading I chose was "Debunking Fake News" by Eugene Kiely. The article discussed the epidemic of Fake News, a moniker for mass overloads of false information, in the digital realm of Facebook. They advocate fighting articles that contain Fake News, upvoting content that debunks it, and using their factcheck site in order to see if the news is fake. This problem arises with the masses believing the grand amount of information overload on the internet and creates disruption in society out of false information and false facts. https://www.factcheck.org/2017/07/debunking-fake-news/

    23. In regard to propaganda the early advocates of universal literacy and a free press envisaged only two possibilities: the propaganda might be true, or it might be false. They did not foresee what in fact has happened, above all in our Western capitalist democracies-

      Conscious Distractions are important to discuss, especially with the problem of fake news. As fake news is normally created with a purpose, it serves as a form of propaganda for the party or organization it benefits, and hurts the organization that it slanders. Often in politics, fake news has gone to slander many members, with no basis in factual evidence and truth. This causes many who don't understand the importance of identifying distractions actively to fall for these schemes and information that is false is spread to them in order to further a false agenda.


    24. 44 Chapter 1 however, you'll need to train yourself to recognize and withdraw attention from activities unrelated to your intended goal of the moment.

      Rheingold bluntly states the importance in withdrawing attention as a key to success. Along with identifying distractions, it is important to withdraw yourself from unrelated information. Many modes of unrelated information often try to hide as useful information, but go on tangents in order to drag the reader and move them from the task at hand. It is important to drain this information out as it is not part of the goal of the moment and creates rifts in being successful.

    25. Unhealthy for everybody • Fatal for a growing number • Addictive for some

      These three points encompass the effects of fake news. Fake News, first and foremost, is curated out of "thin air". It is based in fiction and falsehood and is not beneficial for anyone to indulge in and read. As many begin to read it and spread it to their circles, it becomes fatal. False information is spread to a mass number of individuals and is thought to be true information and becomes truth to many, as individuals put little effort into seeing if it is a distraction. Finally, it is addictive. Interests groups and societies have been created based off the theories and beliefs of many fake news sources, and have stirred up hatred for individuals that do not even deserve it. It also poisons the political community in America and tarnishes it with false data and information. https://www.factcheck.org/2017/07/debunking-fake-news/

    26. What are my media practices doing to my brain?

      Technology has allowed us the ability to search for different forms of media at any given time. We can get any form media at any time now because of technology and it is shaping the way we think and act. We know that we can find the funniest video on youtube of a dog flipping in circles just by doing a youtube search. It is making us more distracted and is causing our brain to reshape the way we think. We know that we no longer have to go to a comedy show to see a comedian, we can just watch his/her show on youtube. Media practices is changing us more into a stay at home and use the internet society rather than an actual go out and experience society.

    27. Use

      The technology that we have today has a wide array of uses. We can use technology for many things, and in many ways it has made the world we live in today a much better place. We can discover information from all around the world and use it to better our lives. We can find people from all over the world or fall in love with someone that lives 1,000 miles away. Technology has allowed us easy access to many things, and has cut the burden on us having to travel long distances to get things done. Like in the article redlining article by Gilliard, technology has allowed colleges and university to collectively stop bad internet usage by students. One college found a solution to the problem, and was able to give the solution to other colleges that were many miles away through technology. We are now able to share solutions to problems and information easily with one another, and to make easy fixes accessible to anyone via technology.

    28. If you are a parent, beware of the media equivalent of secondhand smoke: the impact of how you use media in your children's presence.

      In today's society, not just children use the internet and social media to gain information. Adults also use social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It has now become socially acceptable for adults to have social media pages and use them constantly. Because parents are now using social media like children, they can become distracted and not pay attention to their own children. Adults can be so caught up looking at adult things on social media that they don't notice that their kids are watching them. If the adults are constantly using social media, then it gives children the thought that it's ok to always use social media and that it's ok to be distracted by it. Parents using social media all the time can also make children addicted to social media and internet usage. Children follow what their parents do most of the time, and them watching their parents always on their phone, tablet, or computer makes them want to do it too.

    29. Only you can know your goals, and only you can determine which stimuli are relevant at any moment.

      When you are searching the internet, only you know your primary focus and what information you are aiming to take in. Only you know what information is useless to your goal of attaining information, and only you can filter out the useless information that you may access. You have to work on your focus on the primary task and complete it before moving on to another piece of information. Multitasking and searching for multiple modes of information only leads to the information seeker becoming more distracted or not getting anything done. In order to completely capture the information you are seeking you must pay attention and focus. You have to control your focus and not be distracted by random searches or second party information.

    30. When you are online, how often do you control your own focus-and how frequently do you allow it to be captured by peripheral stimuli?

      It is almost impossible for people to not be distracted at all when accessing the internet or using technology. There is too much information that can be accessed, and too many things for the brain to take in for us to not be distracted at all. What we can do though, is focus more on how we pay attention and how often do we get distracted while accessing the internet and using technology. We can work on how we focus and use executive control over ourselves to make ourselves focus more. Once we are able to control our focus and not get distracted, we will be able to complete more tasks in a timely matter and get more things accomplished.

    31. The simple-minded accounts of how the Internet is ruining our attention would not connect the teakettle with the stray dog.

      As technology grows rapidly, there will always be people who are stuck in the past and don't want to grow with technology. If we didn't have the technology we have today, we wouldn't be able to do half of the things we do, or wouldn't have the ease of access that we have. Doctor's communicate with each other across the world via internet, businesses make long distance transactions via internet, and family members communicate with each other over long distances through technology. These are a few examples of how technology has changed the way we do things and communicate with each other. In the Digital Readings article, it is shown how technology has changed since the 90's. In the 90's if a student in the library searched "inappropriate" material, a buzzer would ring loudly alerting the teacher. Now, the website is blocked through the computer server, and no buzzer is needed. Some people would've been opposed to the changing of this technology because it made a change in the classroom and how the student and teacher interacted. The ability for the teacher to not get distracted by a student searching something inappropriate but to just redline the sites in general is so much better for both the teacher and the student. The student doesn't have to be shamed by the buzzer, and the teacher doesn't have to stop what he/she is doing to check the student's content.

    32. People multitask because they believe they can get more done, but Nass has solid evidence that the opposite is usually the case.

      Because students have easy access to multiple modes of information online, they think that when they multitask and access all these forms of information at once it is better for them. This is actually the opposite of the truth. When students multitask their coursework with other information modes such as Facebook or random google searches, they are distracting themselves from the primary task at hand. It is nearly impossible for anyone to multitask with secondary and third information without being distracted from the primary information they were searching. When someone multitasks, when they do end up going back to their primary information source they are too distracted to learn or have already missed most of the information. A recent study by linkedin, a website that hosts as a medium between employees and employers, showed that 98% of people can multitask effectively, multitasking lowers productivity by up to 40%, and multitasking lowers IQ by 10 points. Link to Article: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/five-things-know-brain-akash-bagrecha

    33. Each week, I introduce a new attention probe to the classroom. I told a cohort of fifty students, for instance, that five of them could have their laptops open at any one time. "In order for somebody else to open their computer," I stipulated, "one of the current five will have to close theirs." This was not only an attention probe but also a collective action problem. It forced the current five to be aware of their own attention in the context of other students who were waiting to Google my lecture (or slay monsters in a role-playing game). Each class session, I reminded students that the objec-tive was "to get you to start paying attention to the way you pay attention. 1

      By using this exercise, Rheingold showed how easy it is for students to get distracted in the classroom because of the easy access to information. In class, the students with the laptop open are able to search on any site or social media app and not fully pay attention in class. This gives them the ability to pay attention while not actively paying attention which means they are actually distracted. Even the students who didn't have their laptop open were distracted by the ease of information access by other students. Students had to wait to use their laptop which makes them distracted while trying to pay attention to the professor. The use of technology in the classroom allows students the ability to not actively pay attention to the lecture but to also search for other things. This is bad for the students attention to the class and is a good example of distracted technology usage.

    34. all peo-ple and media are available all the time, and in all places, but relatively few people appear to use ubiquitous informational access and social connectiv-ity politely and productively.

      In this section, Rheingold focuses on the distracted tendencies of children and adults when they have the multiple modes of information tracking. How people use digital media to gain information also determines how distracted they are when trying to focus on one source of information. Since technology has allowed us the ability to have "always on" information, the more likely we are to not use that information correctly. Because we know that we will always have access to that information, the more likely we are to use that ability incorrectly for things like Facebook, Twitter, or random youtube searches. In the Digital Redlining article by Gilliard, he talks about how schools had to Redline certain websites and information because students would search inappropriate topics or websites. This is an example of how the easy access to information can lead to distraction from what we are actually supposed to be doing. Students will often get sidetracked from their coursework because they have access to other sites and they know that the information will always be there. This lead to school administrators having to Redline sites and block students from doing random searches instead of classwork.

    35. 1 Attention! Why and How to Control Your Mind's Most Powerful Instrument In the transmission of knowledge the children and teachers of the future should not be faced with a choice between books and screens, between newspapers and cap-suled versions of the news on the Internet, or between print and other media. Our transition generation has an opportunity, if we seize it, to pause and use our most reflective capacities, to use everything at our disposal to prepare for the formation of what will come next.

      In today's society, the use of digital media to gain information is the most prominent way of learning. Children and adults alike no longer have to go to the local library or travel long distances to gain information. Information today is easily accessible, and with just the click of a button an individual can find out almost anything. In today's world, any person with internet connection or a device that can connect to the internet can gain information from all around the world in just a few seconds. With the production of more technology that allows easier information tracking, there is also a decline in physical learning via books and texts. Children and adults alike mainly use digital media to find what they need, and no longer have to rely on texts to learn. The rapid growth of technology will make future generations have to choose between learning via digital media or not learning at all because most forms of information tracking are becoming obsolete. The world we live in today is rapidly growing, as well as information. Even though people need to be able to easily access this information, the easy accessiblity to this information is also distracting us. We can now find hundreds of different information all in a day's time. Even though it is good that we can access information, is it making us too quick to access to information at once?

    36. Gaining control of your attention while you are online requires, first of all, intention. When you formulate a goal, you need to intend to achieve it.

      This statement can also work very well with those of the real world, not necessarily while being online. Even before the internet, there would always be some sort of multi-tasking, except this time with hands on real world scenarios. When you were in school, teachers would often make you do one thing at a time. There was a reason behind doing this, it was so you don't get distracted or spend more time doing something. Switching around tasks is considered "expensive" not through money, but through time. Just like the saying goes, "time is money" we have to be able to do one task at a time and finishing it, before going on to the next.

    37. People multitask because they believe they can get more done, but Nass has solid evidence that the opposite is usually the case

      A new study by researchers at the university of Connecticut shows that multi-tasking can be more harm than students think. In a survey of 350 students, Researchers found that students who multi-tasked while doing homework, such as texting or checking Facebook, would have to study longer than students who don't. They would also have lower grades in class compared to their other peers. The reason they would have low grades is because while they are diverting their attention to send a text or check social media, they could be missing critical information from a lecture. By the time they bring their attention back to the lecture, their opportunity to grasp the information is gone.

      Link to the Article: https://clas.uconn.edu/2015/07/23/multitasking-increases-study-time-lowers-grades/

    38. By 2005, the year Facebook spread to most universities, the sight of stu-dents staring at their laptops rather than looking at their professor had become commonplace in classrooms.

      Students being on Facebook at the time was just like any new invention of any generation. When the Newspaper came out, everyone was using it. When cellphones came out, everyone was using it. Everyone wants to be included in a trend, its a part of human nature. Now, we have apps such as: Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, which will always be present in any situation, especially in a classroom. The only difference is that these apps have expanded past laptops, but on to cellphones as well.

    39. Howard Rheingold

      Howard Rheingold is a writer, artist and designer, theorist and community builder, he is also one of the driving minds behind our net-enabled, open, collaborative life. https://www.ted.com/speakers/howard_rheingold

    40. all peo-ple and media are available all the time, and in all places, but relatively few people appear to use ubiquitous informational access and social connectiv-ity politely and productively.

      With our full access to wide resources in the internet age, we tend to not fully utilize our resources to be as productive and useful as possible, especially in the classroom. As many individuals take advantage of this access in order to use it inconsiderately for their own needs.

    41. Perhaps, like the memorable image captured in 600 BCE of a Sumerian scribe patiently transcribing cuneiform beside an Akkadian scribe, we will be able to preserve the capacities of two systems and appreciate why both are precious.

      Wolf brings up the example of a Sumerian Scribe in trying to explain why man should incorporate multiple modes of information access. In 600 BCE, the Sumerian Scribes utilized both Cuneiform while the Akkadian Scribe utilized his own form in trying to utilize both forms of writing information as preservation for future individuals to utilize.

    42. 1 Attention! Why and How to Control Your Mind's Most Powerful Instrument In the transmission of knowledge the children and teachers of the future should not be faced with a choice between books and screens, between newspapers and cap-suled versions of the news on the Internet, or between print and other media

      This captivating hook draws in the reader about man's current dilemma in our age of information. At a time where information arrives it boatloads at the click of the button, individuals now have the choice as to which areas to receive and gain knowledge. We ultimately face the choice of accessing our knowledge through traditional means or the growing social norm of the internet. This choice leads to the neglect of one source and the surplus of consumption from the other.

    1. Multimodality gives writers additional tools for design-ing effective texts. This is particularly true when writers arc trying to create a single text that will appeal to the interests of a large and diverse group of readers. By understanding who their readers arc, what they need to know, and how they will use the information, authors can create texts that satisfy a specific rhetorical situation

      Can't agree any better, because of multimodal, information are given to us more efficiently nowadays. Communication is easier, and the easier the process, the faster the result

    2. The linguistic mode often affords readers specificity, exactness, and logical connections, but this can slow readers down as they work to make sense of the information. The visual mode, on the other hand, often can't be as detailed. We don't know from the map, for example, how many projects were completed in each area. But a visual presentation of complex information can allow readers to make quick com-parisons. This ability for quick comparison is an affordance of the visual mode, particularly within the particular medium of the printed map

      each mode has it's strengths and weakneses. In order to present your idea and have the audience efficiently understand them, combine these modes sp they can fill in on each other impotence

    3. A picture will quickly convey more information in this situation than will a written description.

      A picture can be more useful in other situations as well. For example, referring again to the supplemental text, it would have been more helpful for the news cast about hurricane Irma to include pictures of what was going on, rather than having a translator that did not know what he was doing to stand in front of the camera without a purpose. An image in this case, would have been more straight forward and everyone could have understood the circumstances without leaving people out. Although people should not have to resort to pictures for newscasts, it is more wise to use a picture rather than excluding a minority group.

    4. The visual mode refers to the use of images and other characteris-tics that readers see.

      This can be tied to the quilts at the quilt gallery. Some quilts are designed in different ways for example, some quilts have a lot of detail and stitching while others are more plane and don't have much detail. The amount of detail can also be tied with the age of the person that the quilt is memorializing. For example, the quilt is chose this time has small patches added on that looked to be drawn on by a kid with crayons. The conclusion can be drawn that the man that passed due to aids had kids or was a mentor to kids. Therefore, he was older in age.

    5. The spatial mode is about physical arrangement.

      Spatial mode can go hand in hand with visual mode. They both have to do with what looks better to the eye. For example, where certain pictures are located or the type of font that is used to convey a message impacts how a message is received.

    6. but what about the increas-ingly tense background music in a lV drama,

      Aural mode is especially important when it comes to movies, tv shows, etc. Music changes the mood of a movie or tv show. makes things more happy, suspenseful, etc.

    7. Visual Mode

      Visual mode has a lot to do with what is appealing to the eye and what isn't. An example that is not mentioned in the reading is restaurant menus. It is easier for a person to follow a menu that is straight forward, sleek, detailed word description, rather than a menu that is colorful, has many pictures, etc. This is because people generate their own ideas and images of how things look on their own using details. Menus are different examples because they use words to describe how something looks, that way people will imagine the plate in the best way possible.

    8. The linguistic mode refers to the use of language, which usually ~ means written or spoken word~. When we think about the ways ~ the linguistic mode is used to make or understand meaning, we can consider

      Linguistic mode is important when considering the audience that something is directed towards. for example, if you want to get a point across to a child, you would speak in a more soothing tone or a more motherly tone in order to calm them down or make them understand. A politician that is attempting to get elected as governor will probably use a more sophisticated tone, use different reliable sources and such in order to appeal to the people he wants to vote for him.

    9. For instance, lolcats, a well-known Internet meme, are multimodal. They combine photographs of cats with words written In humor-ously incorrect grammar to create a text that uses both visuals and language-11111/tip/e modes-to be funny.

      This paragraph of the reading is relatable to me and to the meme culture of today. Nearly every week there is a new meme that goes viral on the internet and more times than not, the texts associated are poorly written. The lack of grammar knowledge is most likely used to be funny or in attempt to use as least words as possible to make a point.


    10. Comidcr, for example, all of the mode-. at play in a simple TV

      In the reading, the author gives an example of all the modes at play while making a tv commercial. The people that work to create the tv commercial know about the product and know how to appeal to the audiences' emotions in order to sell it. It is important for one to know how to interpret information so that people understand a text. The supplemental reading i chose was: "Deaf Community outraged after interpreter signed gibberish before Irma." This article talks about a man that was "interpreting" news about the hurricane but did not know how to properly translate. Instead of having deaf people understand the news report, they were angered because he disrespected them. This relates to the example in the reading because in order for the text to be valid or relatable, then the interpretation must be understandable.

    11. Text traditionally means written words. But because we want to talk about the visuals, sounds, and movement that make up multi-media, we use the term text to refer to a piece of communication as a whole. A text can be anything from a lolcat to a concert tee shirt to a dictionary to a performance.

      Often times on social media platforms, there will be an option or an area to attach a piece of text when uploading a picture or video. This text helps to explain the picture and gives it meaning. For example, a person may post a picture of a person or an object and the caption can explain the picture and give it more in depth meaning.

    12. For instance, lolcats, a well-known Internet meme, are multimodal. They combine photographs of cats with words written In humor-ously incorrect grammar to create a text that uses both visuals and language-11111/tip/e modes-to be funny.

      Today, most of the internet and social media revolves around memes and ridiculous pictures of animals or humans doing different activities. The lolcat is one of the many memes in today's culture. A meme that can relate to the lolcat is the chicken spongebob meme. The point of this meme is to say something obvious and then another person replies to it in a mocking tone. The mocking tone is represented by the lack of capitalization rules and the sassy pose that spongebob is making is making in the picture. attached is an example of the meme.


    13. We have done many mutimodal assignments in English class for example when we had to choose a panel from a quilt and do a primary description of it. We had a visual mode and we basically were supposed to turn it into a linguistic mode because of the description we did. In our description, if our peer read it they should be able to draw it, picture it. It does not have to be perfect but they should have an idea of what it looks like. Also in the video about the man signing the wrong information to the deaf community on tv, had a linguistic mode under the video.

    14. These different strengths and weaknesses of media (video, writing, pictures, etc.) and modes arc called affi1rda11ces. The visual mode affords us the opportunity to communicate emotion in an immedi-ate way, while the linguistic mode a(fimfs us the time we need to communicate a set of detailed steps. Writer/designers think through the affordanccs of the modes and media available before choos-ing the right text for the right situation. Keep in mind that modal affordances largely depend on how the mode is used and in what context. In other words, the strengths and weaknesses of each mode arc dependent on, and influenced by, the ways in which the modes arc combined, in what media, and to what ends.

      This is very important for out nowadays media culture. Newspaper, TV, commercials, advertisements. Timing is very important, in order to make text relevant to events.

    15. Different media use different combinations of modes and arc good at doing different things. We've all heard the expression "a picture is worth a thousand words." Some-times it is much easier and more effective to use an image to show someone how to do something or how you arc feeling. Say, for example, that the reason you wanted a picture of your dog is to show your friend in another state what the dog looks like (see fig. 1.17). A picture will quickly convey more information in this situation than will a written description.

      I agree, this remind me of the Primary Source Description Projects, I felt like talking to a blind person, which it takes a very passionate and sensible person to complete the task beautifully, almost seems as a talent. in my opinion, I wasn't up for it.

    16. The supplement I chose was "Forty Years Later, the Golden Record Goes Vinyl," by Marina Koren. It is about the two copies of gold-plated copper record that left earth on Voyager 1 and 2 in 1977. She started off saying "The Voyager Golden Record was never really intended for human consumption." And the targeted audience for the contents were the alien civilization to decipher and learn about us. Excepting the two copies that flew off to space, dozen others were distributed to NASA facilities. It was considered by NASA as "highly mementos being" that they are unable to give in to Carl Sagan who was the leading producer of the record. Yet in 2017, the Golden Record appeared on vinyl and priced $98, available for online ordering.

      The records on vinyl were co-produced by David Pescovitz and an editor at the website Boing Boing. The contents appeared on a CD-ROM in 1992, later NASA released the nature sounds and greetings on Sound Cloud. Seeing the opportunities of a vinyl version the co producers raised money for the project, receiving $1.3 million, then made 10,000 special editions copies or their backers.

      The original reel-to-reel tape recordings was held by Sony. The team had no trouble contacting Sony and transferred it into digital files in good conditions. They then needed to secure permission to use copyrighted material. It was a process of luck and persistent, it eventually paid off on the Voyager mission's 40th anniversary, shipping vinyl records to their backers.

    17. Aural Mode The aural mode focuses on sound. Whether we are talking about a speech, a video demonstration, sound effects on a Web site, or the audio elements of a radio program, the aural mode provides multiple ways of communicating and understanding a message, including: • music • sound effects • ambient noise/sounds • silence • tone of voice in spoken language • volume of sound • emphasis and accent

      Popular songs, sounds from nature of the record appeared on a CD-ROM in 1992, Later NASA uploaded the nature sounds and greetings on SoundCloud, can consider as Aural Mode, what confusing is the language and greetings, wouldn't they be included in Linguistic and Aural Mode, the 2 mode revolving spoken words and speech.

    18. Linguistic Mode ~ The linguistic mode refers to the use of language, which usually ~ means written or spoken word~. When we think about the ways ~ the linguistic mode is used to make or understand meaning, we can consider: ~ • word choice ~ • the delivery of spoken or written text !) • the organization of writing or speech into phrases, sentences, ~ paragraphs, etc. ~ • the development and coherence of individual words and ideas

      Some part of the the Golden record represent this kind of mode. A phonograph record, audio,instructions on the cover, reel-to-reel tape recordings of spoken greetings in dozens of human languages and one whale language.

    19. Academic essays, biology posters, statistical PowerPolnt presenta-tions, lolcats ... what do all of these texts have in common? They are all multimodal.

      The vinyl produced by David Pescovitz is multimodal. The Golden Record is multimodal of Carl Sagan. They are ways to communicate, for David it was to communicate with other people, for Carl i was for the alien civilization

    20. To produce a successful text, writers must be able to consciously use different modes both alone and in combination with each other to communicate their ideas to others.

      The contents of the Golden Record -"popular songs, sounds from nature, photographs, spoken greetings in dozens of human languages and one whale language". Sounds, Images, Conversations, combine together to communicate their idea, saying this is us, this is what we do.

    21. The word multimoda/ is a mash-up of multiple and mode. A mode is a way of communicating, such as the words we're using to explain our Ideas in this paragraph or the images we use throughout this book to illustrate various concepts. Multimodal describes how we combine multiple different ways of communicating in everyday life. For instance, lolcats, a well-known Internet meme, are multimodal. They combine photographs of cats with words written In humor-ously incorrect grammar to create a text that uses both visuals and language-11111/tip/e modes-to be funny. You might be saying to yourself, "Wait, Is a lolcat really a text?" Yes. Text traditionally means written words. But because we want to talk about the visuals, sounds, and movement that make up multi-media, we use the term text to refer to a piece of communication as a whole. A text can be anything from a lolcat to a concert tee shirt to a dictionary to a performance.

      This introduction were meant to first provide the definition of multimodal, second to make us realize that they are everywhere around us. Anything that has a purpose of representation are multimodal

    1. forever changing the man-machine interface.

      The CRT heralded a new era for computing technology as well as televisions. They are what allowed the development of the graphical user interfaces used by every operating system today. Without them, computers would have never entered the everyday person's house.

    2. In stuttering fits and starts, the life of CRTs patchily and unevenly colonized new terrain of the home, displacing other things, like pianos, that had once been centerpieces of home life.

      In a way, the CRT indicated a cultural shift away from the traditional entertainment sources, such as musical instruments, to analog or digital screens.

    3. Braun’s tubes became the Kleenex of the CRT age, still known as Braunsche Röhre in German and Buraun-kan in Japanese.

      In recent centuries, the conversion of branded products' names into that for the entire category is a surefire indicator of popularity. It is a good, if subjective, measure of the impact one company or brand has had on society.

    1. veered off course when he began signing words like “pizza,” “bear,” and “monster,” among others — words that had nothing to do with the press conference.

      Essentially the same as a county briefing speaking in gibberish, a clear demonstration of incompetence. Dissonance in a mode most people don't notice is still unacceptable from the government. Deaf feel (rightfully) that they are being treated as second-class citizens.

    2. communicate using sign language

      Sign language was used to reach the deaf, opening another mode of communication.

    3. preparing to address the public with “crucial” information.

      Spoken word was to be the primary vector of the message. However, because some are hard of hearing, it is necessary to use a second mode of communication.

    4. A

      Video above depicting incident uses the linguistic, visual, aural, and gesticular modes of communication.

    1. . This is developed through the concept of objectification, which is central to many studies of material culture—albeit differently conceived dependent upon the disciplinary and theoretical stance taken—which explores the intertwined, and often dialectic, relationships between people and things.

      Material culture is more than just the interactions of the people associated with that culture and deploys various concepts to determine the behavior the people conveyed.

    2. Although material culture studies cross many disciplines, there are still theories, methods, and perspectives that are firmly located within particular disciplines.

      Some aspects of material culture transcend boundaries while others are limited to the scope of their field.

    3. There is also a concern with how objects “move” between domains and different value systems as the practices and meanings surrounding physically changing objects themselves change.

      Is it possible for the significance that these objects may hold to ultimately change over a period of time or are they resolved to stay stagnant ?

    4. Within this field, empirical research explores specific genres of material culture, such as food or clothing, and empirical and theoretical work extends this to consider categories of objects, such as gifts and commodities, as situated within wider systems of exchange.

      Can these different types of objects present different interpretations or are these objects set in stone in the matter they reveal cultural notions ?

    5. contestation

      The act of arguing or debating.

    6. Understandings of material culture have been central to anthropology since its inception; during the late 19th and early 20th century anthropologists primarily collected material culture (Kroeber, Boas) that was displayed in museums in Europe and North America

      Items discovered by Anthropologist could possibly bring forth how they lived, died, or how their society functioned for instance when Anthropologists unearth ancient tools such as spearheads.

    7. Material Culture by

      I am examining this text in conjunction with Haltman's "Introduction to American Artifacts". I chose this text because of the fact that its rationale is similar to Haltman's. Haltman's rationale, that artifacts and items and other physical elements all bear a certain cultural meaning to them and that through a structured process, one can grasp the aspects associated with that item.

    8. nstead, culture and society are seen as being created and reproduced by the ways in which people make, design, and interact with objects. It also challenges the assumption, perpetuated by disciplinary divisions and also philosophical trajectories, that the object and subject are separate, wherein the latter is assumed to be immaterial, and the former is assumed to be inert and passive.

      Sophie Woodman establishes her stance that this preconceived notion is nothing but false. Artifacts and objects alike can have a multitude of meanings and underlying cultural aspects that exist within that object. Haltman himself though has vouched that the process of recognizing these aspects take repetitious action and a thorough game plan.

    1. What contemporary object can be both a tool and a weapon, like the machete? Communication technologies like cell phones might serve as one candidate, especially in light of their application during the “Arab Spring.” But can the iPhone ever bear the same gravitas as the machete? Is silicon the new steel? Information has been a part of every arsenal, revolutionary or otherwise. Still, it’s hard to imagine driving a smartphone into a body “down to the Apple.”

      The writer brings a more modern and relatable point of view into the the mix. Since in this day in age almost everybody in America has a smartphone it makes it more easier for the readers to understand the point he is trying to make. Then brings up a controversial point of Arab terrorist using smart phones to act out violence. A entirely different but similar view to take based on the machete argument. It strengthens his claims, the more some isolates different realms of reason the more the topic can handled more circumspectly. (Haltman 7). He broadens his horizons by presented a more relatable topic to the audience instead of just sticking to just a provincial topic of farming tool and weaponry.

    2. But within the context of contemporary politics this minor event points toward a larger and more pressing concern: as the old manual trades die away, what symbols do we have to convey a sense of collective identity as laborers within the machinery of capitalism?

      Another personal aspect of the writer personal life to further his argument. Growing up farming this cultural portrayal of machetes as weapons undermines his identity. A traditionalist view on the matter shows that the culture that the writer grew up in is being over taken by a violent and terror fantasia that is infecting the the idealism of his identity. He is also trying to gain sympathy with the audience, portraying his old livelihood being destroyed in front of his every eyes. Using pathos to persuade his audience of this cultural take over.