201 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Nov 2022
    1. In addition to each of your commitments being somewhere you trust, I want your plans to also be somewhere you trust. So any thinking you’ve done about what you’re working on, on all sorts of different time scales, that should be written down somewhere you trust and review regularly as well. I think that’s often overlooked.

      Your second brain should offload more than just the task management. It should also contain the context of those tasks.

    1. The most intriguing result in the present study is thepositive effect of white noise on performance for theADHD children. This noise effect was present in boththe non-medicated and medicated children. Thissupports the MBA (Moderate Brain Arousal) model(Sikstro ̈m & So ̈derlund, 2007), suggesting that theendogenous (neural) noise level in children withADHD is sub-optimal. MBA accounts for the noise-enhancing phenomenon by stochastic resonance(SR). The model suggests that noise in the environ-ment introduces internal noise into the neural sys-tem through the perceptual system. Of particularimportance, the MBA model suggests that the peakof the SR curve depends on the dopamine level, sothat participants with low dopamine levels (ADHD)require more noise for optimal cognitive performancecompared to controls.

      Author's self-described "most intriguing result"

    2. The MBAmodel predicts that noise enhances memory perfor-mance for ADHD and attenuates performance forcontrols. We will also argue for a link between theeffects of noise, dopamine regulation, and cognitiveperformance.

      Prediction of Moderate Brain Arousal model and author's additional argument.

  3. Oct 2022
    1. new technologies leveraging techniques like spaced repetition mean it's much easier to remember what you learn

      Such as Anki

    2. In 2019 the UK school inspection body Ofsted went further than this and changed their definition of ”learning” itself to “an alteration in long-term memory”.

      learning = alteration in long-term memory

    3. to get faster at learning you must get more efficient at moving things into your long-term memory, i.e. stop forgetting things you learn. The less you forget the more you'll understand and the faster you'll learn.
    4. To learn more than 4 new concepts we must move some of them into our long-term memory before learning the rest.
    5. You can only understand something new if understanding it requires combining less than 4 new pieces of information.
    6. our working memory has a maximum capacity of roughly 4. When reading about quantum mechanics we encounter new Concept 1 and store it in our working memory. Then when learning about Concept 1 we encounter Concepts 2, 3, and 4 and our working memory becomes full. We then cannot understand Concept 5.

      Our memory is unable to hold 5 new concepts

  4. Sep 2022
  5. Aug 2022
    1. Anthony Costello. (2022, February 24). The risks of cognitive symptoms lasting at least 12 MONTHS were much higher in the infected group. 4.8x higher for fatigue, 3.2x for brain fog, 5.3x for poor memory, and an incredible 51x for altered taste and smell. We need data on children, but it could easily be similar. (17) https://t.co/JC1qYyW2Xc [Tweet]. @globalhlthtwit. https://twitter.com/globalhlthtwit/status/1496957266016313348

    1. ‘The Brain Has a Body’ (the title of a 1997 article) and the body has an environment – “but neither the body nor the environment feature in modelling approaches that seek to understand the brain.” The input from the world is part of the system in which brains operate.

      Body and environment are commonly ignored in modeling of the brain to understand its working. Example of sub-system / system / supra-system perception levels not being taken into account simultaneously, compare [[Triz denken in systeemniveaus 20200826114731]], and the corresponding switches wrt where the complexity is [[De locus van Complexiteit 20040513173600]]. Similar to [[Disruption Theory is Real, but Wrong 20191014111801]] where the disruption can manifest on a different level than the players in the scene being disrupted and causing the disruption.

    1. https://www.kevinmarks.com/memex.html

      I got stuck over the weekend, so I totally missed Kevin Marks' memex demo at IndieWebCamp's Create Day, but it is an interesting little UI experiment.

      I'll always maintain that Vannevar Bush really harmed the first few generations of web development by not mentioning the word commonplace book in his conceptualization. Marks heals some of this wound by explicitly tying the idea of memex to that of the zettelkasten however. John Borthwick even mentions the idea of "networked commonplace books". [I suspect a little birdie may have nudged this perspective as catnip to grab my attention—a ruse which is highly effective.]

      Some of Kevin's conceptualization reminds me a bit of Jerry Michalski's use of The Brain which provides a specific visual branching of ideas based on the links and their positions on the page: the main idea in the center, parent ideas above it, sibling ideas to the right/left and child ideas below it. I don't think it's got the idea of incoming or outgoing links, but having a visual location on the page for incoming links (my own site has incoming ones at the bottom as comments or responses) can be valuable.

      I'm also reminded a bit of Kartik Prabhu's experiments with marginalia and webmention on his website which plays around with these ideas as well as their visual placement on the page in different methods.

      MIT MediaLab's Fold site (details) was also an interesting sort of UI experiment in this space.

      It also seems a bit reminiscent of Kevin Mark's experiments with hovercards in the past as well, which might be an interesting way to do the outgoing links part.

      Next up, I'd love to see larger branching visualizations of these sorts of things across multiple sites... Who will show us those "associative trails"?

      Another potential framing for what we're all really doing is building digital versions of Indigenous Australian's songlines across the web. Perhaps this may help realize Margo Neale and Lynne Kelly's dream for a "third archive"?

    1. As Tiago Forte writes in his excellent book, ‘Building a Second Brain’, “every bit of energy we spend straining to recall things is energy not spent doing the thinking that only humans can do: inventing new things, crafting stories, recognising patterns, following our intuition, collaborating with others, investigating new subjects, making plans, testing theories”.

      This is exactly the kind of language that is driving people psychotic: that there's only 2 modes - recalling and creating. Yes, there are these 2 modes. But there are others too, the most important of which are "resting", "reflecting", and "gestating". Without these others, which we must visit in balance with recalling and creating, we will end up in a rubber room.

  6. Jul 2022
  7. Jun 2022
    1. Instead of hiking the trail yourself, the trees, rocks and moss move past you in flashes with no trace of what came before and no way to see what lies ahead.

      Just as there are deficits like dyslexia in the literate world, are there those who have similar deficits relating to location in the oral world? What do these look like? What are they called specifically?

      There are definitely memory deficits withing cognitive neuropsychology. Is there a comprehensive list one could look at?

      Some people aren't as good at spatial orientation as others. Women are stereotyped as being less good at direction and direction finding.

    1. Raphael, you came up with thename of the course—and now the book.

      The origin of the phrase Building a Second Brain.

    2. so that your human,fallible, endlessly creative first brain can do what it does best.Imagine. Invent. Innovate. Create.

      Is this really what our brain does best?

      What about on evolutionary timescales? Is this what brains were meant to do?

    3. Tagging for personal knowledge management is a subject unto itself. Whilenot necessary to get started, I’ve written a free bonus chapter on tags you candownload at Buildingasecondbrain.com/bonuschapter.

      Forte's book is a pathway that acts as just another part of his sophisticated sales funnel.

    4. allyou’re doing is drawing on a growing library of Intermediate Packetsstored in your Second Brain.

      Intermediate Packets juxtaposed with Second Brain, it would have been better if he could have given a better analogy than intermediate packets to create some parallelism with Second Brain, alas... lack of creativity?

      Notice the importance he's giving to Intermediate Packets by artificially capitalizing it. An indication of attempt to commoditize and sell "note taking" as a product.

      link to https://hyp.is/OKlVhPBCEeyX96cojNH8rg/www.danah.org/name.html

    5. Intermediate Packets

      example of the creation of a buzz word for something not really quite necessary. It's useful to give names to things, but this is just a synonym for a note, isn't it?

      definitely not as developed as "second brain"

    6. If you ignore that inner voice of intuition, over time it will slowlyquiet down and fade away. If you practice listening to what it is tellingyou, the inner voice will grow stronger. You’ll start to hear it in allkinds of situations. It will guide you in what choices to make andwhich opportunities to pursue. It will warn you away from people andsituations that aren’t right for you. It will speak up and take a standfor your convictions even when you’re afraid.I can’t think of anything more important for your creative life—andyour life in general—than learning to listen to the voice of intuitioninside. It is the source of your imagination, your confidence, and yourspontaneity

      While we have evolved a psychological apparatus that often gives us good "gut feelings" (an actual physical "second brain"), we should listen careful to them, but we should also learn to think about, analyze, and verify these feelings so we don't fall prey to potential cognitive biases.

    1. As Lane put it, it's a Personal Information Storage System (PISS).

      What a zinger! 😜

    2. Tiago's book follows the general method of the commonplace book, but relies more heavily on a folder-based method and places far less emphasis and value on having a solid index. There isn't any real focus on linking ideas other than putting some things together in the same folder. His experience with the history of the space in feels like it only goes back to some early Ryan Holiday blog posts. He erroneously credits Luhmann with inventing the zettelkasten and Anne-Laure Le Cunff created digital gardens. He's already retracted these in sketch errata here: https://www.buildingasecondbrain.com/endnotes.

      I'll give him at least some credit that there is some reasonable evidence that he actually used his system to write his own book, but the number and depth of his references and experience is exceptionally shallow given the number of years he's been in the space, particularly professionally. He also has some interesting anecdotes and examples of various people including and array of artists and writers which aren't frequently mentioned in the note taking space, so I'll give him points for some diversity of players as well. I'm mostly left with the feeling that he wrote the book because of the general adage that "thought leaders in their space should have a published book in their area to have credibility". Whether or not one can call him a thought leader for "re-inventing" something that Rudolphus Agricola and Desiderius Erasmus firmly ensconced into Western culture about 500 years ago is debatable.

      Stylistically, I'd call his prose a bit florid and too often self-help-y. The four letter acronyms become a bit much after a while. It wavers dangerously close to those who are prone to the sirens' call of the #ProductivityPorn space.

      If you've read a handful of the big articles in the note taking, tools for thought, digital gardens, zettelkasten space, Ahren's book, or regularly keep up with r/antinet or r/Zettelkasten, chances are that you'll be sorely disappointed and not find much insight. If you have friends that don't need the horsepower of Ahrens or zettelkasten, then it might be a reasonable substitute, but then it could have been half the length for the reader.

    1. "If you are held up at gunpoint, your brain secretes a bunch of the stress neurotransmitter norepinephrine, akin to an adrenaline rush," he said. "This changes the electrical discharge pattern in specific circuits in your emotional brain, centered in the amygdala, which in turn transitions the brain to a state of heightened arousal that facilitates memory formation, fear memory, since it's scary. This is the same process, we think, that goes awry in PTSD and makes it so you cannot forget traumatic experiences."

      fear hardwires memory of truamatic experiences into the brain.

    1. Note Sharers aka Digital Gardeners aka Second Brainers

      Example of a writer who wholly conflates "note sharers" with "digital gardners" and the "second brain" crowd.

      It's likely that these words and terminology have all become conflated due to ambiguous use.

    1. build a second brain

      Example of someone considering Building a Second Brain its "own system" rather than something from the commonplace book tradition.

    1. https://app.thebrain.com/brains/3d80058c-14d8-5361-0b61-a061f89baf87/thoughts/32f9fc36-6963-9ee0-9b44-a89112919e29/attachments/6492d41a-73b2-20d8-b145-3283598c612b

      A fantastic example of an extensive mind map from Jerry Michalski using The Brain.

      There are lots of interesting links and resources, but on the whole

      How many of the nodes actually have specific notes, explicit ideas, annotations, or excerpts within them?

      Without these, it's an interesting map and provides some broad context, but removes local specific context of who Jerry is and how he explicitly thinks. One can review the overarching parts to extract what his biases may be based on availability heuristics, but in areas of conflicting ideas which have relatively equal numbers of links within a particular area, one may not be able to discern arguments from each other.

      Still a fascinating start and something not commonly seen in the broader literature.

      I'll also note that even in a small sample of one video call with Jerry sharing his screen while we talked about a broad sub-topic it's interesting to see his prior contexts as we conversed. I've only ever had similar experiences with Bill Seitz who regularly drops links to his wiki pages in this sort of way or Kevin Marks (usually in text chat contexts and less frequently in video calls/conversations) who drops links to his extensive blogging history which also serves to add his prior thoughts and contextualizations.

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9dK76BqKJ4

      Jerry has been using The Brain for 24 years as of ~November 2021.

      In October 2021 he had approximately 484,000 thoughts in his graph.

      Ideas to explore: Lessons from My Brain

      We Are an Amnesic Society

      Loose guide:

      favicons indicate links to external sources

      Colors indicate

      • yellow - collections of things
      • purple - opinions
  8. May 2022
    1. Given the complexities of the brain’s structure and the functions it performs, any one of these models is surely oversimplified and ultimately wrong—at best, an approximation of some aspects of what the brain does. However, some models are less wrong than others, and consistent trends in performance across models can reveal not just which model best fits the brain but also which properties of a model underlie its fit to the brain, thus yielding critical insights that transcend what any single model can tell us.
    1. There are four essential capabilities that we can rely on a SecondBrain to perform for us:1. Making our ideas concrete.2. Revealing new associations between ideas.3. Incubating our ideas over time.4. Sharpening our unique perspectives.

      Does the system really do each of these? Writing things down for our future selves is the thing that makes ideas concrete, not the system itself. Most notebooks don't reveal new associations, we actively have to do that ourselves via memory or through active search and linking within the system itself. The system may help, but it doesn't automatically create associations nor reveal them. By keeping our ideas in one place they do incubate to some extent, but isn't the real incubation taking place in a diffuse way in our minds to come out later?

    2. your Second Brain is a privateknowledge collection designed to serve a lifetime of learning andgrowth, not just a single use case

      Based on Tiago Forte's definition of a second brain the primary distinction from a commonplace book is solely that it is digital.

      Note here that he explicitly defines a second brain as being private. Historically commonplace books were private affairs though there are examples of them being shared from person to person as well as examples that have been printed.

    3. This digital commonplace book is what I call a Second Brain

      Tiago Forte directly equates a "digital commonplace book" with his concept of a "Second Brain" in his book Building a Second Brain.


      Why create a new "marketing term" for something that should literally be commonplace!

    4. Now, this eye-opening and accessible guide shows how you caneasily create your own personal system for knowledge management,otherwise known as a Second Brain.

      Marketing speech to convert an old idea (commonplacing) into a new siloed service one needs to pay for.

    5. Forte, Tiago. Building a Second Brain: A Proven Method to Organize Your Digital Life and Unlock Your Creative Potential. Atria Books, 2022. https://www.simonandschuster.com/books/Building-a-Second-Brain/Tiago-Forte/9781982167387.

    1. what happens when you see one of these so-called pictures of the brain you've all seen these things they have red and blue and yellow and so on there's no red 00:01:21 and blue and yellow in the brain what happens is this if the pictures are not pictures of the brain they're pictures of gia the ratio of oxygenated to 00:01:35 deoxygenated blood in certain places and when neurons fire they need to be getting some oxygen back in there too so they can fire again and it turns out that they have different magnetic 00:01:49 properties if their oxygen if the blood is oxygenated or not and what you see actually is a bunch of pixels and each little pixel is actually 3 millimeters 00:02:03 by 3 millimeters by 3 millimeters 3 millimeters cubed and it goes over anywhere between one second and several seconds now if you ask how many neurons are in there the answer is about 125 00:02:17 million per pixel each neuron is connected to between a thousand and 10,000 other neurons so there are tens of billions of connections lots of circuitry in that one little 00:02:30 pixel and that picture doesn't show you what's going on in that circuitry very important you know we cannot see that we can say hey something is happening there

      Each pixel is an output from 125 million cells. It's similar to a country that votes for a president or prime minister. If you try to figure out how that leader was voted into power without analyzing all the voters, that is quite an impossible task!

  9. Apr 2022
    1. I previously shared Ivo Velitchkov’s 5-part series in Letter XXXII where he described in more detail his approach, and how he developed RIO (Roam Internal Ontology). Now, he has released the two ontologies he's developed (RIO and ROCO - ROam Core Ontology)

      It really kills me to see these types of jargon and acronyms popping up in the technology space around note taking. What do these really mean? Why should the average user care? It all feels like the sort of careless marketing and buzzwords like "second brain" or "MOC" (maps of content).

    1. The risk of RN when treated with 3 fractions seems to be related to the volume receiving 18 Gy (12). Rates of radionecrosis are estimated to be 5% for V18 ≤ 30.2 cm3 and up to 14% for V18 > 30 cm3 (12).

      Dosis restricción tallo cerebral

    1. For HSRT, most common schedules were 24–27 Gy in 3 fractions and 30–35 Gy in 5 fractions with a reported similar 12-month local control of about 85–95%

      Control local a 1 año en metástasis cerebrales: - 24-27Gy en 3 fracciones y 30-35Gy en 5 fracciones = 85-95%

    1. Schedules 3 × 9 Gy and 5 × 6 Gy corresponding to lower BED10 Gy of 51.3 Gy and 48 Gy respectively, were more often applied on post-operative cavity and smaller lesions

      BED 3 x 9 Gy = 51.3 Gy BED 5 x 6 Gy = 48 Gy

    1. The total dose of prescription was 25 or 40 Gy in 5 fractions volumetrically such that the entire prescription dose was applied at least 99% of the PTV and delivered over a 7- to 14-day period

      Dosis 25-40 Gy en 5 fx Tallo cerebral < 31 Gy Nervio óptico < 25 Gy Dosis mínima a cerebro y cristalino

  10. Mar 2022
    1. If you don't like Zettlekasten (I have my "own" version of Zettlekasten that I use so it's not 100% the original, but it's very heavily based on it - if you hate Zettlekasten this really isn't going to work). 

      https://elizabethfilips.podia.com/validation-cohort-muse

      Elizabeth Filips is running a validation cohort for a course (presumably called MUSE, the marketing name for her "system" as well) on how to take notes and build a zettelkasten (or a second brain—there's evidence that she's taken Tiago Forte's course). She's got some indications that she's using a zettelkasten-like method for creation, but her burgeoning empire also appears to be firmly centered in the productivity porn space. I'm curious how she views her Muse system being different from a zettelkasten?

      She's got an incredibly focused sales funnel web presence here.

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnFHwl2Dbr0

      • System should be as frictionless as possible.
      • Capture in one location. (She says as few as possible, but this is too wishy-washy: she's got a "Readwise page" and a "Links page".)
      • There needs to be levels of processing.
        • Split out based on future value.
      • Everything has resources. How to capture metadata and be able to cite it?

      Everything needs to have a "Why"? What is the context for capturing? What is the reason? How will it be used in the future? Why was it interesting?

      She also describes how she collects notes in various formats (books, online articles, Kindle, Twitter, etc.) It primarily involves using Notion along with a variety of other sub-applications including Instapaper for sharing to Notion.

      Dramatically missing from this presentation is the answer to the question "why" collect all this stuff? How is she using it in the future? What is the overall value? She touches on writing the why for herself as she's taking notes, but I get the impression that she's not actively practicing what she preaches, and I suspect that many don't. This leaves me with the impression that she's collecting with no end goal, which for many may be fine.

      She's got a gaping hole in the processing section which likely needs a video unto itself and which would probably go a long way toward answer the "why" question above.

      In looking at her other videos, I see she's using the phrase "second brain" and words like productivity. There seems to be a high level of disconnect between those using "second brain" and the "why do this?" question other than the simple idea of "productivity" which seems to be a false trap that gets people into the mindset of being a collector for collections' sake.


      Almost hilariously she's got videos with titles like: - "I'm a productivity guru and I hate it." - "Productivity YouTube is brainwashing you"


      She's titled the final portion of the video "Outro" which is actually displayed on the video UI. This might be useful for production purposes but should be changed or omitted for actual consumption.


      The title "How I Remember Everything I Read" is pure clickbait here. It's more aptly titled, "How I Take and Save Notes". Where's the how I use this after? or how I review over it all to actually remember it/memorize it? There's nothing here to support this end of things which is the promise given in the title.

  11. Feb 2022
    1. The Workflow: How to Use the Zettelkasten Method

      The entire basis and process of the Zettelkasten method. - Capture - Elaborate - Connect

  12. Jan 2022
    1. Light is the main zeitgeber (time giver) communicating external time to the central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

      light zeitgeber circadian rhythm

    1. Fernandez-Castaneda, A., Lu, P., Geraghty, A. C., Song, E., Lee, M.-H., Wood, J., Yalcin, B., Taylor, K. R., Dutton, S., Acosta-Alvarez, L., Ni, L., Contreras-Esquivel, D., Gehlhausen, J. R., Klein, J., Lucas, C., Mao, T., Silva, J., Pena-Hernandez, M., Tabachnikova, A., … Monje, M. (2022). Mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause multi-lineage cellular dysregulation and myelin loss in the brain (p. 2022.01.07.475453). https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.07.475453

    1. Douaud, G., Lee, S., Alfaro-Almagro, F., Arthofer, C., Wang, C., McCarthy, P., Lange, F., Andersson, J. L. R., Griffanti, L., Duff, E., Jbabdi, S., Taschler, B., Winkler, A. M., Nichols, T. E., Collins, R., Matthews, P. M., Allen, N., Miller, K. L., & Smith, S. M. (2021). Brain imaging before and after COVID-19 in UK Biobank (p. 2021.06.11.21258690). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.11.21258690

    1. I go through my old posts every day. I know that much – most? – of them are not for the ages. But some of them are good. Some, I think, are great. They define who I am. They're my outboard brain.

      Cory Doctorow calls his blog and its archives his "outboard brain".

    1. He breaks off, looking anxious. “But I didn’t tell their stories, because I thought they were a better way of persuading people of an argument. It’s a book of stories about people, because I think stories are a fundamentally better way of thinking about the world.”

      Stories are an important way of thinking about and explaining the world. They may also be a potential brain hack.

      Note their use here just after Hari has mentioned that connecting with people (often by way of their stories) is a basic human condition and need. Also note that Hari was previously a columnist with a slant, has he realized that this is the better way to convince people of plausible sounding things? Particularly without source, attribution, research, and potentially cherry picking data.

      Are we blinding ourselves by telling stories? Particularly without comparison or actual testing?

      I saw a book about this topic months ago and need to find it and dig it up.

  13. Dec 2021
    1. To test whether these distributed representations of meaning are neurally plausible, a number of studies have attempted to learn a mapping between particular semantic dimensions and patterns of brain activation
    1. As a result of extensive work with this technique a kind of secondary memory will arise, an alter ego with who we can constantly communicate.

      I want to look at the original German for this sentence, particularly with respect to the translation of the phrase "secondary memory". Is the translation semantic or literal? Might the original German have been a more literal "second brain"?

      Compare this to the one or two other examples of this sort of translation from the German.

    1. In a short academic dissertation on the art of excerpts, Andreas Stübel described the card index as a ‘secondary and subsidiary memory’ (‘memoria secundaria and subsidiaria’), summing up in just three words the dilemma scholars had been struggling with for two centuries with respect to the use of commonplace books.28 As far as I know, Stübel was the first among contem-poraries to speak of secondary memory.

      28 Andreas M. Stübel, Exercitatio academica de excerptis adornandis (Leipzig, 1684), 33

      Andreas M. Stübel, in Exercitatio academica de excerptis adornandis (Leipzig, 1684), becomes the first to of many to speak about the idea of "secondary memory".

      I like this idea better than Tiago Forte's marketing term "second brain."

    2. In fact, the methodical use of notebooks changed the relationship between natural memory and artificial memory, although contemporaries did not immediately realize it. Historical research supports the idea that what was once perceived as a memory aid was now used as secondary memory.18

      During the 16th century there was a transition in educational centers from using the natural and artificial memories to the methodical use of notebooks and commonplace books as a secondary memory saved by means of writing.

      This allows people in some sense to "forget" what they've read and learned and be surprised by it again later. They allow themselves to create liminal memories which may be refreshed and brought to the center later. Perhaps there is also some benefit in this liminal memory for allowing ideas to steep on the periphery before using them. Perhaps combinatorial creativity happens unconsciously?

      Cross reference: learning research by Barbara Oakley and Terry Sejnowski.

  14. Nov 2021
    1. (the VTA is also part ofthis system, but is too small to image with standard fMRImethods, but see [35] for successful imaging methods).

      All imaging studies face questions of validity and should (and many do) link to comprehensive details on instrumentation, methodology, and interpretation. Apparently, the professional consensus remains that, properly executed and interpreted, fMRI and other functional imaging techniques based on detection of oxygenation can lead to highly valid conclusions. (See Nautil.us article.)

    2. imaging the brain of an individual who claims to generatejoy without any external rewards or cues could point the waytoward improved training in joy and greater resilience in theface of external difficulties. Of particular interest is the neuralmechanisms by which happiness is generated.

      Such a self-administered neural 'technology' of happiness should be driving much more related research but I see no other neuroscientific studies delving into jhanas.

    3. We report the first neural recording during ecstatic meditations called jhanas and test whether a brain reward system plays a rolein the joy reported. Jhanas are Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) that imply major brain changes based on subjective reports:(1) external awareness dims, (2) internal verbalizations fade, (3) the sense of personal boundaries is altered, (4) attention is highlyfocused on the object of meditation, and (5) joy increases to high levels. The fMRI and EEG results from an experienced meditatorshow changes in brain activity in 11 regions shown to be associated with the subjective reports, and these changes occur promptlyafter jhana is entered. In particular, the extreme joy is associated not only with activation of cortical processes but also with activationof the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the dopamine/opioid reward system. We test three mechanisms by which the subject mightstimulate his own reward system by external means and reject all three. Taken together, these results demonstrate an apparentlynovel method of self-stimulating a brain reward system using only internal mental processes in a highly trained subject.

      I can find no other research on this particular matter. It would be helpful to have other studies to validate or invalidate this one. This method of reward requires a highly-trained participant and involves no external means.

    1. These findings provide strong evidence for a classic hypothesis about the computations underlying human language understanding, that the brain’s language system is optimized for predictive processing in the service of meaning extraction
    1. When we look at the Zettelkasten, it looks quite inconspicuous and small and doesn't give away the secret. The outer appearance is trivial, so what is it then that made Luhmann refer to it as his second brain.

      the translation for "second brain" is direct? Does he provide a source for where this was recorded? It's the first time I've heard the phrase outside of Tiago Forte's use.

  15. Oct 2021
    1. Wenzel, J., Lampe, J., Müller-Fielitz, H., Schuster, R., Zille, M., Müller, K., Krohn, M., Körbelin, J., Zhang, L., Özorhan, Ü., Neve, V., Wagner, J. U. G., Bojkova, D., Shumliakivska, M., Jiang, Y., Fähnrich, A., Ott, F., Sencio, V., Robil, C., … Schwaninger, M. (2021). The SARS-CoV-2 main protease Mpro causes microvascular brain pathology by cleaving NEMO in brain endothelial cells. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-021-00926-1

    1. So the story that emerges about the origins of money is very different than the way we usually think about it. In this model embraced by Bill and other anthropologists, money is partly a mechanism of social obligation and partly a mechanism to keep track of who owes what to whom. It's also a mechanism that cements the relationship between ordinary people and authorities who maintain records. In other words, it's a story about power.
  16. Sep 2021
    1. My father has been exploring brain chemistry and neural connections since the 70s in his medical practice as a paediatrician. His children have been his experimental laboratory. A conversation with my father is an adventure down the rabbit hole.

      This is what he was sharing with me this past weekend. I must have learned my love of books and magazines from my father.

      My father’s interest in Lewis Carroll is related to migraine headaches, which is what my father was treating in adult patients, as he was exploration a correlation between diet and brain chemistry.

    1. Senseplay is an all-in-one ecosystem of biosensing hardware and software SDK to build anything from brain-computer interfaces, neurogames, biofeedback controlled installations and educational applications.

      Mark Wagnon shared a product that is exploring the integration of humans with machines.

    1. Nicholas Carr explores cognitive science and media theory to understand how technology is change our brains through neuroplasticity.

      Ezra Klein was in conversation with Richard Powers regarding his recent book, Bewilderment, exploring the way technology changes us by changing our environment. The medium is the message.

    1. The phenomenon of work for its own sake is familiar enough to all of us, when the timing is controlled by the worker himself, when "work" is not defined as referring alone to activity imposed from without. Intellectual work may take the form of trying to understand what Robert Browning was trying to say (if anything), to discover what it is in Dali's paintings that can interest others, or to predict the out- [p. 247] come of a paperback mystery. We systematically underestimate the human need of intellectual activity, in one form or another, when we overlook the intellectual component in art and in games. Similarly with riddles, puzzles, and the puzzle-like games of strategy such as bridge, chess, and go; the frequency with which man has devised such problems for his own solution is a most significant fact concerning human motivation. It is, however, not necessarily a fact that supports my earlier view, outlined above. It is hard to get these broader aspects of human behavior under laboratory study, and when we do we may expect to have our ideas about them significantly modified. For my views on the problem, this is what has happened with the experiment of Bexton, Heron, and Scott (5). Their work is a long step toward dealing with the realities of motivation in the well-fed, physically comfortable, adult human being, and its results raise a serious difficulty for my own theory. Their subjects were paid handsomely to do nothing, see nothing, hear or touch very little, for 24 hours a day. Primary needs were met, on the whole, very well. The subjects suffered no pain, and were fed on request. It is true that they could not copulate, but at the risk of impugning the virility of Canadian college students I point out that most of them would not have been copulating anyway and were quite used to such long stretches of three or four days without primary sexual satisfaction. The secondary reward, on the other hand, was high: $20 a day plus room and board is more than $7000 a year, far more than a student could earn by other means. The subjects then should be highly motivated to continue the experiment, cheerful and happy to be allowed to contribute to scientific knowledge so painlessly and profitably. In fact, the subject was well motivated for perhaps four to eight hours, and then became increasingly unhappy. He developed a need for stimulation of almost any kind. In the first preliminary exploration, for example, he was allowed to listen to recorded material on request. Some subjects were given a talk for 6-year-old children on the dangers of alcohol. This might be requested, by a grown-up male college student, 15 to 20 times in a 30-hour period. Others were offered, and asked for repeatedly, a recording of an old stock-market report. The subjects looked forward to being tested, but paradoxically tended to find the tests fatiguing when they did arrive. It is hardly necessary to say that the whole situation was rather hard to take, and one subject, in spite of not being in a special state of primary drive arousal in the experiment but in real need of money outside it, gave up the secondary reward of $20 a day to take up a job at hard labor paying $7 or $8 a day.

      Seems that the author is saying that as long as we are choosing to work, we will pick that over other things.

      An experiment that was done by Bexton, Heron, and Scott where they paid college students (around 20$) to do nothing, showed that at first those students were content for a period of time, but that the longer they did nothing the less happy they became. Then they would start asking for some sort of stimulation (music, talking to others etc.). These students found this very fatiguing, and some actually left the experiment giving up the 20$ a day! I think this shows that we as humans need interaction of some sort, we need some sort of stimulation to keep our brains active and happy, give it something to focus on.

    2. About 1930 it began to be evident that the nerve cell is not physiologically inert, does not have to be excited from outside in order to discharge (19, p. 8). The nervous system is alive, and living things by their nature are active. With the demonstration of spontaneous activity in c.n.s. it seemed to me that the conception of a drive system or systems was supererogation. For reasons I shall come to later, this now appears to me to have been an oversimplification; but in 1945 the only problem of motivation, I thought, was to account for the direction taken by behavior. From this point of view, hunger or pain might be peculiarly effective in guiding or channeling activity but not needed for its arousal. It was not surprising, from this point of view, to see human beings liking intellectual work, nor to find evidence that an animal might learn something without pressure of pain or hunger. The energy of response is not in the stimulus. It comes from the food, water, and oxygen ingested by the animal; and the violence of an epileptic convulsion, when brain cells for whatever reason decide to fire in synchrony, bears witness to what the nervous system can do when it likes. This is like a whole powder magazine exploding at once. Ordinary behavior can be thought of as produced by an organized series of much smaller explosions, and so a "self-motivating" c.n.s. might still be a very powerfully motivated one. To me, then, it was astonishing that a critic could refer to mine as a "motivationless" psychology. What I had said in short was that any organized process in the brain is a motivated process, inevitably, inescapably; that the human brain is built to be active, and that as long as it is supplied with adequate nutrition will continue to be active. Brain activity is what determines behavior, and so the only behavioral problem becomes that of accounting for inactivity.

      New ways to think on motivation and c.n.s. That the views of the past were too simple, and that you don't have to use pain to motivate animals whether lower or high functioning. You can also motivate with food, water, oxygen which causes the energy of response. When prior it was thought stimulus was what caused the energy or response. They noted brain cells fired together in sync, showing us that the nervous system can do what it wants and not just based on stimulus or physical motivation.

  17. Aug 2021
    1. https://nooshu.com/blog/2021/05/12/weve-spotted-something-on-your-scan/

      The waiting and not knowing is one of the worst parts. Even reading updates into August is difficult. I was hoping that the surgery would have taken place already.

      Hoping the best for you and your family Matt.

  18. Jul 2021
    1. individuals with difficulties in understanding speech-in-noise, including individuals with autism spectrum disorder,

      Indeed, heading problems correlate to autism disorders particularly of that kind: nose understanding speech in noisy environments.

    1. This bucket’s for you and for you alone. It’s your idiosyncratic partner in knowledge work. Your second brain. Your extended memory and your better self.

      Note the use here of "second brain" written in 2013 before Tiago Forte's use of the idea.

  19. Jun 2021
  20. Apr 2021
    1. After keeping brain organoids alive for several months, we finally observed the spontaneous emergence of brain oscillatory waves, similar to those detected by electroencephalograms (EEG).

      Is it related to Integrated Information Theory?

    2. In my dreams, I replayed the vivid experience of removing the brains from tiny skulls and slicing them up. Something about these nightmares was telling me not to continue down this road. Eventually, I mustered the courage to challenge my colleagues: what if the diseases we want to cure, and the answers we want, won’t be found in the mouse brain?

      Trustting our instinct on science brings fruits.

    1. Moreover, a recent meta-analysis by Ma (2014) studied the effects of antidepressants on brain activity underlying emotional processing. Their results showed that antidepressant treatments had effects on the activation of limbic core structures such as the amygdala, the thalamus, and ACC, and in other emotional processing structures like MPFC, the insula, and the putamen. Antidepressant medication increased the activity of these structures when the subjects processed positive emotions, whereas the same medication decreased the activity of the same structures while processing negative emotions. For these reasons, it is perfectly plausible to expect that, after the same treatments, the depressed patients will present changes in connectivity related to illness improvement.

      How antidepressant effect emotional processing .

      • by increase acitivty when processing positive decrease activity when processing negative (salience network)
    2. most of the evidence in the literature suggests that, in MDD, connectivity networks at rest and the connectivity networks activated during specific tasks are all altered (Wang et al., 2012). Accordingly, affective disorders have been linked to alterations of the Default Mode Network (DMN), the Affective Network (AN), the Salience Network (SN), and the Cognitive Control Network (CCN), among others (Dutta et al., 2014).

      alter connectivity nectworks in depression

    3. an increase in the activation of the mPFC, the amygdala, and the hippocampus in depressed subjects with respect to the control subjects (Rose et al., 2006; Siegle et al., 2007; Wise et al., 2014)

      increased acitivty in mPFC amygdala etc... confirm with paper

  21. Mar 2021
    1. The circuits in the neocortex are really complex. In just one square millimeter we have around one hundred thousand neurons, several hundred thousand million connections (synapses) and kilometers of axons and dendrites.

      Quantitative description of how complex the neocortex is?

  22. Feb 2021
    1. Conversation around Adam Grant's Think Again.

      • Task Conflict vs Relationship Conflict
      • The absence of conflict is not harmony; it is apathy
      • Beliefs vs Values; what you think is true vs what you think is important. Be open around beliefs; be committed to values.
      • Preachers, Prosecutors, Politicians... and Scientists: defend or beliefs, prove the others wrong, seek approval and be liked... hypothesize and experiment.
      • Support Network... and a Challenge Network. (Can we force ourselves to have a Challenge Network by using the Six Thinking Hats?)
      • Awaken curiosity (your own, and other's to help them change their mind)
      • Successful negotiators spend more time looking for common ground and asking questions to understand
      • Solution Aversion: someone rejecting a proposed solution may end up rejecting the existence of the problem itself (e.g. climate change)
  23. Jan 2021
    1. Human brains seem to be best for generating new ideas. I want to learn more, think faster, distract less, interact and visualize, effortlessly remember everything; not memorize and do routine information processing, which computers seem better at.