61 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jun 2023
    1. The big promise of federated social tools is neither Mastodon (or Calckey or any of the other things I’ve seen yet) nor the single-server Bluesky beta—it’s new things built in new ways that use protocols like AT and ActivityPub to interact with the big world.

      Vgl [[Build protocols not platforms 20190821202019]] I agree. Kissane says use protocols in new ways for new tools, starting from the premise of actually social software.

  3. Dec 2022
    1. Users can also make such decisions at individual level, but at the scale of the network, it’s the servers that count.

      unless as I said servers and individuals are often the same. Not per se to run a Mastodon instance as discussed here, but to have a website that also supports #ActivityPub interaction

    1. Actor objects MUST have, in addition to the properties mandated by 3.1 Object Identifiers, the following properties: inbox A reference to an [ActivityStreams] OrderedCollection comprised of all the messages received by the actor; see 5.2 Inbox. outbox An [ActivityStreams] OrderedCollection comprised of all the messages produced by the actor; see 5.1 Outbox.

      An actor has id and type properties and an inbox and outbox. It should also have a number of things (which I don't all see the use of, why should I disclose followers and followed e.g.?), and may have a number of things, including token endpoints which might be useful

    2. The source property is intended to convey some sort of source from which the content markup was derived, as a form of provenance, or to support future editing by clients. In general, clients do the conversion from source to content, not the other way around.

      this is akin to how Dave Winer added the capability to add source to a feed in the RSS spec. I read this as only of interest if you use the client to potentially edit the source. If I'd use WP to originate AP msgs, this would not be needed, as any changes would be initiated in WP anyway

    3. dereference the id both to ensure that it exists and is a valid object, and that it is not misrepresenting the object

      dereferencing = following the link to the source, and look at its content, to see if it matches the representation in the json data. Does this imply you could leave it at the id for the object, and leave out the rest as it isn't accepted anyway? Below it says that every object has at least id and type, so yes to the above.

    4. https://social.example/alyssa/followers/

      to address a message to followers

    5. It is called out whenever a portion of the specification only applies to implementation of the federation protocol. In addition, whenever requirements are specified, it is called out whether they apply to the client or server (for the client-to-server protocol) or whether referring to a sending or receiving server in the server-to-server protocol.

      it is needed to be aware of the distinctions between server elements related to client interaction, and server elements related to server-to-server things. A server is basically 2 servers in 1 if it is fully capable of federatiion.

    6. https://www.w3.org/ns/activitystreams#Public

      a special to group, meaning publicly available (e.g. on yr profile page, or anyone looking in your outbox.

    7. @context": "https://www.w3.org/ns/activitystreams"

      any AP message is in context of ActivityStreams

    8. Alyssa's server looks up Ben's ActivityStreams actor object, finds his inbox endpoint, and POSTs her object to his inbox.

      this is the server to server step

    1. The core Actor Types include: Application Group Organization Person Service

      Actors in AP can be apps, groups, orgs, people, services. It's a choice that Mastodon assumes people? What If I create an actor profile that says it's a group, would Mastodon know how to deal with it?

  4. Nov 2022
    1. Servers should not trust client submitted content, and federated servers also should not trust content received from a server other than the content's origin without some form of verification.

      If it's my client posting to my server then it's of less concern, for the client to server side. Federation is by def not to be trusted.

    2. Servers SHOULD validate the content they receive to avoid content spoofing attacks. (A server should do something at least as robust as checking that the object appears as received at its origin, but mechanisms such as checking signatures would be better if available). No particular mechanism for verification is authoritatively specified by this document, but please see Security Considerations for some suggestions and good practices

      You should do some evaluation of received content, but the spec doesn't provide an authorative way for verification.

    3. ActivityPub defines some terms in addition to those provided by ActivityStreams. These terms are provided in the ActivityPub JSON-LD context at https://www.w3.org/ns/activitystreams.

      https://www.w3.org/ns/activitystreams#activitypub this seems quite a list, and rather central to AP: All terms in this section are described in the [ActivityPub] specification.

      endpoints (@id)
      following (@id)
      followers (@id)
      inbox (@id) - This is an alias of ldp:inbox.
      liked (@id)
      shares (@id)
      likes (@id)
      oauthAuthorizationEndpoint (@id)
      oauthTokenEndpoint (@id)
      outbox (@id)
      provideClientKey (@id)
      proxyUrl (@id)
      sharedInbox (@id)
      signClientKey (@id)
      streams (@id)
      uploadMedia (@id)
    4. Objects are the core concept around which both [ActivityStreams] and ActivityPub are built. Objects are often wrapped in Activities and are contained in streams of Collections, which are themselves subclasses of Objects. See the [Activity-Vocabulary] document, particularly the Core Classes; ActivityPub follows the mapping of this vocabulary very closely.

      Objects are the core building blocks of AP, following ActivityStreams spec fully. Objects are wrapped in Activities, and can be part of Collections (itself an Object). Also follows the saem URI conventions

    5. This specification defines two closely related and interacting protocols: A client to server protocol, or "Social API" This protocol permits a client to act on behalf of a user. For example, this protocol is used by a mobile phone application to interact with a social stream of the user's actor. A server to server protocol, or "Federation Protocol" This protocol is used to distribute activities between actors on different servers, tying them into the same social graph. The ActivityPub specification is designed so that once either of these protocols are implemented, supporting the other is of very little additional effort. However, servers may still implement one without the other

      It is possible to have an AP client-server implementation that does not do the federation part, but it would be little effort to support it. And vice versa. Does this mean that in such a case every other server should come and get information, iow another server should know to come get it? Federation is more about push it seems. Not doing the federation part means limiting the amount of stuff you get to receive (all the other stuff). For my site it would be good to limit what's being processed. Currently it seems to me that maybe WP AP plugin isn't doing the federation bits?

    6. Since this is a non-activity object, the server recognizes that this is an object being newly created, and does the courtesy of wrapping it in a Create activity. (Activities sent around in ActivityPub generally follow the pattern of some activity by some actor being taken on some object. In this case the activity is a Create of a Note object, posted by a Person).

      posting to your outbox is supposed to be treated as a Create type activity and wrapped as such. Other activities (e.g. Like) should be deliberately expressed, but create is assumed if no activity is present.

    7. Indeed, federation happens usually by servers posting messages sent by actors to actors on other servers' inboxes.

      Federation comes from POSTing to other server inboxes, rather than GETting from server's outboxes. This is the source of M being rather traffic heavy?

    8. if that last one (GET'ing from someone's outbox) was the only way to see what people have sent, this wouldn't be a very efficient federation protocol!

      ? So at core, AP would require cycling through people's outboxes to get the stuff that is available there. Such pulling may be enough for just specific circles of people. Would it be enough for dAPplr? Come and get it?

    9. You can POST to someone's inbox to send them a message (server-to-server / federation only... this is federation!) You can GET from your inbox to read your latest messages (client-to-server; this is like reading your social network stream) You can POST to your outbox to send messages to the world (client-to-server) You can GET from someone's outbox to see what messages they've posted (or at least the ones you're authorized to see). (client-to-server and/or server-to-server)

      get and post behave differently on the client and server side. Get from inbox client side, is reading ones stream. Post to outbox client side is sending messages out. Post to inbox server side is incoming stuff from the fediverse. Get from outbox serverside is getting the msgs you're authorised to see. This last one would be how I'd approach e.g. dAPplr (I think I found my working title)

    10. An inbox: How they get messages from the world An outbox: How they send messages to others

      Every actor has an inbox and outbox. These are endpoints URLs listed in the ActivityPub actor's ActivityStreams description

    11. In ActivityPub, a user is represented by "actors" via the user's accounts on servers. User's accounts on different servers correspond to different actors.

      a user is an actor is an account on server. Actors can be of different type (org, group, person, app and service) I suppose here person is usually meant, but I can see group and org useful too, as well as service (different content streams by me) and even app (source of content creation e.g.)

    12. ActivityPub provides two layers: A server to server federation protocol (so decentralized websites can share information) A client to server protocol (so users, including real-world users, bots, and other automated processes, can communicate with ActivityPub using their accounts on servers, from a phone or desktop or web application or whatever) ActivityPub implementations can implement just one of these things or both of them. However, once you've implemented one, it isn't too many steps to implement the other, and there are a lot of benefits to both

      It seems all current implementations are both, but I wonder if separating them out creates lower threshold agency, much like how microsub separates the feed server and the reading client, and micropub separates the posting server and the writing client. I can see having multiple client side thing to be able to post or see content, even if the base case is my site being my client and my server. Keeping a clear distinction of what's what is always useful.

    13. The ActivityPub protocol is a decentralized social networking protocol based upon the [ActivityStreams] 2.0 data format. It provides a client to server API for creating, updating and deleting content, as well as a federated server to server API for delivering notifications and content.

      In sum, I'd need to: understand activities use my site to create those activities, and display those of others separate the client part on my site and the server part clearly in my mind. figure out how the server part processes incoming notifications and content.

    14. federated server to server API for delivering notifications and content

      The servers between eachother also have an API to deliver notifications and content.

    15. provides a client to server API for creating, updating and deleting content

      the client creates/updates/deletes content, and uses an API to send that to server.

    16. The ActivityPub protocol is a decentralized social networking protocol based upon the [ActivityStreams] 2.0 data format.

      Activitystreams is a fundament for AP. This is why I'm interested, as ActviityStreams contains a much wider range of verbs than just for basic social interaction. Specifically covering things that used to have a social software service since gone (e.g. Dopplr, original Foursquare, Jaiku's way of combining streams into 1) Should read and mine the ActivityStreams spec for understanding too.

    1. These are the specifications produced by the Social Web Working Group. New implementation reports and feedback are always welcome (details for where to submit these are at the top of each document). [Activitypub] JSON(-LD)-based APIs for client-to-server interactions (ie. publishing) and server-to-server interactions (ie. federation). ActivityStreams 2.0 [activitystreams-core] and [activitystreams-vocabulary] The syntax and vocabulary for representing social activities, actors, objects, and collections in JSON(-LD). Linked Data Notifications ([LDN]) A JSON-LD-based protocol for delivery. [Micropub] A form-encoding and JSON-based API for client-to-server interactions (ie. publishing). [Webmention] A form-encoding-based protocol for delivery. [WebSub] A protocol for subscription to any resource and delivery of updates about it. Specifications which are not Social Web Working Group recommendations, but which are nonetheless relevent to the charter deliverables, are described in 8. Related specifcations.

      The various specs by the Social Web Working Group are listed here together. AP with the purpose of interaction is mentioned alongside MicroPub Sub and Webmention. The 'related specs' mentions IndieAuth and MF2. Useful to see it presented here as a 'family' rather than as alternatives, and underscores the gap that AP could fill for my otherwise IndieWeb enabled site.

    1. suspect evaded Colorado’s red flag gun law

      If you read lower in the article you'll see that the headline is a blatant lie.

      The Gov failed to prosecute a violent person, so AP spins it as if this guy "evaded" (which is an action).

      One can't evade a law that is never applied against them.

    1. It's gonna go great!

      It will be as messay as, the internet itself, as the web itself. Which works. The abberation imo is centralised website silos on top of a fully federated internet and web. At least AP embraces the underlying srtucture of the internet, and the underlying structure of human networks. Federation brings the human and tech networks to a closer resemblance, which brings more digital affordances, esp social ones we have offline already.

    1. There are student editions of the poems of Dafyd ap Gwilym, and of Y Gododdin, the strange, and rather difficult medieval Welsh epic poem about the battle of the men of the north at Catraeth, part of the Welsh contribution to Celtic Arthurian literature.
  5. May 2022
    1. Abstract GeoDCAT-AP is an extension of the DCAT application profile for data portals in Europe (DCAT-AP) for describing geospatial datasets, dataset series, and services. Its basic use case is to make spatial datasets, dataset series, and services searchable on general data portals, thereby making geospatial information better findable across borders and sectors. For this purpose, GeoDCAT-AP provides an RDF vocabulary and the corresponding RDF syntax binding for the union of metadata elements of the core profile of ISO 19115:2003 and those defined in the framework of the INSPIRE Directive of the European Union.
    1. Currently, DataCite is the de facto standard for data citation. Therefore, the ability to transform metadata records from and to the DataCite metadata schema would enable, respectively, the harvesting of DataCite records, and the publication of metadata records in the DataCite infrastructure (thus enabling their citation).
  6. Nov 2021
  7. Sep 2021
    1. Đọc sách nghe tưởng chừng là việc quen thuộc và phức tạp vô cùng đối với nhiều người mà lại trở nên đơn giản đến không tưởng với cách diễn tả sâu sắc qua từng câu chuyện của tác giả Phan Thanh Dũng.

  8. Oct 2020
    1. 8devices has now entered the fray with Qualcomm IPQ6000/IPQ6010 powered Mango WiFi 6 system-in-module available in commercial or industrial temperature range, as well as as a development kit based on the module.

      8device is awesome and has made really good modules at a great price for a while now i love this company & their support is definitely on par.

      i can't wait for a less frigging ancient core but wow still a powerful offering. good wifi! huzzah: that's what this module offers. on package. wow. the chip has some good ok stuff. 2x 5Gbe. usb3. a lane of pcie3. not bad. seemingly the lane of pcie is after the dual onboard 802.11ax 2x2? cause that's what this is really about. some wifi io.

  9. Jan 2019
    1. ou cry together at enough funerals, you figure you can bleedtogether on a football field, too.

      I found this so powerful and the fact that the author included it twice truly makes an impact on this article. It wasn't your typical sad soppy story. It was showing how family comes to together during hard times and they patch up their bruise ( losing teammates/co-workers) with a band-aid (football).

  10. Jun 2018
    1. In hindsight, I read these acts as cries for help, a kind of academic self-medication. I was bored, not because I’d mastered the required material – I got more than my share of non-A grades – but because the things I was asked to do were generally uninspiring. Perhaps nothing was more uninspiring than preparing for an AP exam.
  11. Feb 2018
    1. As they enter adolescence, silence and modesty are instilled as desirable values, as girls are pressed to behave in a "modest fashion."

      Girls are often times sheltered by their parents. They have stricter rules, earlier curfews and many other restrictions that are not placed on boys.

    1. 133,000 people behind bars in U.S. prisons and jails for drug possession – and 63,000 of these people are held pre-trial, which means they’re locked up simply because they’re too poor to post bail.

      Why are we doing this to our citizens, we are supposed to be helping them while all we are doing is mentally and physically hurting them more then the drugs do.

    2. 80 percent of those arrests are for simple drug possession.
    3. More than a million people are arrested each year in the U.S. for drug possession,
    4. Decriminalization benefits public safety and health.
    5. Our retrograde federal administration is ramping up the war on drugs – despite widespread public support for ending it and instead focusing our limited resources on health-based approaches to drug addiction and overdose deaths.

      why is the government fighting for what they believe is right and not what is best for their citizens, since their citizens have experimented with drugs.

    6. Half of all adults in the U.S. have used an illegal drug at some point.
  12. Dec 2017
    1. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act

      The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEAA) was passed in 1975 by the Congress of the United States and increased the amount of self-governance of the native peoples1. If any Native American tribe requests a “self-determination” contract from the federal government, the government is obligated to give them one. This contract gives the tribe funding for programs and gives it the responsibility of running services administered by the federal government. The federal government is also required to provide “contract support costs” – the additional transaction costs of the Act. These costs are only enacted when the tribe decides to plan its own programs without the government’s help. The Act gives the native peoples a lot of freedom and leeway, as they are able to create something they can call their own through these government-provided funds. Funding for the ISDEAA comes from the Indian Self-Determination Fund, which has its limitations: the Availability Clause and the Reduction Clause. The Availability Clause provides that funds are subject to availability of appropriations, and the Reduction Clause states that funding to one tribe cannot be reduced to gain more funding for another2.         This Act has been one of the most important legislative acts for Indians because it greatly affects them in a positive way. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act “…has been a key driver in improving communities throughout Indian country”3. One example of this would be the lives of the Navajos in Arizona. The Director of the Rough Rock Demonstration School told the Inquiry that under this new legislation they have established their own school system. The director describes the benefits of this, “Navaho people…are running a sophisticated school, unabashedly oriented to Navaho children”1. All of the staff comes from the community – giving the Navajos more jobs and income. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act not only improves the education of Native Americans, but their quality of life as well. This principle of native self-determination in education was already accepted in Canada in 1972. The National Indian Brotherhood wrote a policy paper called the Indian Control of Indian Education, which was accepted the following year1. The acceptance of native people’s self-governance was clearly growing in the 1970s. Because of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, Native Americans were and are able to control more aspects of their lives, especially education.

      A Navajo woman, Kathryn Manuelito, conducted research to emphasize the importance of education to the Indians. After studying the Navajo peoples she stated that “Since the passage of the Indian Self-Determination Act, which provides for tribal- and community based schools, many Indian peoples have considered formal education to be a primary force in the survival of their languages and cultures"4. The indigenous also believe that the act preserves their rights. Manuelito concluded that the traditional Navajo education that resulted from the Act has advanced and helped the Navajo to maintain their existing identities. By the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, Indian cultures, especially the Navajo, were able to be preserved4.

      Picture: http://data2.archives.ca/ap/a/a185534-v8.jpg Caption: Reverend Lachlan McLean counsels student soldier at Indian Residential School in the 1970s.


      1. Thomas Berger, “Native Claims,” in Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 183.
      2. Elizabeth M. Glazer, “Comments – Appropriating Availability: Reconciling Purpose and Text Under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act,” The University of Chicago Law Review 71, no. 4 (2004):1637-1638.
      3. United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs (1993), Amending the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act to Provide Further Self-Governance by Indian Tribes, and for Other Purposes: Report (to Accompany S. 979). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office, 2015), 1-2.
      4. Kathryn Manuelito, “The Role of education in American Indian Self-Determination: Lessons from the Ramah Navajo Community School,” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 36, no. 1 (2005): 73-75. http://doi:10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.073.
  13. Mar 2016
    1. As professionals continue to argue the academic validity of hip hop and disseminate the social significance of rap,

      Hip hop is an art and I will fight any man woman or child who says otherwise

  14. Feb 2016
    1. A minimum wage of $7.25 is not enough to live on. Full-time minimum-wage workers today earn about $15,000 a year. In 1968, they earned about $20,000 per year in today’s dollars. While certainly not enough for a life of luxury, it is enough for a family of three to stay above the poverty line – which can’t be said for today’s minimum-wage workers.

      This is true, $7.25 is not enough for people to live on. At first this was understandable because this was an ok amount for teenagers to experience their first job, but with unemployment rates high, people are forced to deal with minimum wage to make a living. This is not enough for them

    2. If we’re going to live in one unified America, we need an economy that works for all Americans

      I agree that if we are to be unified as a society, we need an economy that works to everyone's benefit.

    1. Developing the two Wyoming sites would make more than 640 million tons of coal available to mining companies, according to the Interior Department. Each ton of burned coal creates 1.66 metric tons of carbon dioxide, according to government data.

      This is an astounding statistic that would be hard for anyone to back up. It is issues like this that we need to address in order to stop the huge problem of climate change.

    1. But after decades of expanding enrollments, applications have begun tapering off. College enrollment peaked in 2011.

      This is the point i was trying to get across in my argument. College tuition is getting to the point where students are considering not going to school instead. This is a serious problem that should be addressed.

  15. Jun 2015