657 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2023
    1. If, on the other hand, I were to show you a brain scan taken before I believed it was going to rain, and after, there is no one in the world who could have the faintest clue what ideas these pictures were illustrating.

      They're working on it, for example, The neural architecture of language: Integrative modeling converges on predictive processing

  2. Aug 2022
  3. andrewbrown.substack.com andrewbrown.substack.com
    1. But the truths of religion appear in the lives of believers, not in their theologies,
  4. Nov 2021
  5. Mar 2021
    1. Ab paaka la yore.

      Il a un couteau sur lui.

      ab -- a.

      paaka bi -- (Portuguese) knife. 🔪

      la -- he (?).

      yore v. -- to have under his dependence, to have in his charge, to have in the hands.

  6. Oct 2016
    1. space exploration is important

      Its not only important for our curiosity but for the future of mankind too. It inspires people to be scientists, astronauts,and engineers that will even further help the space program. Nasa also does a lot of environmentally friendly projects even though they burn a lot of rocket fuel. They also study a lot of how to help the earth out from energy usage to climate change. Nasa also improves our daily lives with many objects they have created such as baby formulas, cell phone cameras, shoe insoles, and memory foam. Not only does he space program help on earth and beyond it, it also helps us put ourselves and the universe in perspective.

    1. US crime

      Originally a British daily newspaper, the Guardian has expanded its reach to worldwide news reporting on a variety of issues.

    2. Jessica Valenti

      Jessica Valenti is a feminist author and blogger, and is the founder of feministing.com. A short biography of Valenti can be viewed at: http://jessicavalenti.com/about

    3. "Dismissing violent misogynists as 'crazy' is a neat way of saying that violent misogyny is an individual problem, not a cultural one,"

      McEwan expertly phrases this important point! This excerpt could be used to support my claim that culturally, white males are privileged and coddled which can lead to violent outbursts.

    4. (Only last month, a young woman was allegedly stabbed to death for rejecting a different young man's prom invitation.)

      By offering further evidence of misogynistic crime, the reader begins to understand how pressing this issue is. This plays to both the ethos and logos of Valenti. Ethos, because the author includes a link to the source, and logos because a list of examples can be seen as data, as evidence of wrongdoing.

    5. But to dismiss this as a case of a lone "madman" would be a mistake.

      Valenti is aware of the way in which crimes of this nature (and their perpetrators) are typically addressed in the media, and she makes a point to not allow the excuses. Too many times, excuses are made for men who commit heinous crimes like this. The perpetrator is referred to as the "lone wolf" who got in over his head, or was in some other way irresponsible for his own actions. By addressing this issue head on, Valenti gains trust from the reader and grows her ethos.

    6. We should know this by now, but it bears repeating: misogyny kills.

      Valenti addresses her claim head-on here. Misogyny is toxic ideology that contributes to white male privilege. When that privilege is disrupted, and self-image is threatened, disaster can ensue.

    7. Elliot Rodger's California shooting spree: further proof that misogyny kills

      Valenti, Jessica. "Elliot Rodger's California Shooting Spree: Further Proof That Misogyny Kills." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 24 May 2014. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

    1. Tal Fortgang is a freshman from New Rochelle, NY.

      In all fairness, Fortgang is considerably younger than any other author whose work I annotated. However, his work is published to be read and evaluated by whomever sees it, and he is still responsible for any stance he chooses to take on an issue.

    2. Opinion Education

      TIME is a well-trusted source across the United States and around the world. However, reading this article makes me wonder how loosely regulated the publishing process is. This article comes off largely as a complaint regarding human interaction, and less of a professional essay on privilege in America.

    3. Behind every success, large or small, there is a story, and it isn’t always told by sex or skin color.

      This excerpt is a piece of Fortgang's claim. On a broader scale, this article's purpose is to address those who attempt to remind Fortgang of his privilege and explain why those people are out of line.

    4. Perhaps my privilege is that those two resilient individuals came to America with no money and no English, obtained citizenship,

      Objectively, this article is full of evidence to support the author's claim, but all of this so-called evidence is personal information. Personal information is impossible to corroborate which leaves the reader to simply trust the author to report honestly. However, in some respects, personal anecdotes can contribute to an author's ethos and pathos. Some audiences may find the content relatable, and agree with Fortgang that privilege is something to embrace and not to be ashamed of. If a reader agrees with Fortgang's assertions, their common frustration will build trust and emotional connection.

    5. When we similarly sacrifice for our descendents by caring for the planet, it’s called “environmentalism,” and is applauded. But when we do it by passing along property and a set of values, it’s called “privilege.”

      Personally, I do not believe that I am sacrificing anything in trying to better our environment, and that makes this comparison fall short. Separately, one thing to make clear in teaching people about privilege is that no one is at fault, and having privilege is not inherently bad. This article is somewhat difficult to argue because Fortgang's understanding or description of privilege is surface level. "Property and a set of values" are arbitrary to the discussion of pervasive, institutional racism.

    6. Assuming they’ve benefitted from “power systems” or other conspiratorial imaginary institutions denies them credit for all they’ve done, things of which you may not even conceive.

      This article serves as a perfect example of what the "other side" believes about white privilege and institutional racism.

    7. Now would you say that we’ve been really privileged? That our success has been gift-wrapped?

      Fortgang has a narrow view of privilege. An audience that disagreed with the author would assert that privilege is not just freedom from oppression, it is entwined in every aspect of society. Privilege is bigger than a family name or "legacy" as Fortgang states. It is layered, and its effects seep into every level of culture, economics, law enforcement, and further.

    8. But I do condemn them for diminishing everything I have personally accomplished, all the hard work I have done in my life, and for ascribing all the fruit I reap not to the seeds I sow but to some invisible patron saint of white maleness who places it out for me before I even arrive.

      Again, a little too over-embellished, this sentence forces readers to piece things together. On another note, this sounds interestingly similar to the hypotheses of Lowery and Unzueta. When faced with evidence of white privilege and the myth of meritocracy, whites will feel their personal hardships have been downplayed and will be threatened by the thought that their accomplishments may have been handed to them because of their race.

    9. The phrase, handed down by my moral superiors, descends recklessly, like an Obama-sanctioned drone, and aims laser-like at my pinkish-peach complexion, my maleness, and the nerve I displayed in offering an opinion rooted in a personal Weltanschauung.

      Beginning the article with this statement will either hook or alienate the audience, depending on their opinions regarding these current issues of political correctness. Either way, from a writing standpoint, the casual yet dramatized tone makes for a strange introduction.

    10. Tal Fortgang

      Upon googling Fortgang's name, the first several results are articles responding and criticizing Fortgang for this very article.

    11. Why I’ll Never Apologize for My White Male Privilege

      This title certainly does not beat around the bush.

      Fortgang, Tal. "Why I'll Never Apologize for My White Male Privilege." Time. Time, 2 May 2014. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    1. References

      Unzueta, Miguel M., and Brian S. Lowery. "Defining Racism Safely: The Role of Self-image Maintenance on White Americans’ Conceptions of Racism." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44.6 (2008): 1491-497. Elsevier. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

    2. White privilege represents an external attribution for Whites’ personal success that threatens to discount their internal attributions (e.g., talent and effort) for such success.

      This is a powerful point that illustrates why many individuals, when faced with evidence of white privilege, want to deny the facts: they feel threatened by the downplay of their own contributions to success (e.g. merit).

    3. Defining racism safely: The role of self-image maintenance on white Americans’ conceptions of racism

      While reading this, I kept considering the authors' names and could not understand why, until I remembered that these writers also contributed to the second article I annotated, "Deny, Distance, or Dismantle"! This helps me as a reader to trust that these experts truly know what they are talking about.

    4. Unlike the individual conception of racism, the institutional conception of racism suggests that racism can occur without the deliberately discriminatory actions of prejudiced individuals

      Lowery and Unzueta explain the differences between the individual and institutional conceptions of racism, giving examples for each. This keeps the audience on the same page as the writers, and encourages ethos.

    5. We argue that

      This short paragraph states all sides of the claim in understandable concise sentences, part by part. First, white Americans may deny racism as an institutional issue because it makes the individual more aware of the privilege he or she possesses due to the color of their skin. The authors found that is it is much less threatening to white individuals when they consider race an individual issue, a case-to-case offense, because then they are not faced with their privilege.

    6. Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, 518 Memorial Way Stanford, CA

      Author Brian S. Lowery is currently a professor of Organizational Behavior at Stanford Graduate School of Business in California. He earned his doctorate at the institution for which his co-author currently teaches, UCLA. Lowery's work also focuses on inequality experienced by individuals. In fact, his findings indicate that "individuals distinguish between inequalities framed as advantage as opposed to disadvantage," and that this correlates to "how individuals perceive inequality and the steps they take, if any, to reduce it," (Stanford Graduate School of Business).

      Both authors have focused their academic passion on the issue of diversity, social inequality, and perception of racial inequality. In sharing their findings on white's perception of racial in equality, the authors can shed light on the psychology behind the issue, hopefully having a positive impact on future race relations.

      Biography and information on Lowery: https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/faculty-research/faculty/brian-lowery

    7. Department of Human Resources and Organizational Behavior, Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles

      Author Miguel M. Unzueta is an associate professor of Management and Organizations at the UCLA Anderson School of Management. Unzueta's work focuses on the interworkings of social hierarchy and how that affects the way in which we view social in equality as a society. A short biography is available at the School of Management's website: http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/management-and-organizations/faculty/unzueta

    1. To cite this article: Annesa Flentje PhD, Nicholas C. Heck PhD & Bryan N. Cochran PhD(2014) Experiences of Ex-Ex-Gay Individuals in Sexual Reorientation Therapy: Reasons forSeeking Treatment, Perceived Helpfulness and Harmfulness of Treatment, and Post-TreatmentIdentification, Journal of Homosexuality, 61:9, 1242-1268,

      This is the MLA citation: Flentje, Annesa, Nicholas C. Heck, and Bryan N. Cochran. "Experiences of Ex-Ex-Gay Individuals in Sexual Reorientation Therapy: Reasons for Seeking Treatment, Perceived Helpfulness and Harmfulness of Treatment, and Post-Treatment Identification." Journal of Homosexuality 61.9 (2014): 1242-268. Web.

    2. Journal of Homosexuality, 61:1242–1268, 2014Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLCISSN: 0091-8369 print/1540-3602 online

      This article is found in an academic journal, which means that it is reliable.

    3. Sexual reorientation therapy remains a controversial area of practice; thereare widespread concerns that reorientation therapy is harmful, and recentstudies (e.g., Spitzer,2003) that are cited to support the effectivenessof reorientation therapy have been heavily criticized on methodologicalgrounds.

      The psychologists behind this study and article respond to the idea that conversion therapy is useful to the lgbt+ community because through their experiment they disprove this 'logic' of the other side's arguments. They want to prove that conversion therapy causes more issues for people then if these people were able to just express their lgbt+ identities. People with extreme religious backgrounds may disagree with this article because they want to believe that even though they are putting their children in harms way through this therapy, that the end result of their children being able to live an eternal life in heaven is more important.

    4. Showed me that ex-gay ministries/mentalitywas cult-like and destructive, overall, byproffering false hopes and promotingfurther/more rigid thinking and selfcondemnation.”Mental health or otherhealth issues addressed5 (4.4%) “He recognized I was really depressed andconnected me with medical professionalswho diagnosed my depression and suppliedantidepressants–-possibly saving my life.”

      Through the study that these authors conducted on lgbt+ people who had underwent conversion therapy at some point of their lives, the data and quotes from these people who have experienced the harshness of the therapy, they establish pathos. Pathos is shown because these people went through traumatic events and still identify as lgbt+. This study shows that the harm that they went through to become heterosexual was not worth it in the end.

    5. The purpose of this study is to thematically examine the experiencesof people who have undergone reorientation therapy and have determinedthat an ex-gay life is not for them: ex-ex-gay (or ex-ex-lesbian) individuals.This study seeks to identify the reasons that led these individuals to seekreorientation therapy and the reasons that they later chose to claim a gay orlesbian identity.

      This study is interesting to me because it shows that conversion therapy may never actually work on anyone. It makes me question if there is anyone who would say that it helped them realize that they are heterosexual instead of homosexual? If there are people out there who believe conversion therapy was a good thing for their identity, are they in denial because of the pain that conversion therapy brings or did it truly change their identity? This is something I would like to investigate more with in the future.

    6. Despite the shift away from clinical interventions designed to changesexual orientation after homosexuality was depathologized, Zucker (2003)described a movement that began in the early 1990s that advocated forthe existence of sexual reorientation therapy, with the position that clients’wishes to change their sexual orientation should be honored by theirtherapists

      Flent Je, Heck, and Cochran decide to use arguments of the other side's perspective in order to show that the controversy of conversion therapy has multiple arguments and sides that show the complexity of the topic at hand. This evidence is reliable because they also cite their sources and invite the other side into the conversation. It may not be a recent discovery, since Zucker's argument appeared in 2003; however, it is an excellent idea on the authors' of this article to include to show the history of the controvery of conversion therapy being used on lgbt+ individuals. Since, they include arguments of the other side, it helps establish even more ethos because they are willing to acknowledge the people who have not agreed with their views on this therapy in the past. This shows that the authors are not bias and have done research on all angles of the controversy.

    7. Sexual reorientation therapy, or interventions that are designed to changesomeone’s sexual orientation from lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) to hetero-sexual, continues despite the fact that homosexuality and bisexuality are notmental disorders. These interventions are controversial and possibly iatro-genic, as most major mental health organizations have noted while criticizing

      This is the claim that the authors are making through their observations of the certain lgbt+ individuals that they decided to write about. They state that homosexuality is not a mental disorder and should not be treated as one, especially not with conversion therapy, since it causes the individual more pain.

    8. ANNESA FLENTJE, PhDDepartment of Psychology, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana; Department ofPsychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, California, USANICHOLAS C. HECK, PhDDepartment of Psychology, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana; Department ofPsychology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USABRYAN N. COCHRAN, PhDDepartment of Psychology, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA

      Flent Je, Heck, and Cochran are the authors of this article. They are all professors in Psychology, which establishes their ethos because they are all professionals in their field of study and will be able to analyze the harmful affects of conversion therapy successfully.

    1. Another activist went as far as to undergo the shock treatment and can be seen twitching on a hospital bed as an assistant zaps his body.

      [](https://www.hongkongfp.com/2016/09/20/gay-pride-china-activists-fight-conversion-therapy/ This is a link to an article that is about a man who went through conversion therapy in China and how he is planning to fight for it becoming banned. This helps relate this article to what it is like in another country besides America.

    2. Warning: Scenes some may find upsetting

      Https://www.facebook.com/JournalistAmyWillis. "Gay Men Still Subjected to Electric Shocks to 'cure' Their Sexuality." Metro Gay Men Still Subjected to Electric Shock Therapy to Cure Theirsexuality. N.p., 08 Oct. 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

      This is the MLA format for this source.

    3. Shen, who is deputy director of one of China’s largest gay rights groups, said often parents who are unwilling to accept their child’s sexuality may forced them to undergo the painful treatments.

      The documentary establishes pathos through talking to Chinese lgbt+ youth, as well as by showing disturbing clips of the conversion therapy process in China. The documentary does not include bias because it gives insight on what the doctors who perform conversion therapy in China believe and provides insight on what lgbt+ youth are subjected to.

    4. Shen, who is deputy director of one of China’s largest gay rights groups, said often parents who are unwilling to accept their child’s sexuality may forced them to undergo the painful treatments.

      The documentary amplifies that conversion therapy is something that Chinese parents are willing to make their lgbt+ youth go through in order to make sure that they will not shame their family. In China, it is less about the religious aspect of homosexuality and more about how lgbt+ youth affect the honor and status of the entire family. The documentary shows that the conversion therapy that happens in China is hurtful to the individuals that are forced into it by their family members to restore honor. The people who would disagree with this documentary, as to why conversion therapy is harmful, would be the families who feel that their lgbt+ youth should feel ashamed that they cannot bring future generations to their families. Personally, I think this documentary will be an excellent source to include in the future because it shows the perspective that China has on lgbt+ youth and also brings a new direction with how another country feels. Usually with the homosexuality argument and the conversion therapy debate, the opposing side is arguing due to their religion, but this debate is more about honor of a family.

    5. Unreported World, China’s Gay Shock Therapy, will air on Friday at 7.30pm on Channel 4.

      The author of this article is Amy Willis; however, she is not the person who created the documentary. She is just reporting on the documentary that the source 'Unreported World' created.

      The article appears on the internet to get the word out there that there is a documentary that will be airing live in order to show that conversion therapy takes place in more than just one country in the world.

    6. Doctors in China were secretly filmed by Channel 4 reporters selling bogus ‘conversion therapy’ treatments for homosexuality for hundreds of pounds.

      The stakeholder in this video article are the lgbt+ individuals in China as well as the viewpoints of the doctors who are subjecting these people to conversion therapy. It is reliable because they interviewed both sets of people, since it was filmed it is known that this is exactly what they said about the topic.

  7. illiad.library.colostate.edu illiad.library.colostate.edu
    1. Nursing standard

      This article would not let me use hypothesis.is in the actual article; however, I decided to write the entire source needs up here.

      Erin Dean is the author of this article that appeared in the news. As a reporter, Dean is expected to research conversion therapy through out time. This source does not provide much insight on the conversion therapy or the lgbt+ youth that are subjected to it; however, it does provide an interesting viewpoint on how it affected the people who were on the other side of these tests.

      Dean suggests that this 'cure' of conversion therapy on lgbt+ individuals through out the ages is unpleasant and harsh; however, it also explains that conversion therapy was not just harsh on the patients, but those involved with administering these treatments were also affected.

      Dean explains that conversion therapy is harmful to more than just one group, which may be an unpopular opinion to people who believe this is solely an lgbt+ individual's issue because they may believe that by talking about the nurses and doctors involved in this practice that it takes away from the issue at hand.

      The author of this article uses the facts of historic occurrences and suicides that happened to people who were involved in conversion therapy.

      I would need to do more research on how the stakeholder of nurses and doctors involved are affected by doing following orders of hurting the lgbt+ individuals for their 'treatments'. The nurses are stakeholders because they have opinions on the horrifying therapy that they placed on another human being. [](https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/may/28/gay-conversion-therapy-ruins-lives-lgbt-rights This article explains that conversion therapy hurts lgbt+ the most, however, it should affect the community as a whole.

    2. Shock therapies

      Here is the MLA Citation: Dean, Erin. "Shock Therapies." Nursing Standard 30.23 (2016): 25. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    1. In his 2006 article in theJournal of the Islamic MedicalAssociation of North America(JIMA)

      This source is goes into more depth on the Islamic views on homosexuality, which provides a base on what their views on conversion therapy may be.

    2. Junaid B. Jahangir, PhDaand Hussein Abdul-latif, MD

      These are the authors of the article and are professors with PhD's. This shows that they are qualified and have knowledge in their field of study for homosexuality and conversion therapy.

      This is a journal that this article is derived from in order to critique the journal that was created by Ahmed, as well as to explain the Islamic viewpoint on the situation of conversion therapy.

    3. Junaid B. Jahangir PhD & Hussein Abdul-latif MD (2016) Investigatingthe Islamic Perspective on Homosexuality, Journal of Homosexuality, 63:7, 925-954,

      This is the MLA format citation

    4. Kutty’s juxtaposing of pornography, in the context of gays and lesbians,allows some conservative Muslims to establish causality between pornogra-phy and sexual orientation. However, confessions on a site on asexualityreveal how some heterosexuals and asexuals occasionally watch homosexualpornography despite having no desire in masturbation or establishing asexual relationship with members of the same gender (

      Junaid B. Jahangir and Hussein Abdul-latif establish credibility through the evidence that they use throughout their article. They explain that Kutty's reasons for supporting conversion therapy are not justifiable, and then provide statistics and research based evidence, as to why these reasons are not logical reasons for conversion therapy to be needed.

      I think for the future of my research, that this source will be helpful because I will be able to include other countries views and reasons for using conversion therapy to strengthen my argument against it.

    5. Assuch, the intended audience for this critique is Muslim counselors, profes-sionals, and community leaders, who continue to ignore the predominantposition among professional psychologists and psychiatrists on the accep-tance of the sexual orientation of gays and lesbians and on the harms ofreparative therapy, and who persist in perpetuating the framework used bythe National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality(NARTH) due to their religious convictions.

      Since the author of this article is an American, he could be bias to the Islamic faith and viewpoints. However, this may be unlikely considering America has individuals who are religious as well with the same kind of approach to conversion therapy that doctors have over there.

    6. reparative therapy groups. He also associated mental health issues and fataldiseases with homosexuality rather than societal prejudice. As such, hedistinguished between orientation and action, and based on“Islamic values”he counseled permanent celibacy for homosexuals.

      The author of this article is arguing against the ideas of a different homosexual viewpoint through the perspective that Islam has. The author uses evidence from an Islamic source to point out the flaws of the idea that sexuality can be changed through a variety of ways that may be harmful to an individual. Also this compares and contrasts America's ideas of homosexuality versus another country. In the American culture many arguments against homosexuals is mostly based on religious affiliations, which seems to also be the same approach many of the Islamic faith have as well.

    7. no evidence of people being born gay and to underscore the need forhaving positive loving male figures to help with identity development. Inanother online response, the questioner is informed that homosexuality is asevere illness that must be treated, one that arises due to weakness of faith orfailing to pray (Muslims of Calgary,2011). He is counseled that throughrepentance theharam(prohibited) desires of many homosexuals have dis-appeared, and he is therefore advised to get married

      Junaid B. Jahangir and Hussein Abdul-latif are responding to the views of the Islamic faith and their views on homosexuality and the treatment that would be best for this 'mental illness'. The author's disagree with the point of views that are explained by conservative Muslims, who would also not share the viewpoints of the authors of this article. Since, the Islamic faith categorizes homosexuality under a mental illness, the way they handle it is harsh and meant to be solutions to an actual disease.

      Not only would the Islamic faith disagree with the viewpoints presented in this article, but they would also be considered a stakeholder in the topic of conversion therapy. Since, conversion therapy is different for other cultures and does happen around the world, they do have different ways to go about the therapy. This is a reliable source for the Islamic faith viewpoint on homosexuals and conversion therapy because the article features many thoughts by a Muslim doctor.

    1. thoughts of unearned racial privilege made highly identified Whites feel insecure about their superior social position, which they in turn attempted to justify by derogating the less fortunate group

      The study the authors identified earlier in the paragraph is summed up excellently in this one statement. When faced with examples of the privileges of whiteness, those who identified strongly with their whiteness tended to feel threatened and insecure, consequently directing that negativity toward the outgroup.

    2. identification with whiteness was associated with what the historian George Lipsitz (1998) termed a “possessive investment in whiteness”—manifested, in this case, by opposition to policies that diminish White privilege.

      Said in other terms, increased pride in whiteness equates to increased opposition to legislation that could negatively impact white privilege. This reminds me of the fact that most violent or murderous incidents in the news lately have been committed by white men who have considerable white pride and act out against people or groups threatening their privilege.

    3. “invisible knapsack”

      Peggy McIntosh's "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack" is an important and eye opening read! I was assigned to read this in a Race and Membership in American History class in high school. Here's a link to it: http://nationalseedproject.org/white-privilege-unpacking-the-invisible-knapsack

    4. So, what are the arguments for the invisibility thesis, and how compelling are they?

      The authors interestingly admit that they disagree with the invisibility thesis, yet still want to discuss what it means and how credible it is. Continuing to give the audience both sides of the argument further solidifies ethos.

    5. We argue that this view is inaccurate

      Before this statement, the authors are addressing what those with opposing views think about the topic of whiteness and privilege. This plays toward their ethos because it clearly outlines for the reader both sides of the issue, helping the reader to feel informed and to trust the authors to deliver credible information.

    6. deny, distance, or dismantle (3D) model articulates three identity-management strategies: denial of White privilege, distancing from whiteness, and dismantling of privilege. Further, we argue that Whites’ choice of strategy shapes their concern for racial inequality and commitment to measures that might reduce it.

      Furthermore, the authors use the terminology and apply it to their theory that when faced with evidence of white privilege, a white person will react in one of three ways, each reaction relating to their "concern for racial inequality and commitment to measures that might reduce it."

    7. White identity management—actively “tuning” their cognitions concerning whiteness in ways that immunize the self from threat

      Knowles, Lowery, Chow and Unzueta give the reader vocabulary, defining and explaining the terms they use to discuss their theories. This works to hold the audience at the same academic level as the writers, assuring there is nothing lost in translation, so to speak.

    8. We argue that this view is inaccurate and that racial inequality cannot be adequately understood without accounting for Whites’ perceptions of, and reactions to, their race and privileged position in the social order.

      The authors directly address their claim in this statement. Beginning the article with the reference to Ebony magazine vaguely introduces the topic of discussion, then by the end of the second paragraph it is understood by the audience what the intention and argument of the article is.

    9. Deny

      Knowles, E. D., B. S. Lowery, R. M. Chow, and M. M. Unzueta. "Deny, Distance, or Dismantle? How White Americans Manage a Privileged Identity." Perspectives on Psychological Science 9.6 (2014): 594-609. PsycINFO [EBSCO]. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    10. Eric D. Knowles,

      The main author seems to be Eric D. Knowles. Knowles is an associate professor of Psychology at New York University. You can find a list of his publications with his contact information here: https://psych.nyu.edu/knowles/

    11. Deny, Distance, or Dismantle? How White Americans Manage a Privileged Identity

      The journal this article is published in, Perspectives on Psychological Science, is a bimonthly publication that is peer-reviewed and contains a wide variety of content. View the description by the parent company SAGE Journals: http://pps.sagepub.com/

    1. While!Pakistan!was!created!with!the!intention!of!equal!rights!for!all!citizens,!ZiaEulEHaq’s! militaryEcoup! and! subsequent! presidency! from! 1977E1988! shifted! the! track!by!changing!many!of!these!laws.!In!line!with!his!notorious!Islamization!process,!Zia!believed! in! his! own! version! of!‘true! Islam’! and! there! in! implemented! the! Hudood!Ordinance!in!1979,!enforcing!Qur’anic!punishments!in!their!literal!form.

      I would use this source by integrating the history of Pakistan and Pakistani women to better understand the reasons why Pakistan got to be where it is now, in terms of both women's and other citizens oppression throughout past years. Also, it shows how Islamic ideals and misinterpretations came to play such an important role as an underlying reason to inflict such harsh conditions on women. This piece selected from the article also gives evidence in supporting the author's original claim. It's stating how equal right was the original goal for Pakistan, however the shift in presidency form 1977-1988 played a substantial role in the islamization process. This reflects what the author was saying about women's oppression being a long time problem.

    2. From!1956!onwards,!women!were!allowed!the!right!to!vote!in!national!elections!and!were!allotted! a! number! of! seats! in! the!Parliament.3(I

      This demonstrates how there was attempts at progression in Pakistan when it comes to women's rights but it was never successful. It relates back to Rathore's claim because it shows that women's rights have been a problem for a long period of time and have continued to be a problem.

    3. The! 1950sE1970s! were! progressive! years! for! women’s! rights! in! Pakist

      The authors is claiming that Pakistani women still struggle with equal rights today just as they have for a mass amount of time.

    4. Women's Rights in Pakistan: The Zina Ordinance& the Need for Reform

      Rathore, Minah Ali, "Women's Rights in Pakistan: The Zina Ordinance & the Need for Reform" (2015).Center for Public PolicyAdministration Capstones.Paper 38

    5. Minah Ali Rathore

      This is the only published article I could obtain by this author.

    1. That was the most eye-opening finding in a Pew Research Center study on science literacy undertaken in cooperation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and released in January. The survey represented a sample of 2,002 adult citizens and 3,748 scientists, all members of the AAAS.

      A company that has vested interest in making GMOs appear safe.

    2. Yes, there is a vigorous public discussion over GMOs. Yes, the thought of tinkering with our food in a lab—unaccountable scientists mixing steaming flasks—conjures up visions of soylent green and grotesque deformities. Let us acknowledge it; no one wants “technology” for dessert. The thought of GMO foods is not appetizing!

      The author really connects to the opposition here, voicing their concerns and somewhat agreeing with them.

    3. then tested the heck out of them for safety and allergenicity

      In all the previous articles I've read it has been stated that these GMOs are not required to be tested, so I would probably like to research this topic more so I could determine whether or not these products are tested for safety.

    4. You may have read, from anti-GMO websites or oh so reliable sources like Dr. Oz, or Jeffrey Smith’s Institute for Responsible Technology or Food Babe that the use of GMOs has unleashed a pesticide tsunami that is sweeping across the plains. Not

      The overtly sarcastic tone in this article is just obnoxious. With such a controversial topic I think it would be wise for the author to be a bit more serious.

    5. Introduced barely a decade ago, now upwards of 90 percent of Indian cotton is grown using Bt seeds

      While bragging that the crops have been introduced very recently and their benefits in such a short time the author is missing the very controversial point that these crops have not been tested for their long term effects.

    6. Among other nefarious tactics, anti-GMO activist posing as journalists have been telling farmer that their children could become paralyzed from eating Br brinjal.

      This statement seems overly defensive possibly turning away the author's intended audience. It also has improper grammar, further lessening the author's credibility.

    7. alled Bt, that is highly specific to pests but is nontoxic to birds, fish and humans. It is less toxic than table salt. It has been used safely in organic farming for nearly 100 years.

      I have trouble fathoming how something can kill insects but is completely harmless to humans, is is because of the dosage? I would like to do more research on this to see if this is possible.

    8. It is not owned or patented by major corporations. It is grown from public sector seeds, developed for distribution to resource-poor shareholder farmers.

      The author states this as if it is an important fact, whereas most GMOs are produced by a private sector.

    9. In fact, almost none of our foods that we eat today is the product of Nature’s way.

      Selecting genes to pronounce in food is different than taking genes from other organisms and inserting them into another organism. Author loses credibility here for presenting GMOs as selective breeding.

    10. The Case for GMOs and Sustainability

      Entine, John. "The Case for GMOs and Sustainability | Genetic Literacy Project." Genetic Literacy Project. 02 June 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

    11. GMO critics seem comfortable with that kind of genetic manipulation. But when it comes to inserting genes from one species into another, many people go “yuck,” claiming that it is “totally different” than conventional breeding.

      The author just led his readers to believe that the two were the same in the beginning of the article, yet now he states that they are different things. Again, losing credibility.

      The author's claim is that selective breeding and genetically modifying foods are essentially the same and we have been doing this for thousands of years, so GMOs must be safe.

    12. In fact, almost none of our foods that we eat today is the product of Nature’s way.

      The author here loses credibility because selective breeding in plants is different than genetically modifying plants genes.

    13. And that way you could avoid the ‘taint’ of eating food that might have come in contact with ‘dangerous’ GMOs

      The author already loses the interest of the audience they are trying to reach here by mocking them. The "they" the author is trying to persuade is probably cautious of genetically modified foods.

    1. Westerners usually associate the plight of Pakistani women with religious oppression, but the reality is far more complicated. A certain mentality is deeply ingrained in strictly patriarchal societies like Pakistan. Poor and uneducated women must struggle daily for basic rights, recognition, and respect. They must live in a culture that defines them by the male figures in their lives, even though these women are often the breadwinners for their families

      This passage builds the author's ethos. By acknowledging that although religion is associated with women's oppression it is not the only thing that affects their rights, treatment, and accessibility to education.

    2. On the night of his birth, while my whole family was celebrating, I went to my uncle's house to get more bread. I didn't know a young man was there. In the empty home, he took advantage of me; he did things that I didn't understand; he touched my chest. Before I could realize, there was a cloth over my mouth and I was being raped. I was having trouble walking back home; I felt faint and I had a headache. This happens a lot in villages. Young girls are raped, murdered, and buried. No one is able to trace them after their disappearance. If a woman is not chaste, she is unworthy of marriage. All he did is ask for forgiveness and they let him go as it was best to avoid having others find out what had happened. He didn't receive any punishment even though he ruined me. People may have forgotten what he did, but I never forgot. Now, he is married and living his life happily. I blame my own fate; I am just unlucky that this happened to me.

      I will use this an example of what happens to girls. Not only are they raped but they are thought to be unworthy. This is a perfect example of how Pakistan is a patriarchal society. The man didn't receive any punishment or repercussions for his actions while the young girl is dealing with the loss of worth. All of these cases help to build the author's logos and ethos. These are real life events that reflect that there are several different reasons why this is happening and several different factors for why nothing gets done about it.

    3. Zara Jamal

      Zara Jamal is a Canadian writer studying at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec.


      Zara Jamal's claim is that their are several different things that contribute to women's oppression and they all combine to make Pakistan what it is today.

    4. According to a 2011 poll of experts by the Thomson Reuters Foundation Poll, Pakistan is the third most dangerous country for women in the world. It cited the more than 1,000 women and girls murdered in "honor killings" every year and reported that 90 percent of Pakistani women suffer from domestic violence.

      This evidence is good for Jamal to establish logos. The fact that Pakistan is ranked the third most dangerous country in this poll gives the audience insight and interest on the issue.

    5. To Be a Woman in Pakistan: Six Stories of Abuse, Shame, and Survival

      Jamal, Zara. "To Be a Woman in Pakistan: Six Stories of Abuse, Shame, and Survival." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 9 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Oct. 2016.

    1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA

      This is a stakeholder because they are from the medical perspective of topic of conversion therapy. They are a organization that deals with mental health especially for youth. They are reliable with the information that they have because they are close to the field that is being observed for this research. Many of the people apart of this organization are doctors, social workers, etc. This is relevant to the current topic of the affects of conversion therapy because they are educated in the mental health category and have been apart of helping the individuals for years.

    2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Ending Conversion Therapy: Supporting and Affirming LGBTQ Youth. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4928. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015.

      This is the citation in MLA format.

    3. SAMHSA

      There is no cited author of this article; however, it seems to be someone associated with the SAMHSA organization, which is an organization that is for the mental health of lgbt+ youth. This article seems to appear in a pamphlet format, which is often displayed in doctor offices , in order to inform patients. If this is the case, then this may be seen by multiple kinds of people, including parents and the lgbt+ youth.

    4. Sexual orientation is a multidimensional construct that consists of sexual identity, sexual and romantic attraction, and sexual behavior. Great shifts in the understanding of sexual orientation have occurred over the past century (Herek, 2010). Though a minority sexual orientation was once considered abnormal or a medical problem, scientists now understand that sexuality occurs on a continuum and variations in sexual orientation are part of the normal range of human sexuality (American Psychological Association, 2009; Diamond, 2015; Vrangalova & Savin-Williams, 2012).

      Throughout this article, the author uses research based evidence. Although, they never use quotes about other's opinions, they do paraphrase with the citations of where the information is derived from. The evidence always seems to support the idea that conversion therapy is harmful and does not seem to go into the other side's perspective, but the information is reliable and recent.

    5. These individuals included researchers and practitioners in child and adolescent mental health with a strong background in gender development, gender identity, and sexual orientation in children and adolescents. The panel also included experts with a background in family therapy, ethics, and the psychology of religion. Among others, the panel included:

      The author includes a list of individuals who contributed to the panel, which consists mostly of professionals with multiple different backgrounds. This is done to establish more ethos throughout the article.

    6. Through the support of the Federal Agencies Project, APA hosted an expert consensus convening on this topic in July 2015, which significantly informed this report.

      The SAMHSA group establishes ethos through explaining that they collaborated with another organization called the Federal Agencies Project. This shows that they are credible, since it is not just the idea of one professional organization to end conversion therapy. There are multiple groups and organizations around the United States that have input on the situation. Although, this establishes credibility, it could also be believed that the author of this article only seeked out the opinion of another organization that already believed that this is a harmful therapy. This could show bias toward the idea that conversion therapy is harmful, since they do not seem to include much information about why the other side believes that it is not a harmful technique.

    7. comprehensive evaluation, support in identity exploration and development without an a priori goal of any particular gender identity or expression, and facilitation of family and community support

      The author of this article realizes that therapies that try to change the identity of the youth are harmful and should under no circumstance be used to 'treat' their lgbt+ identities. This kind of conversion therapy is not a treatment, instead it hurts the person who is forced into it, especially if they are mostly sure that they are not heterosexual, but this is a discovery that the child has to make on their own. []http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/sites/default/files/files/styles/large/public/field/image/conversion%203.jpg This is a picture that relates to the standpoint of the author of this article. The picture is from a protest on conversion therapy because it is harmful for those involved. It is relevant because it is becoming more known by ordinary people (not doctors) that this kind of therapy is not helping the lgbt+ youth.

    8. These psychosocial issues are likely related to if not caused by negative social attitudes or rejection (Vance, Ehrensaft, & Rosenthal, 2014). As with sexual minority adolescents, other issues of clinical relevance for gender minority adolescents include increased risk of experiencing victimization and violence, suicidal ideation and attempts, and homelessness

      Moving forward in my research I would like to explore more of these symptoms that lgbt+ youth often have after the rejection of their identities. I believe this would be an interesting way to see what kind of emotions this kind of rejection leads to for many youth. For instance, do many youth who are rejected based on their lgbt+ identities feel shame, want to commit suicide, etc.?

    9. Children are rarely if ever distressed about their current or future sexual orientation; more commonly, parents and guardians are distressed about a child’s perceived current or future sexual orientation and seek the assistance of behavioral health providers

      Children need to feel a sense of security and confidence when it comes to learning about themselves; however, this is deeply influenced by the people around them. If someone 'comes out' at a young age or during puberty they often are met with multiple challenges, especially from the people they hold the closest. Many children do not know how their parents may take the news that they currently identify with the lgbt+ community. They long for validation and acceptance and are afraid of rejection, especially from their parents. Often, when a child has more conservative parents on the lgbt+ views, they are often afraid of what will happen to them when they decide to disclose the information of their possible sexuality. For instance, many of these children are afraid to be left on their own or kicked out because of their sexualities. Many years ago, I knew a boy who was older then I was, who grew up with a Catholic background. When he was open about it to his parents after years of struggling with finding his identity, he was met with rejection and acceptance. His mother could not accept that her son was gay and did not know how to handle the information in a positive manner, which caused a rift in their relationship. However, his father was completely accepting and never treated him differently for something he could not change.

    10. Sexuality occurs across a continuum; same-gender attraction and relationships are normal variations of human sexuality (Diamond, 2015; Vrangalova & Savin-Williams, 2012). Similarly, a gender identity that is incongruent with assigned sex at birth, as well as a gender expression that diverges from stereotypical cultural norms for a particular gender, are normal variations of human gender

      SAMHSA is trying to explain that sexuality varies in human beings and is a perfectly natural attraction. The audience is most likely toward parents who do not know how to handle their feelings about their child being lgbt+, more specifically a parent who may be more conservative about their views. For instance, families with strict religious backgrounds have a tendency to believe that homosexuality is a sin. In order for the author of this article to continue with how a parent or guardian should handle these negative feelings toward their child for not being heterosexual, they use the word "normal" to validate the youths' sexualities.

    11. SAMHSA is committed to eliminating health disparities facing vulnerable communities, including sexual and gender minority communities.

      The claim in this journal is placed in the summary and argues that lgbt+ youths experience multiple different issues in the mental health category, which is where SAMHSA comes in to exclaim the negative effects on the child that often occur when a family acts in a negative fashion to their child's sexual identity and/or gender identity. Ultimately their goal is to create a more positive environment for these youths, especially through getting the conversion therapy thoughts out of a parent's or guardian's head before it causes more damage to the lgbt+ child.

    1. In spite of many obstacles, the organization is able toclaim a number of achievements. In the absence of nationaldata and comprehensive studies of violence, it is not possi-ble to evaluate their overall impact on the prevalence of vio-lence in the society. It would be unrealistic to expect that oneorganization in any society, let alone Pakistan, would be ableto diminish such a pervasive problem. In fact, it can be arguedthat an increase in reported gender violence, a phenomenon

      This organization is a great solution to the Critelli's claim. The impact that this organization has made can be multiplied if more shelters become available. The fact that these things are happening provides great hope that people do care about these things and do want to see a change in a way that women are treated.

    2. In Pakistan, their work iscrucial given the absence of concerted governmental effort todocument the prevalence of violence against women and lackof political will and appropriation of resources to address theissue (Shirkat Gah, 2007; WHO, 2002). In nearly 20 years ofexistence, Dastak has successfully projected women's issues tothe forefront of politics, have raised awareness about genderviolence, advocated for legal reform, and developed beneficialprograms that otherwise would be unavailable to women inPakistan. Shelter programs, often non-existent in resource-poorcountries, play a key role in enabling women to resist violenc

      Im definitely going to use this piece of evidence in my work to remind people that the women's organizations are so crucial to the change that we wish to see in Pakistan, as well as all aorund the world. They are crucial to make sure that people are aware of these issues. Another way that they make such a huge impact is they way that they rehabilitate women.

    3. Multiple interrelated factors at individual, familial-cul-tural, community and environmental levels work against awoman becoming independent. Resettling women is report-ed as the most challenging work of the shelter because of thelimited employment and housing options, the low levels ofhuman capital of the women and an inhospitable commu-nity climate for women who live apart from family. During2007-2008 about 31% of the women (91) were resettled, gener-ally meaning that they obtained divorces and established newresidences. Staff works to develop linkages with employerssuch as factory owners, offices and households in need of do-mestic help. They also provide training in traditional femaleactivities such as sewing and handicraft making as incomegeneration strategies. Women's economic dependence and

      This is so interesting to be because not only do they have to help them get back to their full mental ability, but they have to integrate them back into their community. Why did it get this bad in the first place? Only 31 % were actually successfully integrated.

    4. According to data maintained by the organization, theshelter has admitted over 5,025 women since their inception in1990. From August 2007 to August 2008, a total of 296 womenwere admitted, accompanied by 165 children. Ninety-one ofthe women were married and accompanied by children, 169were married and arrived without children, and 36 were singleor divorced at the time of admission. During this period a ma-jority (172) of the residents were from the Lahore district, while122 came from other provinces of Pakistan, although at otherintervals there are often more women from distant areas. Twonon-Pakistani citizens were also served during this time. Themost frequent type of services provided were psychologicalcounseling (235 women) and free legal aid (155 women) whichprimarily included assistance with divorce, child custody andproperty or inheritance claims, in that order, although thebreakdown is not available. Over the course of the year, nineskills training courses, twenty awareness trainings and onetheatre workshop was provided

      This verifies Critielli's claim that gender-based violence constitutes a major public health risk. A number of these women received psychological counseling and free legal aid. Obviously the inequalities here are relevant and having an impact on women's mental health and financial stability. We also need to realize a lot of these women are trapped because of lack of education given to women.

    5. Gender-based violence constitutes a major public healthrisk and has been determined to be a serious violation ofbasic human rights throughout the world (World HealthOrganization [WHO], 2005; Amnesty International, 1999,2002).

      Critelli states her claim almost immediately. Gender-based violence constitutes a major public health risk and has been determined to be a serious violation of basic human rights throughout the world. It is what the underlying cause of this article.

    6. The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

      The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare (JSSW) is sponsored jointly by Western Michigan University, the College of Health and Human Services, and School of Social Work. The substantial support of the University of California, Berkeley in the publication of the journal is gratefully acknowledged



      Education PhD, Social Welfare, University at Albany (2003) MSW, Master of Social Work, University at Buffalo (1977) BA, Sociology, University at Buffalo (1974)

      What's mentioned up above builds Critelli's ethos. This helps the audience to understand on what credibility does she have to inform us on these issues.


    8. Critelli

      Critelli (2010) "Women's Rights=Human Rights: Pakistani Women against Gender Violence," The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 37: Iss. 2, Article 7.

    1. documented health dangers

      Not very reliable since it links us to the author's own website.

    2. By avoiding GMOs, you contribute to the coming tipping point of consumer rejection, forcing them out of our food supply.

      The author's call to action to the people.

    3. GMOs do not, on average, increase yields at all.

      Interesting, since this is one of the main arguments for GMOs. I would like to look further into this for scientific proof for my paper.

    4. Attempts by media to expose problems are also often censored

      Since a lot of studies are conducted by the GMO pioneer companies themselves, such as Monsanto, it really is impossible to get diverse and unbiased information out to the public.

    5. GMOs can create unpredictable, hard-to-detect side effects.

      Such as? The author isn't a doctor and does not present his education, so I do not know where he is claiming to have gathered this information.

    6. M plant can result in massive collateral damage that produces new toxins, allergens, carcinogens, and nutritional deficiencies.

      The author is losing ethos here as he does not even have an example. These claims would have been super convincing if he had some citations to back them up.

    7. Roundup, for example, is linked with sterility, hormone disruption, birth defects, and cancer.

      Without a citation, all of the evidence he is presenting from apparently his own knowledge is hard to believe.

    8. Not only does this create environmental harm

      What does it do to our environment?

    9. GMOs increase herbicide use

      Are herbicides bad? Bad for humans, the environment?

    10. . GMO contamination has also caused economic losses for organic and non-GMO farmers who often struggle to keep their crops pure

      The only reason why this is bad is because of the possible negative effects of GMOs. If GMOs are safe then this reason would not matter.

    11. The American Public Health Association and American Nurses Association are among many medical groups that condemn the use of GM bovine growth hormone, because the milk from treated cows has more of the hormone IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1)―which is linked to cancer.

      Throughout this whole article the author is trying to convince the people who do not oppose GMOs. The "they" he is addressing is the group of people who are convinced that gm foods are safe.

    12. 10 Reasons to Avoid GMOs

      Smith, Jeffrey. "10 Reasons to Avoid GMOs." Institute for Responsible Technology. 14 Mar. 2016. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      The author's claim is in the title, he wants consumers to avoid GMOs for 10 specific reasons. And obviously this author is very biased as he is advising his readers to avoid GMOs without providing any evidence first.

    13. AAEM

      This appears to be a credible and reliable source https://www.aaemonline.org/

    14. Genes inserted into GM soy, for example, can transfer into the DNA of bacteria living inside us, and that the toxic insecticide produced by GM corn was found in the blood of pregnant women and their unborn fetuses.

      Would like a citation for this, this is too serious of a claim to not have any proof.

    1. There-fore, we wonder whether audience perceptions in other, perhaps more common,debate contexts (e.g., in courtrooms or during live political debates), where nonver-bal cues are present, though less salient, would produce similar audience responses.

      This article was written by John Seiter, Harold Kinzer and Harry Weger Jr. They write for Routledge about nonverbal background behavior in live debates. They made a study claiming how nonverbal background behaviors influence the audience and the credibility of the speaker. They used evidence from past debates, including John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon, watching the opponent not speaking doing gestures like shaking his head. Not only does opponents attacking each other verbally through a debate have an impact on the audience, this study shows that nonverbal behavior influences it, if not more. The audience knows that the opponent should not interrupt with the other person is talking, so they are coming up with a new strategy. They uses nonverbal behaviors to draw the attention of the audience to them rather the opponent speaking in that moment. The authors seem credible in how they did their research to do this study and how they conducted this study themselves rather than getting facts from the internet. There seems to be no bias in this article. Those who would disagree with this article would be the people who think that the only way to influence the audience is by how the candidate speaks on either an issue or talking about the other opponent negatively. This article would appeal to anyone interested in voting for the presidential debate. People tend to educate themselves on who they should vote for before they choose a preferred candidate, and articles like these will have them paying close attention to the candidates body language along with their verbal responses to figure out who they like better.



  8. www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org
    1. In summary, there are no data to support the claim that GM products are universally safe. In contrast, there is increasing evidence from the scientific community that some GM crops and definitely the herbicides that are required to produce the major GM crops are toxic

      restating claim

    2. These issues are too complex to discuss here,

      This kind of discredits the author, it seems like he is jumping around the issue or does not think his audience is intelligent enough to comprehend the data.

    3. But the glyphosate resistant GM crops do not die, while the surrounding weeds are killed. There are a number of studies showing that glyphosate is an endocrine disrupter and toxic to humans.[18][19]

      So while tests have not been conducted on gm foods, there have been tests conducted on the herbicides sprayed on gm crops - which have been found to be toxic.

    4. [12][13]

      I really appreciate that he has links for every one of his claims, no matter how small.

    5. Within the U.S., the scientific discussion of health hazards associated with GM crops is muted because it is largely controlled by industry and pro-industry plant scientists within the major scientific organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

      Interesting because I just annotated an article from the AAAS and did not notice an inherent bias, but also did not notice any criticism of gm foods.

    6. and we do not know about future GMO

      ok but what about present gmos?

    7. The laws that dictate the approval of GM foods were written by Monsanto, the company that developed the first GM plants.[9]

      This shows that the interests of large companies (monopolies in the GMO industry) do not put the concern of the consumer first, instead profit is the end goal.

    8. This case would have been much harder to trace to the source without the required labeling of the supplement.

      This is an accident related to gm foods, without gm labeling,companies could not be held accountable for deaths caused by their products (may be why they're pressing for non-required gm labeling)

    9. and from my view as a medical research scientist

      again, boosting his ethos by showing the reader that he has experience in this subject.

    10. n contrast, Bt-corn makes a bacterial insecticide that binds to and damages cells of the gut of insects and likely does the same in humans.[5] Finally, the GM papaya was engineered to resist a plant virus and may be perfectly safe to eat.[6] But until some comprehensive safety testing protocols are mandated, at a minimum similar to those required for all other food additives, the buyer should be given the option of whether to take the risk or not

      The author states the supposed harms of gm foods, but also says that there is a possibility that some of them are perfectly safe. This adds to his credibility by showing he is open to the possibility that gm foods may be perfectly safe, just a bit testing is required to prove that.

    11. The production of GM soy requires large amounts of herbicides containing the chemical glyphosate, declared a probable carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO).[3][4]

      Quoting the World Health Organization which is very reliable is a big ethos booster for the author. The WHO is an unbiased organization that doesn't have any corporations interests in mind.This is also very valuable information for me and my twine project, who would want to each a verified carcinogen?

    12. (1) All existing plants produced by GM technology are different from each other and all pose different levels of risk to health; (2) Because most anything is possible in the world of genetic engineering, we have no way of knowing what will be introduced into our food chain in the future, and; (3) Finally, this is all made more problematic because there is no required Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety testing of any GM product, and in fact to date none has been tested for toxicity.[1][2]

      He is addressing the "they" throughout the article that do not believe it be necessary to label GMO foods. Here he states his reasons simply upfront with citations.

    13. David Schubert

      He is a Salk Institute scientist with plenty of experience and education.

    14. Most people would prefer to have foods containing genetically modified products labeled as such.

      This is the author's claim, he is stating that even though there are many studies claiming that GM foods are safe, there is mounting evidence that says differently.


      Schubert, By David. Gene Watch Page. Gene Watch Page. Jan. 2016. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    1. Were any of the Séralini data genuine, major producers of breeding livestock could not have failed to notice and report similar phenomena

      Again these are claims without any evidence. How do we know that many animals in factory farms do not have tumors because we do not see them and many tumors on larger animals are not easily visible.

    2. Well-designed chronic toxicity studies in multiple species using doses of herbicide orders of magnitude higher than those tested by Séralini and colleagues have demonstrated no toxic effects

      Now this just doesn't make sense. Something designed to kill another living organism is somehow considered safe to consumer for humans?

    3. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of this report is the claimed toxicity of glyphosate (Roundup) in drinking water (0.1 ppb of Roundup or 50 ng/L of glyphosate) with the highest incidence of tumors supposedly found in the animals administered the lowest dose

      I agree that this does not add up, but also I think that it is implausible that such a large number of the rats developed such significant and life threatening just because of their breed.

    4. author’s


      The author of the study that they are criticizing has his own website. It honestly does not look very credible, but I have not read the information that he has provided regarding the study he conducted.

    5. It is therefore a disturbing trend that when the science is indefensible, the tactic has become one of questioning the right of other scientists to critique questionable results. Scientists who have questioned Séralini’s flawed results have been automatically accused of corporate corruption or of making attacks on academic freedom

      This article continually makes claims that are not supported. I am confused as to if they expect their readers to go and research the claims they are making or if they expect them to believe them without evidence.

    6. was a transparent attempt to discredit regulatory agencies around the world, and to get the public to insist on different standards of regulation for GM crops (Entine 2012)

      This journal is attempting to claim that there was some duplicitous motive to the study they are critiquing. Kind of unnerving that it feels like they have to defend the standards of regulations on GM foods.

    7. erroneous

      The bias in this paper is palpable. If they were simply reporting facts and left out the claims that the this study was "erroneous" without first supplying proof then I would trust this article much more.

    8. The tide of criticism was joined by the competent national authorities

      Claiming that nations that are "competent" because they agree with the authors of this article is extremely biased and an unsound claim.

    9. (Butler 2012).

      Off the bat the source they cite does not appear credible, they reference a study that the company itself (Monsanto) conducted that had different results than an independent study.

    10. Here we discuss the many errors and inaccuracies in the published article resulting in highly misleading conclusions, whose publication in the scientific literature and in the wider media has caused damage to the credibility of science and researchers in the field.

      The claim for this article is that another study has had many inaccuracies that have led the public to distrust GM foods. The "they" that they are refuting is the people who have read and trust the conclusions presented by the article they are attempting to disprove in this article.

    11. Manuel Portero


      This author appears qualified and has some other articles he has published on different topics.

    12. Gemma Arjó


      This author appears to have several articles on the safety of GM foods showing she already has a set opinion on this topic.

    13. Plurality of opinion, scientific discourse and pseudoscience: an in depth analysis of the Séralini et al. study claiming that Roundup™ Ready corn or the herbicide Roundup™ cause cancer in rats

      Arjó, Gemma, Manuel Portero, Carme Piñol, Juan Viñas, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Teresa Capell, Andrew Bartholomaeus, Wayne Parrott, and Paul Christou. "Plurality of Opinion, Scientific Discourse and Pseudoscience: An in Depth Analysis of the Séralini Et Al. Study Claiming That Roundup™ Ready Corn or the Herbicide Roundup™ Cause Cancer in Rats." Transgenic Research 22.2 (2013): 255-67. Springer Link. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    1. definitions.

      As a general comment on this article, I'm left wanting more, but this is a good article to get me started off. This piece gives me some background information and a bit more direction in terms of what I'm researching. I may just use this source for back up in the future, as opposed to using it as the main support of an argument.

    2. More specifically, black men were often assumed to be the rapists of white women and immigrant men were overwhelmingly stereotyped as the deviant homosexual seducers of young boys.

      Even when many white men were accused of such acts, for some reason, the white men are deemed innocent while the scapegoats become stereotypes of their race.

    3. Of course, white men who committed rape were cast as exceptions to their racial group, whereas black men accused of rape were seen as representatives of theirs.

      This is a poignant assertion. Non-whites (and their actions) are usually seen as a representative of their larger group, whereas whites are given the benefit of being considered as an individual. For example, if a black man robs a store, that group (either African Americans as a whole, or African American men) is assumed to have the tendency to rob; whereas if a white man robs a store, he is seen as the outlier, the exception to the rule.

    4. REVIEW OF: Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation

      Martinez, Amanda R. "REVIEW OF: Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation." The Journal of Race and Policy 10.1 (2014): 111-15. Ethnic NewsWatch [ProQuest]. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      The author of this review, Amanda R. Martinez, is an assistant professor in communication studies, sociology, and gender & sexuality studies at Davidson College in North Carolina. This review is posted in The Journal of Race and Policy.

    5. Redefining Rape is exhaustive in covering the intersectionalities across hundreds of years that inevitably reflect societal tensions, amply supported with detailed legal cases and recounted stories at the community, state, and national scopes. Those interested in gender studies, women's issues and history, LGBTQ human rights issues, social psychology, sociology, and communication studies would particularly enjoy this comprehensive work on socially constructed and ever-changing rape definitions.

      Martinez's claim is that "Redefining Rape" by Freedmen is an important read that chronicles the history of rape and how it intertwines with race and gender relations in the United States.

    6. At the outset, Freedman draws upon historical data to describe the foundational political history of rape

      The author of the original piece being reviewed ("Redefining Rape" by Estelle B. Freedmen) includes context in how rape and sexual assault have been addressed over the course of history. She addresses cultural response to rape and accusations of such beginning in the 1600s and working toward the present.

    7. white males are privileged and entitled to act upon their sexual impulses, so much so that white men's privilege was granted automatic social protection in many cases. Furthermore, men outside the bounds of white privilege were often cast as sexual deviants, even when evidence pointed to the strong likelihood of a white male rapist.

      I would consider referencing or quoting highlighted portion to show that it is nothing new for white men to be excused for their wrongdoings and, in turn, for non-whites to be accused and then stereotyped for such crimes.

    1. Stem cells are important tools for disease research and offer great potential for use in the clinic. Some adult stem cell sources are currently used for therapy, although they have limitations. The first clinical trials using cells made from embryonic stem cells are just beginning. Meanwhile, induced pluripotent stem cells are already of great use in research, but a lot of work is needed before they can be considered for use in the clinic. An additional avenue of current research is transdifferentiation – converting one type of specialised cell directly into another.

      The author of this article is not listed and is most likely a group of people. It was published by the EuroStemCell, an independent organization signed to, "help European citizens make sense of stem cells." Before I say anything Europe, especially the United Kingdom, has far less regulation of embryonic stem cell research compared to the United States. In the UK, as long as the research furthers human knowledge of how to treat disease and help people, then it is legal. That being said, there is a possibility that their research could be of higher value due to the little restrictions in their country compared to ours where it is very difficult to do research. I think that EuroStemCell is a fairly reliable source, however, they do not cite any of their sources which does hurt their credibility. This article talks about a lot of interesting and important things but the major part of the article I would like to talk about is the clinical uses of each type of stem cell. ESCs are just starting clinical trial after over 15 years of research on them and they are still in the very early stages of trials. They are thought to have the least amount of complications in clinical usage compared to iSPCs and umbilical cord iSPCs. What does this mean for iSPCs? It could mean that much more research needs to be done with them in order to be prepared for clinical trial. It is still unclear the exact clinical uses that they could have but among the ones listed in this article are patient specific treatments to decrease or eliminate the possibility of rejection. Overall, I think the article does a very nice job of outlining the progress made in stem cell research, especially in each field individually. It's important to remember, as I noted earlier, this source is not completely credible so it may not be completely accurate. EuroStemCell is obviously a stakeholder on the issue but we cannot assume their stance on the issue of embryonic research. The article does a fairly nice job of establishing ethos and making them as credible as they can be, however, they could easily make this article a more reliable source by adding citations or references. Questions I would have for this article would be where they obtained their information and what, exactly, they do as an organization and they fit into all of this.

      "Types of Stem Cells and Their Current Uses." EuroStemCell. EuroStemCell, 17 Aug. 2012. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      Outside Sources Used: "About Us | Europe's Stem Cell Hub | EuroStemCell." About Us | Europe's Stem Cell Hub | EuroStemCell. EuroStemCell, n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      Dhar, Deepali, and John Hsi-en Ho. "Stem Cell Research Policies around the World." The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. YJBM, Sept. 2009. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    1. Moreover, we must avoid the temptation to further sacrifice Earth’s already hugely depleted biodiversity for easy gains in food production, not only because biodiversity provides many of the public goods on which mankind relies but also because we do not have the right to deprive future generations of its economic and cultural benefits. Together, these challenges amount to a perfect storm.

      I think the "they" the authors' are addressing in this article are people are unaware or in denial of the urgency of this situation.

    2. Efforts to increase sustainable production limits that benefit the poorest nations will need to be based around new alliances of businesses, civil society organizations, and governments.

      Unlike one company making all of the decisions, we need multiple organizations working together to keep the interests of the people and the environment in mind.

    3. Because genetic modification involves germline modification of an organism and its introduction to the environment and food chain, a number of particular environmental and food safety issues need to be assessed

      The authors' appear to be doing a good job of leaving their biases out of this article. They evenly present to pros and cons of the situation and offer solutions but also explain the drawbacks.

    4. We also accept the need for this technology to gain greater public acceptance and trust before it can be considered as one among a set of technologies that may contribute to improved global food security.

      They say "we" as though they have a dog in this fight with the universal acceptance of GMOs.

    5. Just as seriously, it also led to a virtual monopoly of GM traits in some parts of the world, by a restricted number of companies, which limits innovation and investment in the technology.

      This goes right back to my current research question. Monopolies in the food industry, especially in the agrichemical business delete competition and innovation leaving the consumers' interests behind.

    6. and a switch from public to private sources

      Is it dangerous that we are switching from a public to a private source? Do these private sources have the consumers' best interest in mind?

    7. Currently, the major commercialized genetically modified (GM) crops involve relatively simple manipulations, such as the insertion of a gene for herbicide resistance or another for a pest-insect toxin.

      Genetically modifying foods can make them resistant to certain toxins which are sprayed on the foods. To do this they insert a gene to make these plants resistant - do we know where these genes come from and if they're safe?

    8. conventional breeding to develop F1 hybrid varieties of maize and semi-dwarf, disease-resistant varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties could be provided with more irrigation and fertilizer (20) without the risk of major crop losses due to lodging (falling over) or severe rust epidemics.

      Conventional breeding of selected traits could increase yield and limit crop losses.

    9. In this article, major strategies for contributing to the challenge of feeding 9 billion people, including the most disadvantaged, are explored. Particular emphasis is given to sustainability, as well as to the combined role of the natural and social sciences in analyzing and addressing the challenge

      This is basically the thesis for this article.

    10. n recent decades, agricultural land that was formerly productive has been lost to urbanization and other human uses, as well as to desertification, salinization, soil erosion, and other consequences of unsustainable land management (16). Further losses, which may be exacerbated by climate change, are likely

      All the ways that humans formerly increased food production are becoming less available as it is destroying our ecosystems. Therefore other solutions must be found.

    11. A threefold challenge now faces the world (9): Match the rapidly changing demand for food from a larger and more affluent population to its supply; do so in ways that are environmentally and socially sustainable; and ensure that the world’s poorest people are no longer hungry.

      The authors' claim is that the way we are producing food now is not sustainable and there needs to be a new way to get food to the masses without further damaging our environment.

    12. Science  12 Feb 2010:Vol. 327, Issue 5967, pp. 812-818DOI: 10.1126/science.1185383

      American Association for the Advancement of Science is the world's largest general scientific society. It publishes five respected peer reviewed journals.

    13. H. Charles J. Godfray1,


      Godfray has a lot of experience and including nine other authors this article most likely has a lot of relevant information.

    14. Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People
      Godfray, H. C. J., J. R. Beddington, I. R. Crute, L. Haddad, D. Lawrence, J. F. Muir, J. Pretty, S. Robinson, S. M. Thomas, and C. Toulmin. "Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People." Science 327.5967 (2010): 812-18. AAAS. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      The article is already setting the tone that it will be exploring the ways for the majority of people to get fed with the skyrocketing population.

    1. Scientists began to use space missions to unlock the planet’s secrets in the early 1970s

      They found that the planet is composed mostly of liquid, and that it has a magnetic field like Earth. This hinted at Jupiter’s composition and the possibility of a solid core. They also got a close look at Jupiter’s clouds – from 26,000 miles (about 42,000 km) – to determine weather patterns. With the Launch of Juno the scientists expect to find out a lot about the planets origin, structure, gravitational and magnetic fields and its atmosphere. This success with Jupiter is making scientists think about what is next: a mission to pluto. New Horizons, the rover to pluto, was able to capture data from Jupiter during a flyby. It recorded that 36 volcanoes on jupiter were very similar to those we see here on earth. Just imagine, A rover in space, not even touching the planet or anything, was able to record all of this data during a flyby. Technology certainly has come a long way since pioneer 10 ( one of the first missions to Jupiter)

    1. h

      this source seems credible, since it seems to be a document which has many sources and intellectual information.

    2. mutualunderstandingandtrust,andinternationalpartnerships

      not only does space exploration help with inspiring out society with movies and book but it also connects nations and forms a sort of bond.

    3. Spaceexplorationthussupportsinnovationandeconomicprosperitybystimulatingadvancesinscienceandtechnology,aswellasmotivatingtheglobalscientificandtechnologicalworkforce,thusenlargingthesphereofhumaneconomicactivity

      From the graph above this the things we can get out of the space exploration programs is economic prosperity, human experience, understanding of place in the universe, also knowledge of the universe expands.

    4. technologicalbenefits

      not only does this expand how we can improve important technologies on earth but space exploration also helps scientists understand more about the human body. It helps with understanding the aging process along with how the body reacts in a microgravity environment.

    5. Agencieswillconductinthenexttenyearsroboticmissions

      This can be used against ab annotation 4

      Not only does this show that nasa is doing what they can to save money and such but it also proves that they are improving their technologies.

  9. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. Russia does not have a law that defines and criminalizes domestic violence. The Russian saying, “If he hits you, he loves you”

      It is scary to know that other countries handle assault differently and uses excuses for incidents like this.

    2. Despite all the online cover-age, most of the general public remains clueless; some 81 percent of Russians say they never heard anything about the hashtags or the controversy

      This controdicts the authors claim because even though a trending hashtag is going around about stopping hateful crimes such as assault, it is crucial to understand that the whole population does not have social media to be in the loop with this online movement.

    3. “If a man is raping a woman and she stabs him with a screwdriver, she’ll be criminally prosecuted because her life was not in dan-ger,

      This is something to further be investigated because most people, including myself, are not educated enough in the court system and what the legal consequences would be for either parties. One would think that if someone were to do something wrong like this, they would get the punishment that they deserve, but that is not always the case.

    4. The discussion has divided govern-ment and society alike, with some officials hosting free self-defense classes for women in Moscow parks, while others challenge women’s right to defend themselves

      It is important that "they" are aware of the consequences on both ends of the victim and the assaulter, and how to prevent an assault by attending the free self-defense classes for women.

    5. “I was eight,” wrote Anna, a friend of this editor, describing how she was raped by a relative and, frozen by fear, unable to resist. “I was 16, on a press tour,” wrote former Russian journalist Anastasia. “A drunken col-league kept breaking into my room all night, and the next day the whole group kept dis-cussing whether or not he managed to have sex with me, but for some reason I’m the one who was ashamed.”

      Although devastating, personalizing the article by including people who has first hand been assaulted helps the audience better understand the importance and urgent need to talk about this issue.

    6. encourages victims of domestic violence to seek help, to be swamped by incoming help-line phone calls.

      The new hashtag gains credibility to the topic as a whole, as well as the victims because it leads a virtual world who stands by other people who has also been assaulted themselves. It leaves them not feeling as alone.

    7. wearing revealing clothing or engag-ing in “inappropriate behavior,” Ukrainian activist Anastasia Melnychenko posted a list of incidents of harassment, assault and inappropriate behavior she has experienced as a woman

      It is hard to define "revealing clothing" or "inappropriate behavior" into one definition, because from the assaulter's standpoint, it could be more than one thing that triggered them to do what they decided to do. This is something for the audience to later explore with outside research to determine what triggers them to assault someone sexually without consent.

    8. one side blamed a woman for provoking a sexual assault by dressing attractivel

      The claim in the article is that women initiate or provoke the sexual assault by the way they dress.

    1. "an incredible waste of money" and argues that "for the cost of putting a few people on a very limited set of locations on Mars we could have dozens of unmanned, robotic missions roving all over Mars."

      Some people suggests we should use robots instead of humans for our treks into space. We could send out more and they cost less, being that they don't need as much maintenance, food supply, or a way to come back to earth.

    2. there are very good reasons to stop spending billions of dollars on manned space missions

      This article suggests that space travel should be put on a temporary halt. It suggests that the space program should try to travel to space in safer, more effective, and cost less. Also, we should focus more on our oceans.

    1. a $278 million package which blasted off from Vandenberg air force base on Tuesday and promptly crashed into the Pacific.

      This source is a well known european news source as well as the journalist who wrote about it.

      The author claims that NASA is wasting money on failures along with being stuck on getting to Mars, a seemingly 1960's theme. He suggests that the space program eats up all this money rather than using it to help out earth here and now.

  10. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048 content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu:2048
    1. a sexual-assault-prevention program thathas addressed students atmore than 100 high schoolsin the state. Game Change:The Patriots

      This is the claim in Kraft's article about sexual assault. He establishes his ethos by showing how this program was instituted into over 100 high schools in the state of Massachusetts.

    2. students will have participatedin the peer-traininganti-violence programs.

      This is critical for kids to undergo before their first potential attack or threat to domestic violence.

    3. It wasn’t long ago thatsmoking was tolerated as anormal behavior. Kids grew upthinking it was actually a coolthing to do. With education andlegislation, our society has amuch more informed outlookand perception of smokingnow. I hope we can do thesame to affect a generationalchange and help bring an endto domestic violence

      I agree with this point that because smoking was known to be a common behavior for many teens and kids growing up and through our education and federal laws, the perception of smoking has shifted through out the years. With the help of the Patriots participating in prevention programs and donating $1.5 million to the cause, the topic will be grater known, and hopefully can shift the commonality of sexual assault and bring it to an end.

    4. how to develop healthyrelationships and how tointervene whenever they seesigns of violence or bullying

      Very important and I agree with this statement that its important to detect signs of violence or bullying to prevent further sexual assault.

    5. We at the Patriots invested$1.5 million to work withthe Mentors in ViolencePrevention (MVP) programat the Center for the Studyof Sport in Society atNortheastern University.

      Investing any time and money into this topic helps get the word out there more and educate our society, all beneficial things to cutting down the statistics of sexual assault.

    6. one in four women has beenthe victim of severe physicalviolence by an intimatepartner and that one in threeadolescents in the United Stateshas experienced physical,sexual or emotional abuse in arelationship, you can’t ignoreit.

      Good evidence to back up his claim. Using statistics puts the problem that is prevalent into perspective for the reader. I have heard common statistics universally around searching different articles about this topic, as well as posters in the bathrooms of my college, as well as different surveys, or casual conversations among peers or family members. It is important that this topic does not slip into thin air!

    7. I had no ideahow prevalent those abuseswere in our society and localcommunities.

      It is hard to know how to prevent these things that are so common in our society today. The first step, as stated in his claim, is to educate students, teens, adults, athletes, and anyone else you can name about sexual assault.

    8. , I startedtaking our players to theannual event to help raise theawareness of the brutality thatsome women experience

      Here's what "they" are talking about what the issue is. Kraft, the writer, is ensuring that his players support the awareness of sexual assault by attending the annual event hosted in Massachusetts to represent his team as being aware of it by supporting the movement.

    9. insulated

      I myself, have grown up in an insulated world. I was very blessed to attend a high school with very little crime, but living in a college down, where University of Colorado Boulder was the major university, it was always known that sexual assault was prevalent, even though I never experienced it.

    10. Anti-ViolencePartnership has a missionof preventing violence andsexual assault through trainingand education

      I agree with this claim. The first step to preventing violent crimes such as sexual assault by acknowledging it and educating the students about it before it can become an issue for themselves.

    1. The NIH explains that “these clinical-grade stem cells are different from the more common laboratory-grade cells those (sic) used in most scientific publications because unlike laboratory-grade stem cells, clinical-grade stem cells can be used for clinical applications in humans. The distinctive feature of this cell line is that it was developed under current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), a set of stringent regulations enforced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration which ensures each batch of cells produced will meet quality and safety standards required for potential clinical use.”

      This article was written by Gene Tarne of the Charlotte Lozier Institute. She focuses this article on the clinical uses and potential of iPSCs and their possible therapeutic uses in regenerative medicine. The scientific communities hope is that they will be able to treat diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinson's and also treat spinal cord injuries. The iPSCs are obtained through the blood in the umbilical cord. She explains that these cells have potential to treat so many diseases and with much less complications than ESCs. For one, iPSCs do not have the ethical dilemmas that ESCs do. ESCs obviously have many ethical problems that have been debated for years. Tarne talks a little bit about this and the arguments presented in front of congress by stakeholders such as Michael J Fox. This, was of course, before the discovery of iPSCs so the opinions and arguments have changed greatly since then. Nevertheless, the ethical problems with ESCs are a "significant barrier" and iPSCs do not have this problem. In addition, these iPSCs are held to very high standards and regulations. The iPSCs that Tarne talks about are cells designed purely for clinical use and not for lab use. The part I have highlighted clearly states that they are held to a standard of the U.S. Food and Drug Agency that forces them to meet safety and quality requirements. Research in both ESCs and iPSCs is ongoing and because of the lack of knowledge and understanding of them, they have not been put to the test very much in regenerative medicine and other clinical treatments. It is very important that clinical cells be held to high standards and also thoroughly researched before they are used for clinical use because of the possible outcomes that I underlined in AB 3. Overall, Tarne does a good job of remaining objective. She is a clear stakeholder in this debate because she works for Charlotte Lozier Institute and their goal is, "is to promote deeper public understanding of the value of human life, motherhood, and fatherhood, and to identify policies and practices that will protect life and serve both women’s health and family well-being." So Tarne clearly is against ESC research, however, it is not particularly clear in the article which means she remained objective for the most part. She mostly uses ethos to persuade her audience in the article. She does this by making the article understandable for the general public and also by her organization. I think most readers would assume The Charlotte Lozier Intitute is a credible source. Also, this article is very appealing because it was released almost a few months ago. All the other sources I have found are at least a couple years old, so it is refreshing to find a recent article that is up to date.

      Tarne, Gene. "IPSCs: A New Gold Standard in Regenerative Medicine?" Charlotte Lozier Institute. Charlotte Lozier Institute, 28 July 2016. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      Outside Sources: "About Us." Charlotte Lozier Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

    1. In the short existence of iPSC technology, it has become apparent that although this opportunity to perform stem cell research may seem like a quick fix to the ethical controversy over ESC research, it may in fact carry its own set of ethical quandaries that could be equally difficult to resolve. By exchanging feminist ethics issues for reprogramming concerns, perhaps even retaining the problematic destruction of life and cloning issues, iPSCs need to be thoroughly researched and analyzed before they replace ESC research or contribute to human clinical therapies. Overall, iPSC research is a promising new arena for the advancement of scientific knowledge with its own unique potential and corresponding ethical considerations.

      This article was written by Katherine Brind'Amour of the Embryo Project. The Embryo, "is a collection of researchers who study the historical and social contexts of reproductive medicine, developmental biology, and embryology." So they are clearly a stakeholder on the issue and are supportive of embryonic stem cell research. Despite this, Brind'Amour does very good job of being objective on the issue and outlining the possible problems with induced pluripotent stem cell research. In the ending claim that I have highlighted, she clearly states the possible benefits and problems of iSPC research. She says that the research of iSPCs is very favorable and has a lot of potential, especially, to replace ESC research however it presents it's own moral/ethical dilemmas that have not been considered by most. The basis of her claim is that iSPCs would be induced into embryonic cells which, although is a possibility, isn't necessarily the goal of iSPC research. Using iSPCs in regenerative medicine doe not require that they be reprogrammed to embyronic cells, rather that they be reprogrammed to tissue specific cells. However, it might be ideal that they are reprogrammed to embryonic cells so that they can be specialized into any kind of cell. For the sake of her argument we will assume that iSPCs are being reprogrammed to embryonic cells. She outlines a lot of possible dilemmas in iSPC research including ethical dilemmas, oncogenic or cancer-causing cells, and little regulation. For one, there are a lot of ethical dilemmas that have been overlooked. Using an individuals somatic cells to create embryonic cells would make them an exact replica of that individual's genome and would technically be cloning. This is unethical in many ways and is illegal in most countries. Another ethical dilemma is the creation of chimeras which are organisms with cells from more than one source. Chimeras are also illegal in most countries. The main arguments against ESC research are that it violates informed consent, improper inducement, and health and safety risks of women. However, iSPC research could create a whole different level of moral and ethical problems. Second, the use of iSPCs for regenerative medicine could have unknown effects such as creating oncogenic or cancer-causing cells. Further research could eliminate this risk but it could be something that is being overlooked. Third, there is little to no regulation on iSPC research. We know that there is a lot of regulation on ESC research because it is widely debated that it violates the dignity of life. There is no shortage of publicity and debate on the ethical problems of ESC research, however, the ethical dilemmas of iSPC research are frequently overlooked and do not receive much publicity. If this research is to continue in depth then there needs to be regulation to prevent the ethical dilemmas I already listed. Overall, Brind'Amour does a great job of remaining objective in her argument. She utilizes logos, ethos, and even pathos to win her audience over. She establishes ethos by remaining objective in her argument, logos by presenting citations, and pathos by using ethical dilemmas that most have overlooked.

      Brind'Amour, By Katherine. "The Embryo Project Encyclopedia." Ethics and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. The Embryo Project Encylopedia, 10 June 2010. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.

      Sites used to help interpret article "Cloning: Frequently Asked Questions." NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2016. "The Embryo Project Encyclopedia." About. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2016.