61 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2023
    1. The most powerful groups in society, in any case, had elaborated persuasive rationales for exemption. The clergy, a vast corporation drawing revenues from a sixth of the kingdom’s land, and creaming off, in the form of tithes, a notional tenth of the yield of the rest, paid no direct taxes on the grounds that it performed its service to society by praying and interceding with God. The nobility, the social elite which owned over a quarter of the land, levied feudal dues over much of the rest, and steadily sucked most of the newly rich into its ranks via ennobling offices, resisted the payment of direct taxes as well. Nobles, the argument went, served the kingdom with their blood, by fighting to defend it.

      Tax evasion of 1st and 2nd estates

    2. The crisis was triggered by King Louis XVI’s attempts to avoid bankruptcy.

      Cause of instability

    3. Yet it was hard to see how a French king could keep up his international pretensions without some modification in his subjects’ time-honoured privileges and inequalities. Nowhere was the kingdom’s lack of uniformity more glaring than in the structure of privilege and exemption which gave each and every institution, group, or area a status not quite like any other.

      Privileges of stratified society

    4. As in every aspect of the ancien régime, the judicial and institutional map of France had no uniformity.

      Lack of political uniformity

  2. Nov 2023
    1. as you start taking weight off number one the weight because as you lose weight you lose 00:16:50 weight in here too i promise you if you are overweight anyone is over 15 pounds overweight you will see a tremendous difference in your sleep apnea it will start getting better and better and better
      • for: sleep apnea causes - overweight
    1. The Qing court's position weakened when they were defeated in Nanjing.Negotiations led to the abdication of the emperor and the establishment of a provisional republican government.
    2. e Second International, a federation of socialist parties and trade unions, supported the concept of parliamentary democracy and believed in the possibilities of social revolution.
    3. Russian revolution and saw similarities between the tsars and the Qing emperors.
    4. onstitutional monarchy as a way to achieve progress and economic development

      infiltration of Western Enlightenment values

    5. anti-Manchu sentiment
    6. Natural disasters,
    7. The Qing government struggled financially, with increasing expenses for the army and a growing budget deficit.
    8. The New Army,
    9. The Qing government decided to nationalize the railway system under their control because it was profitable and would provide funds for the government.This decision angered many Chinese who believed each province should control its own railway development.

      centralisation vs localism

    10. 1900s, Chinese people wanted to regain control of their own transportation system from foreign investors.They formed groups to raise money and buy back the railroad rights.

      feeling of a loss of control and traditional values

    11. Qing court, the ruling dynasty at the time, should have been aware that these assemblies would scrutinize their actions.

      the dynasty became open to change by the people, worried about fitting in with the West

    12. he country as a whole moved towards constitutional change, with plans for full constitutional government over the nine years.The death of the empress dowager Cixi increased the urgency for reform.
    13. Various groups, including constitutional monarchists, nationalists, anarchists, Marxists, and the Revolutionary Alliance, criticized the Qing.
    14. The Qing court and Chinese officials had attempted to adapt Western techniques and ideas to China's needs.
    15. The fall of the Qing dynasty was triggered by an accidental bomb explosion in Hankou, which was fueled by agitation over constitutionalism, railways, and foreign encroachments
  3. Aug 2023
    1. While the proximate mechanisms of these anthropogenic changes are well studied (e.g., climate change, biodiversity loss, population growth), the evolutionary causality of these anthropogenic changes have been largely ignored.
      • for: climate change - evolutionary causes, cultural evolution - unsustainability, unsustainability
      • definition: Anthroecological theory (AET)
        • This theory proposes that the ultimate cause of anthropogenic environmental change is multi-level selection for niche construction and ecosystem engineering
  4. Mar 2023
    1. Every child who fails in his school work or is in danger of failing should be given a mental examination. The examination takes less than one hour, and the result will contribute more to a real understanding of the case than anything else that could be done. It is necessary to determine whether a given child is unsuccessful in school because of poor native ability, or because of poor instruction, lack of interest, or some other removable cause.

      I agree with this statement because if someone is failing there is a reason behind why they are failing. There could be many causes as to why someone fails something. This is important to the history of psychology because failure has happened many times throughout history and there are probably some underlining factors as to why some psychologists failed at certain things. Some causes of failure are lack of interest, poor instruction, poor self-esteem, and things happening at home that are distracting.

  5. Sep 2022
  6. Jul 2022
  7. Apr 2022
    1. One of those factors is globalization which has helped lift hundreds and millions out of poverty, most notably in China and India, but which, along with automation has also ended entire economies, accelerated global inequality, and left millions of others feeling betrayed and angry at existing political institutions.

      An awareness of other structural, economic issues that are weakening democracy: Globalization, Automation, Inequality.

    2. increased mobility and urbanization of modern life, which further shakes up societies, including existing family structures and gender roles

      Another possible structural cause of weakened democracy, though I'm not sure how urbanization leads to a decrease in communal glue.

    3. chronic political dysfunction, here in the U.S. and in Europe
    4. the near collapse of the global financial system in 2008
    5. the rise of China
  8. Mar 2022
  9. Feb 2022
    1. "There was a miscommunication. Some students might have saw 'open-book, open-note' as 'open-Internet, open-resources

      Miscommunication is a worthy cause of cheating. unclear guidelines on how to do their homework may probe some students to create their policies, and that is to choose the easy path, cheating

    1. But according to a new study, it gets even worse—the people bullying them may actually experience health benefits from their ruthless behavior.
    2. Bullying seemed to protect the aggressors from inflammatory diseases.
  10. Jan 2022
    1. Chronic exposure to soot is associated with shorter life expectancies, lung cancer, diabetes and low birth weight and can exacerbate respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses.

      Those chronic exposure also contributes with other disease like lung cancer, diabetes and other kind of illness.

    2. Refineries and chemical plants are major emitters of not only nitrogen oxide, but sulfur dioxide, which also contributes to smog and haze.

      Not only chemical plants are effecting the nature also sulfur dioxide which contribute smog and haze.

    3. Pollution from burning coal also affects a larger area than vehicle emissions, which means modest air pollution reductions in East Coast states may partly be because of their location downwind of coal-fired facilities.

      Burning coal also affects the pollution more than vehicle emission.

    4. Emissions from those sources, combined with hot and stagnant weather, cause air pollution to hit dangerous levels during the summer, which puts the region out of compliance with federal air standards

      air pollution hit different during the summer because it combine with the hot weather.

    5. Breathing polluted air for long periods of time can damage the lungs and make it more difficult to fight respiratory disease

      People with different diseases can affect them.

    6. ir pollution from agriculture, vehicles and power plants contributes to asthma and other diseases that make severe cases of COVID-19 more likely.

      Vehicle and power plants makes many diseases that makes severe cases of covid-19

    7. that people who work outside, poor people and student-athletes

      Most the people who works outside may suffer from the heat illness.

    8. Climate change and air pollution have the same root cause — the burning of fossil fuels."

      Burning fossils fuels are causing the climate and the air pollution to change

    9. "Many carbon-intensive practices and policies lead to poor air quality, poor food quality, and poor housing quality,

      Causes of death, disease, and burning fossil fuels led to poor air quality, poor food quality, and poor housing quality.

    1. Every ton of carbon dioxide released has an economic impact that can include damaged infrastructure,

      Every tons of carbon dioxide is impacted the economy and can damaged the sea level.

    2. reduce emissions from facilities that burn coal.

      they should start to reduce emission from burning the coal.

    3. pipelines have a really large climate effect on top of their broader environmental footprint.

      those pipeline have a big difference on the climate change of the environment.

  11. May 2021
  12. Aug 2020
  13. Apr 2020
    1. Chronic wounds, in general, behave differently in relation to bacterial growth when compared to acute wounds. Chronic wounds develop bacterial growth that is resistant to invasion by antibiotics and is protected from the host immune defenses.
  14. Nov 2019
  15. Mar 2019
    1. When we burn these fossil fuels, the carbon combines with oxygen to make carbon dioxide. This extra carbon dioxide (and other GHGs like methane) traps more and more heat in our atmosphere.

      How we end up making carbon dioxide

  16. Jun 2018
    1. Related to the idea of feedback loops is the concept of the tipping point. Up to a certain point, a new force—whether it is a new product, a disease, a new rock group or a new social habit such as jogging or roller-blading—finds it difficult to make headway. A great deal of effort generates little by way of results. At this point many pioneers give up. But if the new force persists and can cross a certain invisible line, a small amount of additional effort can reap huge returns. This invisible line is the tipping point.
    2. We can see positive feedback loops operating in many areas, explaining how it is that we typically end up with 80/20 rather than 50/50 relationships between populations. For example, the rich get richer, not just (or mainly) because of superior abilities, but because riches beget riches. A similar phenomenon exists with goldfish in a pond. Even if you start with goldfish almost exactly the same size, those that are slightly bigger become very much bigger, because, even with only slight initial advantages in stronger propulsion and larger mouths, they are able to capture and gobble up disproportionate amounts of food
  17. Apr 2016
    1. By historical standards, most Americans are quite wealthy. And that’s part of what bothers us. If we were all poor, we might think that’s just the way things are, but when millions of us are doing quite well while others languish in poverty, it seems that something is just not right.

      I don't understand why people are bothered if people are wealthy. People get rich for many reasons. They work hard in school and get a high paying job, they save money, they have inherited the money which also means someone worked hard to get it at some point and then there are the few times that people win money from lotteries or casinos. I don't think people need to be concerned why people are rich or poor. If you work hard and go to school you should be able to get a job and make money. If you end up poor you most likely didn't spend your life working or trying hard, you didn't go to school or you're just lazy. Sorry people worked hard in their life to get to where they want to be. I think saying something isn't right about people being poor and people being rich is complete b.s. because life isn't fair and nobody is ever going to be as good as someone else so I think people need to start dealing with that. I understand it sucks to be a kid and not be able to help yourself but that's not your fault. Parents need to step it up so they can take care of their kids. The top reasons for people in America to be poor are poor economy, drug and alcohol use, unaffordable housing, no education and medical expenses. I think the welfare system is a good idea but I think people take advantage of it if they don't want to work and thats not right. I think there should be more criteria to be able to receive welfare. I think it would be beneficial for the government to build a few cheap housing developments for the poor to help some families. It would be a good charity project. I just think it sucks that people don't work or do anything to help themselves then are complaining about being poor.

  18. Mar 2015
    1. an objective set for the Sprint that can be met through the implementation of Product Backlog. It provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment. It is created during the Sprint Planning meeting. The Sprint Goal gives the Development Team some flexibility regarding the functionality implemented within the Sprint. The selected Product Backlog items deliver one coherent function, which can be the Sprint Goal. The Sprint Goal can be any other coherence that causes the Development Team to work together rather than on separate initiatives.

      an objective set for the Sprint that can be met through the implementation of Product Backlog. It provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment. It is created during the Sprint Planning meeting. The Sprint Goal gives the Development Team some flexibility regarding the functionality implemented within the Sprint. The selected Product Backlog items deliver one coherent function, which can be the Sprint Goal. The Sprint Goal can be any other coherence that causes the Development Team to work together rather than on separate initiatives.

  19. Sep 2013
    1. Thus every action must be due to one or other of seven causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reasoning, anger, or appetite.
    1. seven causes of human action, viz. three involuntary, (1) chance, (2) nature, (3) compulsion; and four voluntary, viz. (4) habit, (5) reasoning, (6) anger, (7) appetite

      7 causes for action