1,511 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2023
    1. twilight zone

      In the deep depths of the ocean below the level sunlight can travel through water, it is completely dark yet is filled with countless species of life, many unknown to scientists.

    1. egregores. Egregores don’t necessarily map onto humans. Rather than a hard-and-fast distinction, it’s more helpful to think of tulpas as a subtype of egregores, perhaps of the highest intensity. This is because egregores leech off of our tulpas. They are artificial entities that feel real (like actual beings), precisely because they’re parasitic. So brands, for instance, are egregores. An organization (workplace) or symbol (flag) or abstract idea can be egregoric. Fictional characters seem like tulpas insofar as they’re ‘people’, but they’re also egregores in that they’re not ‘real’.


    1. This larger perspective is offered by an analysis of citizenship and the common good. I begin with the idea of citizenship as being a practice entrusted with the preservation and conservation of the nexus of recognitional practices in a society. Then I move to the notion of the common good, interpreted not as a collective thing, a transcendent principle, or an abstract concept, but as the flourishing of the recognitional nexus itself. 

      !- interpretation of citizenship : from perspective of common good - common good as the flourishing of the nexus of recognitional practices in a society.

      !- comment : salience of citizenship and common good - it's important to educate the public on what it means to be a citizen from the perspective of our empowering role in creating the society we want to live in

    1. I define surveillance capitalism as the unilateral claiming of private human experience as free raw material for translation into behavioral data. These data are then computed and packaged as prediction products and sold into behavioral futures markets — business customers with a commercial interest in knowing what we will do now, soon, and later.

      !- Definition : Surveillance Capitalism - as defined by Shoshana Zuboff

    1. Coral is far more red than her lips' red

      I see the repeated use of the colors red and white holding significance in the poem. There is a constant comparison of there being a lack of vibrancy in this mistress, with the color red being a descriptive term. If I am to take the term "mistress" under the definition of a woman having an extramarital affair, this could be seen as the speaker seeing all of the features he may have taken for granted at the time. The rose color of her cheeks and lips, the angelic white glow, all are muddied and faded as this is not the woman he truly loved.

    2. My mistress'

      The word "Mistress" can mean one of two definitions. The first being the lesser used of the two, with it meaning "a woman in a position of authority" (Oxford Languages, 2023). This could be inferred as, regardless of any physical characteristic, his mistress will always hold his heart, for he doesn't need to see a goddess, as the center of his love exists here. The second brings with it more troubling implications, being "a woman having an extramarital sexual relationship, especially with a married man." (Oxford Languages, 2023). This could bring a new meaning to the previously bitter start to the poem, being more of longing from the speaker for his previous lover, comparing this simple mistress to the goddess that was his previous relationship.

    1. foreign key is the combination of one or more columns in a table that reference (match) the primary key in the parent table (or parent row in the case of recursive relationships)

      foreign key = the combination of one or more columns in a table that reference (match) the primary key in the parent table (or parent row in the case of recursive relationships)

    2. primary key is a column or set of columns that uniquely identifies each row in a table.
    3. Data Definition Language (DDL)

      DDL is used to create database objects (tables, views, indexes, and so forth). Once objects are setup, they can be modified using the ALTER statement, destroyed using the DROP statement, and tables can be instantly cleared of contents using the special-purpose TRUNCATE statement.

    4. As in mathematics, an SQL function returns a single value each time it is executed

      see above?

    5. An inner join is best thought of as an exclusive join because the result set includes only rows where matches were found in both tables (unmatched rows are excluded from the results)

      TLDR inner join = exclusive to matches in both tables * Any row from the key table which has a value that is omitted from the key column (Horse table has key columns of sire_id and dam_id) is exlcuded from the final result. So if horse_id_x has a null value for its sire or dam id, then any information about the row corresponding to horse_id_X is entirely ommitted from the final result of the joined table.

    6. An outer join, on the other hand, can be thought of as an inclusive join because unmatched rows from either side of the join (the left side or the right side) can be included

      TLDR outer join = inclusive join that can contained rows that dont match to the key column?

    7. Cartesian product

      Where every row from table a is joined with each row of table b ( totalling A*B rows), Cartesian products arise when tables are merged with no matching logic (ie a shared column like owner_id which can distinguish how each row in table A should be joined with each row of table B)

    1. o the chariot doesn't just depend upon 00:56:29 the narrow base of parts it depends upon our conceptual imputation which is an essential idea for child security that what there is in the world depends not only on things 00:56:42 outside of us but also on how we think about things i call that broad super veniance if the chariot doesn't just depend on its parts it depends on the whole scheme in which chariots figure as 00:56:57 objects

      !- definition : broad superveniance - dependency on the entire associative network of ideas with which chariots are conceptually embedded

  2. Dec 2022
    1. ”Creating ‘social operating systems.’ An operating system, in the context of a single computer, manages the allocation of hardware and software resources such as memory, CPU time, disk space, and input/output devices. A social operating system, in addition to doing all these things, will also have to manage the mustering and allocation of human resources to tasks. This will require fast, robust infrastructures for contracts, payments, or other motivational elements, as well as scalable task-to-resource matchmaking such as markets. These will be challenging problems because people (unlike hardware resources) are diverse in all the ways we have described. But providing easy-to-use solutions for the problems of finding and motivating human participants—rather than requiring each system developer to solve this problem individually—will greatly facilitate programming the global brain.”

      Social Operating System, Based As Hell

    1. Keywords

      Definitions: 1. World Wide Web = An information system on the internet which allows documents to be connected to other documents by hypertext links.

      1. Search Engines = A program that searches for and identifies items in a database that correspond to keywords or characters specified by the user.

      2. Information Retrieval = The process of obtaining information system resources that are relevant to an information need from a collection of those resources, which uses searches based on a type of indexing.

      3. PageRank = PageRank works by counting the number and quality of links to a page to determine a rough estimate of how important the website is. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from other websites.

      4. Google = Google is a search engine which was discussed in this paper, which uses the PageRank algorithm to optimize searching for larger datasets.

  3. Nov 2022
    1. Services are duplicates if they are provided to the same target group, by the same provider, under the same agreement, to the same location, and using the same interface.
      • target group
      • provider
      • agreement
      • location
      • interface
    1. The meaning of the term "pedagogy" is often contested and a great variety of definitions has been suggested.[7]

      Burası önemli

    1. goal of learning is to find a model and its corresponding parame-ters such that the resulting predictor will perform well on unseen data


    2. features, attributes, or covariates
  4. Oct 2022
    1. “Epistemology” is a philosophically complicated subject, but it’s essentially the study of knowledge – what it is, and how it’s formed.


    1. The field of public choice has a name for this, regulatory capture: where corporations gain so much power in the government that they “capture” their regulator and end up implementing regulations in their industry that have the effect of cementing their market positions in place and preventing new competition. We see this in pharma, housing, healthcare, education, taxi cab industry — nearly every regulated industry. 


    2. You could think of Bourgeois capitalism as Robber Baron capitalism (think Atlas Shrugged) — industrialists like Ford, Rockefeller, Carnegie building up their empires and retaining a controlling stake in them. What’s differentiating about Bourgeois capitalism is that the owners are also the managers. The people who own the company also run the company. There’s total alignment between managers and shareholders. 


    3. Managerial capitalism, by contrast, is defined by the split between ownership and control — on both the founder and investor side. Instead of owners having direct control, you have layers of intermediary managers (e.g. board of directors, executive teams, hired CEOs) who are running the company on behalf of the shareholders and original owners, but who also have different incentives as a result of having less ownership. They may be more short-term driven than long-term driven, for example, since they are incentivized by their salary instead of their equity ownership. 


    1. ARG game masters have described one of the pathologies of players as apophenia, or seeing connections that aren’t “really there” — that the designers didn’t intend — and therefore pursuing red herrings.


  5. Sep 2022
    1. rotation matrix

      coordinates of rotation in the form on basis vectors

    2. rotation

      linear mapping that rotates a plan by angle \(\theta\) with respect to origin

      if angle \(\theta\) > 0 rotate counterclockwise

    3. orthogonal basis

      $$<b_{i}, b_{j}> = 0, i \neq j$$

    4. orthogonal complement

      Let W be a subspace of a vector space V. Then the orthogonal complement of W is also a subspace of V. Furthermore, the intersection of W and its orthogonal complement is just the zero vector.

    5. normal vector

      vector with magnitude 1, \(||w|| = 1\) and is perpendicular to the surface

    6. Gram-Schmidt process

      concatenate basis vector (non-orthogonal and unnormalized) into a matrix, apply gaussian eliminate and obtain an orthonormal basis

    7. Orthonormal Basi

      basis vectors = subset of vectors linearly independent if orthonormal basis -> orthogonal basis

    8. 3.32

      distance of orthogonal matrix

    9. Orthogonal Matrix

      $$AA^T = I = A^TA \Rightarrow A^{-1} = A^T$$ orthonormal columns

    10. (Orthogonality

      if \(<x,y> = 0\) and \(||x|| = ||y|| = 0\)<br /> any two lines that are perpendicular - 90 degree angle

    11. x, y) 7 → d(x, y)

      if x and y are two points in a vector space then, you can find the distance

    12. atisfies (3.11) is called symmetric, positive definite

      symmetric positive definite

    13. se the dot product defined in (3.5), we call(V, 〈·, ·〉) a Euclidean vector space

      euclidean vector space

    14. The pair (V, 〈·, ·〉) is called an inner product space

      inner product space

    15. positive definite, symmetric bilinear mapping Ω : V ×V → R is calledan inner product on V
    16. positive definite if positive definite∀x ∈ V \{0} : Ω(x, x) > 0 , Ω(0, 0) = 0
    17. symmetric if Ω(x, y) = Ω(y, x)

      a symmetric matrix was: (A^(-1))^T = (A^(T))^-1

    18. x>y =n∑i=1xiyi

      inner product and dot product interchangeable here

    19. 3.4

      distance from the origin of a vector

    20. Positive definite: ‖x‖ > 0 and ‖x‖ = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 0
    21. Triangle inequality: ‖x + y‖ 6 ‖x‖ + ‖y‖
    22. Absolutely homogeneous: ‖λx‖ = |λ|‖x‖
    23. A norm on a vector space V is a function
    1. Pentecostalism “by definition assumes direct contact of the believer with God and, by extension, the direct agency of the Holy Spirit as instructor and counselor and commander as well as comforter.”


    1. Hellenized

      Hellenism is the adoption of Greek culture, religion, language and identity by non-Greeks.

    1. Homo modulus


    2. iniquities

      Definition: gross injustice

    3. agential

      Definition: pertaining to anagent or agency.

    4. fabulation

      Definition: to tell invented stories; create fables or stories filled with fantasy.

    1. The gestell, as Heidegger predicted, is a kind of all-encompassing cage since even our attempts to escape from technology are themselves technological.
    1. scathers

      noun from the verb "scathe" as in "one who injures or harms"?

    2. welkin

      the vault of the sky : FIRMAMENT

    3. Declivitous

      moderately steep; down sloping

  6. earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com
    1. Nesses

      OE næs "point of land running into the sea"; obsolete except in place names

  7. Aug 2022
    1. Parallelism means that an application splits its tasks up into smaller subtasks which can be processed in parallel, for instance on multiple CPUs at the exact same time.
    2. Concurrency means that an application is making progress on more than one task at the same time (concurrently)
  8. earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com
    1. moor-fens

      OE mor "morass, swamp" (i.e. a marsh, a tract of soft wet land) and fenn "mud, mire, dirt; fen, marsh, moor,"

    2. bairn

      from OE "child, son, descendant"

    1. tumultuous
      1. excited, confused, or disorderly.
      2. making a loud, confused noise; uproarious.
    2. derision
      1. ridicule; mockery: The inept performance elicited derision from the audience.
      2. an object of ridicule.
    3. benevolence

      the quality of being well meaning; kindness.

    4. pacifism

      the belief that any violence, including war, is unjustifiable under any circumstances, and that all disputes should be settled by peaceful means.

    5. bumptious

      self-assertive or proud to an irritating degree.

    1. ΔHvap,AΔHvap,A\Delta H_{vap,A} = Enthalpy of Vaporization for "A", always positive because it is endothermic

      definition - energy needed to transfer one mole of substance into a gas

  9. scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu
    1. According to Cuende, “A DAO is an internet-native entity with no central management which isregulated by a set of automatically enforceable ruleson a public blockchain, and whose goal is to take a lifeof its own and incentivize people to achieve a sharedmission.

      Great definition of a DAO

  10. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. her mother’s rights and consequence

      This was common at the time - someone had to step up to play mother / become the lady of the house. Fanny Knight (Austen's niece) did it. This would be considered parentification now. (Definition "the assumption of a parentlike (or adult) role by a child.")

  11. Jul 2022
  12. bafybeicho2xrqouoq4cvqev3l2p44rapi6vtmngfdt42emek5lyygbp3sy.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeicho2xrqouoq4cvqev3l2p44rapi6vtmngfdt42emek5lyygbp3sy.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. he aim of the present paper is to propose a radical resolution to this controversy: weassume that mind is a ubiquitous property of all minimally active matter (Heylighen, 2011). Itis in no way restricted to the human brain—although that is the place where we know it in itsmost concentrated form. Therefore, the extended mind hypothesis is in fact misguided,because it assumes that the mind originates in the brain, and merely “extends” itself a little bitoutside in order to increase its reach, the way one’s arm extends itself by grasping a stick.While ancient mystical traditions and idealist philosophies have formulated similarpanpsychist ideas (Seager, 2006), the approach we propose is rooted in contemporaryscience—in particular cybernetics, cognitive science, and complex systems theory. As such, itstrives to formulate its assumptions as precisely and concretely as possible, if possible in amathematical or computational form (Heylighen, Busseniers, Veitas, Vidal, & Weinbaum,2012), so that they can be tested and applied in real-world situations—and not just in thethought experiments beloved by philosophers

      The proposal is for a more general definition of the word mind, which includes the traditional usage when applied to the human mind, but extends far beyond that into a general property of nature herself.

      So in Heylighen's defintion, mind is a property of matter, but of all MINIMALLY ACTIVE matter, not just brains. In this respect, Heylighen's approach has early elements of the Integrated Information Theory (IIT) theory of Koch & Tononi

    1. somit ist eine Definition immer eine begründete Eingrenzung

      Was eine Definition ist und warum die Definition von Begriffen trotz der teils widerspruchsvollen Welt, auf die diese Begriffe zielen, sinnvoll ist.



  13. Jun 2022
    1. Embracing visions of a good life that go beyond those entailing high levels of material consumption is central to many pathways. Key drivers of the overexploitation of nature are the currently popular vision that a good life involves happiness generated through material consumption [leverage point 2] and the widely accepted notion that economic growth is the most important goal of society, with success based largely on income and demonstrated purchasing power (Brand & Wissen, 2012). However, as communities around the world show, a good quality of life can be achieved with significantly lower environmental impacts than is normal for many affluent social strata (Jackson, 2011; Røpke, 1999). Alternative relational conceptions of a good life with a lower material impact (i.e. those focusing on the quality and characteristics of human relationships, and harmonious relationships with non-human nature) might be promoted and sustained by political settings that provide the personal, material and social (interpersonal) conditions for a good life (such as infrastructure, access to health or anti-discrimination policies), while leaving to individuals the choice about their actual way of living (Jackson, 2011; Nussbaum, 2001, 2003). In particular, status or social recognition need not require high levels of consumption, even though in some societies, status is currently related to consumption (Røpke, 1999).

      A redefinition of a good life that decouples it from materialism is critical to lowering carbon emissions. Practices such as open source Deep Humanity praxis focusing on inner transformation can play a significant role.

    1. so what 00:03:11 is a collective illusion then right so like what's the definition simply they simply stated right collective illusions are situations where the majority in a group ends up going along with something that they 00:03:23 don't privately agree with simply because they incorrectly think that most other people in the group agree with it and and as a result entire groups can end up doing things that almost nobody really wanted

      Definition of collective illusion.

  14. www.e-flux.com www.e-flux.com
    1. a concept from Simondon: not identity but the differentiation process that makes it possible for me to become an individual. This is what he calls individuation.

      individuation as an internal or inward-looking process -- self-realization from the inside out; contrast individualization/individualism which is more superficial, about differentiating oneself from others but not of developing oneself beyond that difference

    2. neoliberal unconscious

      "a subject without a deep well of unconscious desire, obsessed with immediate enjoyment. No more delayed gratification."

  15. www.e-flux.com www.e-flux.com
    1. biopolitics

      the political relations between the administration or regulation of the life of species and a locality's populations, where politics and law evaluate life based on perceived constants and traits. according to Wikipedia.

      I read that as, the politics of the body, and how politics works upon the bodies of a polity.

  16. May 2022
    1. studies of the associations between common inter-individual variability in human brain structure/function and cognition or psychiatric symptomatology
  17. Apr 2022
    1. creative thinking as the “entire set ofcognitive activities used by individualsaccording to a specific object, problem, andcondition, or a type of effort toward aparticular event and the problem based on thecapacity of the individuals”

      Birgili's definition of "creative thinking"

    1. the user of the abstraction, sometimes also called the client, does not need to know the details as long as the user is aware of the way the interface works.

      Definition of abstraction

    2. An alternative definition for computer science, then, is to say that computer science is the study of problems that are and that are not computable, the study of the existence and the nonexistence of algorithms.

      definition of computer science

    3. Computer science is the study of problems, problem-solving, and the solutions that come out of the problem-solving process. Given a problem, a computer scientist’s goal is to develop an algorithm, a step-by-step list of instructions for solving any instance of the problem that might arise. Algorithms are finite processes that if followed will solve the problem. Algorithms are solutions.

      Computer science definition

    1. We call both of these things User Generated Content (UGC). LEGO accepts creative work as product ideas and Contest entries provided it follows the respective guidelines: Ideas for new LEGO products, sometimes referred to as “Projects” “Ideas,” or "Product Ideas," are subject to the Product Idea Guidelines. Entries to specific Contests, sometimes referred to as “Contest Entries,” or "Entries," are subject to the respective Contest Guidelines. ALL user conduct on the platform is governed by these Terms of Service and the House Rules.

      Defines "User Generated Content," which may also be referenced as "UGC."

  18. Mar 2022
    1. reproached

      address (someone) in such a way as to express disapproval or disappointment.

    2. To be a capitalist, is to have not only a purely personal, but a social statusin production.




    1. mono

      mononucleosis = the presence of an abnormally large number of mononuclear leukocytes, or monocytes, in the blood. - definition pathology

      Mononucleosis is an infectious illness that’s usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It’s also called mono or “the kissing disease.”

    2. implication

      the act of implying:

    3. neonatologist

      the study of the development and disorders of newborn children.

    4. dismissed

      to discard or reject:

    5. devalued

      to deprive of value; reduce the value of.

    1. placemaking is the simple idea thatpeople ‘transform the places in which we find ourselves into places in4Theory, Culture & Society 0(0) by guest on March 28, 2016tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from

      Placemaking Definition

    2. they are also subjects that fashion places by inscribingthem with their own interpretations, meanings, and cultural significance.This enterprise, which is not the dominant narrative in the social scienceresearch on black communities, is what we call black placemaking

      Black placemaking definition

    3. Black placemaking refers to the ability of residents to shift otherwiseoppressive geographies of a city to provide sites of play, pleasure, cele-bration, and politics.

      Black placemaking definition

    1. apologue 

      Petit récit servant à illustrer une vérité morale et instructive

      Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, 9e éd.

    2. urbanité

      Politesse, affabilité que donne l’usage du monde.

      Dic. Acad. fr., 8e éd.

    3. dolichocéphale

      Dont le crâne a une longueur très supérieure à sa largeur. Composé à l’aide du grec dolikhos, « long, allongé »

      Comme un voisin du haricot, le dolic : du grec dolikhos, « haricot »

      Dico. de l'Acad. fr., 9e éd.

    4. campo 

      XVe siècle. Emprunté de l’argot latin des écoliers campos (dare, habere), proprement « (accorder, avoir) les champs », c’est-à-dire « (donner, avoir) la permission d’aller jouer aux champs ».

      Soit repos, relâche que l’on accorde ou que l’on s’accorde.

      Dic. Ac. fr., 9e éd.

    5. malingre

      De constitution faible et maladive, d’apparence chétive.

      Dictionnaire de l'Acad. fr., 9e éd.

    6. envie lie-de-vin

      Envie : marque, tache, malformation de la peau d’origine embryonnaire qu’on croyait être une suite des impressions reçues par la mère du nouveau-né pendant la grossesse (syn. pop. de Nævus).

      Lie-de-vin : d’un rouge violacé

      Dictionnaire de l'Acad. fr., 9e éd.

    7. vermouth

      Vin blanc dans lequel on a fait infuser des plantes amères, toniques et aromatiques.

      Dictionnaire de l'Académie française, 8e éd.

    8. banian

      Marchand chez les Indiens, et par extension, Habitant de l’Inde, appartenant à la religion brahmanique.

      Dictionnaire de l'Académie française, 7e éd.

  19. Feb 2022
    1. digital literacy

      To me, digital literacy is when an individual has the skills to learn and work in a society where communication is big. Communication is a major key aspect of digital literacy because of this.

    1. écornifle

      Se procurer par la ruse, par le recours à des moyens détourné / érafler

    1. A Knowledge Graph is a self-descriptive knowledge base where data and itsschema are stored in a graph format, and the relations/connections between data arefirst-class citizens.

      Definition: KG

    1. Definition 2 (Wang et al. [5]). A knowledge graph is a multi-relational graph composed of entities and relations which areregarded as nodes and different types of edges, respectively.

      Strukturelle Definition: KG

    2. Definition 1 (Ehrlinger and W ̈oß [12]). A knowledge graphacquires and integrates information into an ontology and appliesa reasoner to derive new knowledge.

      Funktionale Definition: KG

  20. cob.silverchair-cdn.com cob.silverchair-cdn.com
    1. in vivo

      Done with or within a living organism.

    2. transactivation

      increased rate of gene expression triggered by biological processes or by artificial means.

    3. mesenchyme

      loosely organized, mainly mesodermal embryonic tissue which develops into connective and skeletal tissues, including blood and lymph.

    4. in situ hybridisation

      laboratory technique where a single-stranded DNA or RNA sequence called a probe is allowed to form complementary base pairs with DNA or RNA present in a tissue or chromosome sample.

    5. tran-siently expressed

      the temporary expression of genes that are expressed for a short time after nucleic acid.

    6. Xenopus

      clawed frogs

    7. induction

      process by which the presence of one tissue influences the development of others.

    8. delamination

      formation and separation of laminae or layers; one of the methods by which the various blastodermic layers of the ovum are differentiated.

    9. mesoderm

      Germ layer that arises during gastrulation; the middle layer.

    10. Xenopus

      Aquatic Frog

    11. zinc-finger

      A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that's characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions in order to stabilize the fold. It is a common DNA binding domain found in many transcription factors.

    1. burgeonin

      beginning to grow

    2. unctionalism,

      Functionalism is the doctrine that what makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function, or the role it plays, in the cognitive system of which it is a part.

    3. epiphenomenalism

      the view that mental states are caused by physical events in the brain, but have no effects upon any physical events.

    4. Hottentots

      Hottentot is a term that was historically used to refer to the Khoekhoe, the non-Bantu speaking indigenous nomadic pastoralists of South Africa.

    5. slugabeds

      One inclined to stay in bed out of laziness.

    6. 'nomological

      nomology refers to a "science of laws" based on the theory that it is possible to elaborate descriptions dedicated not to particular aspects of reality but inspired by a scientific vision of universal validity expressed by scientific laws



    1. intertheoretic identity

      intertheoretic reduction occurs when a reducing theory makes predictions that perfectly or almost perfectly match the predictions of a reduced theory,



    1. syrinx

      Réf. à Pan éponyme de cette flûte, divinité grecque ayant transformé la nymphe Syrinx qui la fuyait en roseau à partir duquel il fabriqua la flûte de Pan.

    2. l'aulétique

      (Antiquité) : Jeu de la flûte sans chant, art d’en jouer. L'aulète est le joueur d’aulos, un type particulier de flûte (souvent joué par paires, alors appelées auloï)

    1. ubiquitous

      Tenicia Daniels: Ubiquitous means present, appearing, or found everywhere (according to the Oxford dictionary).

    1. The term fake news means “news articles that are intentionally and verifiably false” [1] designed to manipulate people’s perceptions of real facts, events, and statements. It’s about information presented as news that is known by its promoter to be false based on facts that are demonstrably incorrect, or statements or events that verifiably did not happen.  Fake news “is fabricated information that mimics news media content in form but…lack(s) the news media’s editorial norms and processes for ensuring the accuracy and credibility of information” [2]. It overlaps with misinformation (false or misleading information) and disinformation (false information purposely spread to mislead people). The definition may seem a bit vague, but it’s important. People have used the term “fake news” to mean different things. Source: BBC News This definition eliminates unintentional reporting mistakes, rumors that don’t originate from a news article, suspicions/interpretations/conspiracy theories, satire, and biased (but not false) reports. It also leaves out sweeping indictments of mainstream media. The President likes to call “fake news” the reporting of uncomplimentary things that seem distracting or insignificant, which cast him in a negative light in the context of successes that he thinks should be made more prominent.

      The term fake news has been thrown around lightly by people today and it is our responsibility to know its formal definition or what it entails. Among the many contexts it is used to today, it has assumed a political cloak wherein it is used to incite emotions rather than provide facts, and provide biased reports. This is misleading because it is more related to information disorders like misinformation, disinformation, and malinformation as the term 'fake news' is not limited to only news but to information in general. It has only taken on the form of mainstream media that is why people are mistaken of the term in general.

  21. Jan 2022
    1. inter alia

      among other things

    2. concomitant

      naturally accompanying or associated.

    3. venerable

      accorded a great deal of respect, especially because of age, wisdom, or character.

    4. fortiori

      A Latin term meaning literally 'from [the] stronger'. Translated into English and used in the particular context of legal writing, the term often means 'from [the] stronger [argument]'.

    5. evincing

      reveal the presence of



    1. Design-based research is a research methodology aimed to improve educational practices through systematic, flexible, and iterative review, analysis, design, development, and implementation, based upon collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to design principles or theories.



    1. “youth culture”

      Definition: Youth culture refers to the societal norms of children, adolescents, and young adults

      • today's societal norms I feel like would revolve around the likes of something such as Tiktok. The app that blew up over quarantine is definitely something that I feel creates modern "youth culture". Almost everything from the hottest celebrities, and fashion and makeup trends, to sabotaging political activities is found within this app.
    1. L’autisme est un trouble neuro-développemental caractérisé par des anomalies dans l’interaction sociale, dans la communication et dans le comportement

      à savoir

    1. Theory will be understood here as any attempt to make meaningful generalizations for interpreting or evaluating local experiences and practices.

      Functional definition of theory

    1. le regard attique

      Du grec attikos, « d’Attique, d’Athènes », Le dialecte attique. Les écrivains, les orateurs attiques / Goût, finesse attique, qui rappelle la délicatesse, la finesse du goût athénien

    2. libations

      Pratique religieuse consistant à répandre sur le sol, dans la mer, ou sur un autel, du vin ou un autre liquide en l’honneur d’une divinité ou des morts.

    3. la palestre

      Dans l'Antiquité grecque et romaine : lieu public où les garçons et les hommes se formaient aux différents exercices du corps [...] et s’adonnaient à des exercices de l’esprit, art oratoire, philosophie, grammaire. Les portiques, les bains d’une palestre.

    4. Douze mines

      Il est intéressant de noter qu'une "mine" était une unité de masse (et aussi monétaire) qui équivalait à 432 grammes d'argent dans la cité d'Athènes !

    1. There's a problem with 401 Unauthorized, the HTTP status code for authentication errors. And that’s just it: it’s for authentication, not authorization. Receiving a 401 response is the server telling you, “you aren’t authenticated–either not authenticated at all or authenticated incorrectly–but please reauthenticate and try again.” To help you out, it will always include a WWW-Authenticate header that describes how to authenticate.
    2. UNAUTHORIZED: Status code (401) indicating that the request requires authentication, usually this means user needs to be logged-in (session). User/agent unknown by the server. Can repeat with other credentials. NOTE: This is confusing as this should have been named 'unauthenticated' instead of 'unauthorized'.
    1. LPIPS

      Referring to Latent Perceptual Image Similarity.

    2. A counterfactual explanation is a statement of the form“Had the input xbeen ̃xthen the classifier output would havebeen ̃y instead of y”, where the difference between xand ̃xis easy to explain.

      Definition of a counterfactual explanation in ML.

  22. Dec 2021
    1. everyone at least pays lipservice to the psychic unity of mankind

      'psychic unity" : what does that entail? [Description]

    2. protean possibilities of human politics

      Protean means "tending to change frequently"

    3. seventeenth-century natural law theorists speculatedabout equality in the State of Nature: ‘equality’ is a default term, referringto that kind of protoplasmic mass of humanity one imagines as being leftover when all the trappings of civilization are stripped away.

      humans Minus the additions of civilization = egalitarian society

    1. slacken

      To diminish in strength. To become slow and less active.

    2. sharp north

      bitter cold of winter

      In some copies the 'north' is written 'frost.'

      It can also be interpreted as the sharp compass pointing north.

    3. hemispheres

      The eyes are the microcosm of the complete spherical sphere.

    4. declining west

      The direction of sunset (start of the cold night and time flow)

      Natural sign of direction.

    5. maps

      chart of the heavens

      In addition to sea and land exploration, astronomy was another interest of the intellectual of Donne's Era.

      Source: Redpath, The Songs and Sonnets of John Donne (1956)

    6. worlds

      Can be either interpreted as continents or celestial bodies.

    7. good-morrow

      good morning

    8. den

      A cave where wild animals live.

      Another expression to demean the immature pleasures the speaker and the addressee once enjoyed.

      Also, the imagery of cave connects to the Plato's allegory of the cave which is the inspirational basis for line 6 and 7.

    9. troth


      It can also be interpreted as a marital oath, implying that the previous night they spent together is not an ordinary one but a wedding night. The plausible addressee of this poem is Donne's wife , Anne More.

    10. weaned

      To start feeding food other than mother's breast milk.

      The speaker is supposing that everything that him and his lover did before they met and loved was infantile and immature.

    11. snorted


      It seems disrespectful to use a verb such as 'snored', which has lowly imagery, adjacent to a religious allusion. Maybe Donne was purposeful with this uncommon decision in order to diminish the power of religious interpretation and draw the readers' attention more onto the power of love itself.

    1. Mitra

      Mitra- god of light. His religion is called Mithraism. The choice of worship is explained in the third paragraph.

    2. iconography

      Iconography- a collection of images used to symbolize meanings or stories. It is no surprised Egyptians used this, as hieroglyphs also incorporate images in their artwork.

    3. The spread of the cult of IOM Dolichenus

      IOM, or Iovi Optimo Maximo, is his full name in Latin. It is called a cult because a person could not practive unless they were initiated into it. The proper term for this type of practice is mystery cult.