8 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
      • for: MET, MST, MCT, FET, MET - information, MST - information, Amanda N. Robin, major evolutionary transition, major system transition, facilitating evolutionary transition

      • Title:Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations

      • Author: Robin et al.
      • Date: 2021

      • Abstract

        • A small number of extraordinary “Major Evolutionary Transitions” (METs) have attracted attention among biologists.
        • They comprise novel forms of
          • individuality and
          • information,
        • and are defined in relation to organismal complexity, irrespective of broader ecosystem-level effects.

        • This divorce between

          • evolutionary and
          • ecological consequences
        • qualifies unicellular eukaryotes, for example, as a MET although they alone failed to significantly alter ecosystems.

        • Additionally, this definition excludes revolutionary innovations not fitting into either MET type

          • (e.g., photosynthesis).
        • We recombine
          • evolution with
          • ecology
        • to explore how and why entire ecosystems were
          • newly created or
          • radically altered
        • as Major System Transitions (MSTs).

        • In doing so, we highlight important morphological adaptations that spread through populations because of

          • their immediate, direct-fitness advantages for individuals.
        • These are Major Competitive Transitions, or MCTs.

        • We argue that often
          • multiple
            • METs and
            • MCTs
        • must be present to produce MSTs.

        • For example, sexually-reproducing, multicellular eukaryotes (METs) with

          • anisogamy and
          • exoskeletons (MCTs)
        • significantly altered ecosystems during the Cambrian.

        • Therefore, we introduce the concepts of Facilitating Evolutionary Transitions (FETs) and Catalysts as

          • key events or agents that are insufficient themselves to set a MST into motion,
          • but are essential parts of synergies that do.
        • We further elucidate the role of information in MSTs as transitions across five levels:

          • (I) Encoded (Genetic);
          • (II) Epigenomic;
          • (III) Learned;
          • (IV) Inscribed; and
          • (V) Dark Information.
        • The latter is ‘authored’ by abiotic entities rather than biological organisms.

        • Level

          • IV has arguably allowed humans to produce a MST, and
          • V perhaps makes us a FET for a future transition that melds
            • biotic and
            • abiotic life
          • into one entity.
        • Understanding the interactive processes involved in past major transitions will illuminate both
          • current events and
          • the surprising possibilities that abiotically-created information may produce.

      Indyweb / Indranet citations - Michael Levin, Roy Baumeister, Adam Omary youtube conversation - specifically, the question about whether a social superorganism of global human civilization / society / culture constitutes a new Major Evolutionary Transition of Individuality - https://hyp.is/rQgvZn2hEe6-TF8HFSS9mg/docdrop.org/video/UfoVTA0ilsY/

  2. Oct 2023
    1. Whereas MSTs happen to ecosystems, METs and MCTs happen to species.
      • for: MST, MET, MCT, comparison, comparison - MET - MST - MCT

      • comment

        • comparative difference
          • MST happen to ecosystems
          • MEC, MCT happen to species
    2. We define such remarkable morphological adaptations as Major Competitive Transitions (MCTs), while acknowledging the definition’s subjective nature.
      • for: definition, definition - MCT, definition - major competitive transition

      • definition: major competitive definition

        • remarkable morphological adaptations that confer major competitive advantages in survival or reproduction.
        • example:
          • water-to-land transition,
          • land-to-water transition,
          • creation of new niche - evolution of flying organisms
          • vascular tissue of plants
  3. Feb 2023
    1. he wiring up of a civilisation of billions of people, which is itself some steps into a major transition towards complex sociality, faces similar questions
      • See references on = John Boik's evidence-based approach to build a social superorganism and Peter Nonacs, Amanda Robin and Kayla Denton's research on = Major System Transition and especially the variables that play the support role of = Facilitating Evolutionary Transition (FET), which include = Major Evolutionary Transition (MET) and = Major Competitive Transition (MCT)


  4. May 2022
    1. This is the vision of OP Sapiens Star—that human’s evolution is not finished, and that the hyperthreat provides the impetus for a quantum leap into a new way of being. Through achieving a galactically significant mission—saving Earth’s ecological integrity—the Homo sapiens species “stars” within the universe. Humans go from being a menace and fighting one another to being heroic, creative, and tolerant.    

      This can be interpreted as an instantiation of the hero's journey, in the context of research that combines evolution with ecology as in the research paper: Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations (Robin et al., 2021).From this lens, cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) was first made possible through spoken language, then accelerated through written language. The authors claim that another Major System Transition (MST).is emerging, which they posit to be abiotic in nature involving Artificial Intelligence.

      Faced with a self-induced civilization-scale threat, we may ask whether a major cultural evolution may be necessary to avoid catastrophe and whether it may constitute another MST. Could a rapid higher level global understanding of the epistemological dualism of self and other which undergirds normative alienation, othering and conflict, both with others of our own species, of other species and with the planetary system itself play a major role in the transition?

  5. Jan 2018
  6. Jun 2015
    1. Issu d’une recherche portant sur la structure et l’évolution des acquisitions à l’école élémentaire, cet article se focalise sur les liens entre les apprentissages scolaires et les capacités cognitives appréhendées par la mémoire de travail. Reposant sur une approche longitudinale, l’article vise à mettre en évidence la relation qui existe entre la mémoire de travail et les acquisitions scolaires au cours du cycle III. Le lien entre mémoire de travail et origine sociale est également examiné. Les résultats offrent des pistes de réflexion en matière de politique éducative, notamment quant au développement d’activités susceptibles de réduire les écarts sociaux et cognitifs entre les élèves.
  7. Mar 2015
    1. Une récente méta-analyse, portant sur les résultats de 23 études d’entraînement, montre que ces programmes ne donnent que des effets de transfert proche, c’est-à- dire une amélioration des performances sur la tâche-même qui a été entraînée.