398 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2013
    1. The free intellect copies human life, but it considers this life to be something good and seems to be quite satisfied with it.
    2. But man has an invincible inclination to allow himself to be deceived D and is, as it were, enchanted with happiness when the rhapsodist tells i him epic fables as if they were true, or when the actor in the theater acts more royally than any real king. So long as it is able to deceive without injuring, that master of deception, the intellect, is free;

      Our unconscious goal is to deceive ourselves. We don't seek reality

    3. It continually manifests an ardent desire to refashion the world which presents itself to waking man, so that it will be as colorful, irregular, lacking in results and coherence, charming, and eternally new as the world of dreams
    4. This drive is not truly vanquished and scarcely subdued by the fact that a regular and rigid new world is constructed as its prison from its own ephemeral products, the concepts

      We limit ourselves by formulation a frame for truth and then filling it, not seeing anything outside it.

    5. The drive toward the formation of metaphors is the fundamental human drive, which one cannot for a single instant dispense with in thought, for one would thereby dispense with man himself.

      Seems excessive, I don't think I buy it

    6. rather, nature would be grasped only as a creation which is subjective in the highest degree.

      we create the concept of truth and knowledge into which we pour back in these ideas

    7. "the correct perception"-which would mean "the adequate expression of an object in the subject"-is a contradictory impossibility. For between two absolutely different spheres, as between subject and object, there is no causality, no correctness, and no expression; there is, at most, an aesthetic relation:

      No absolute truth, all subjective and relative. Reality much more complex

    8. considers the entire universe in connection with man: the entire universe as the infinitely fractured echo of one original sound-man; the entire universe as the infinitely multiplied copy of one original picture-man

      Man sees himself in everything

    9. unstable foundation, and, as it were, on running water. Of course, in order to be supported by such a foundation, his construction must be like one constructed of spiders' webs: delicate enough to be carried along by the waves, strong enough not to be blown apart by every wind

      Foundation of truth. Society, it is unstable and built on concepts and generalizations meant to only make ourselves feel more secure

    10. What then is truth? A movable host of metaphors, metonymies, and; anthropomorphisms: in short, a sum of human relations which have been poetically and rhetorically intensified, transferred, and embellished, and which, after long usage, seem to a people to be fixed, canonical, and binding. Truths are illusions which we have forgotten are illusions- they are metaphors that have become worn out and have been drained of sensuous force, coins which have lost their embossing and are now considered as metal and no longer as coins.

      Definition--ironic he uses metaphors to define truth as metaphor

    11. Just as it is certain that one leaf is never totally the same as another, so it is certain that the concept "leaf" is formed by arbitrarily discarding these individual differences and by forgetting the distinguishing aspects

      Modifying Platonic ideas of truth. Truth is the farthest from reality because it conflates individuality and real circumstances and specificity

    12. the philosopher later work and build, if not derived from never-never land, is a least not derived from the essence of things.

      Not even a derivative of reality but a derivative of a fantasy or dream

    13. To begin with, a nerve stimulus is transferred into an image: first metaphor. The image, in turn, is imitated in a sound: second metaphor. And each time there is a complete overleaping of one sphere, right into the middle of an entirely new and different one

      Deaf man metaphor, we can never know the original or truth, but approximate

    14. The various languages placed side by side show that with words it is never a question of truth, never a question of adequate expression; otherwise, there would not be so many languages

      We are only continually approximating out thoughts, not fully communicating

    15. What is a word? It is the copy in sound of a nerve stimulus
    16. empty husks, then he will always exchange truths for illusion

      Shadows, dreams

    17. It is in a similarly restricted sense that man now wants nothing but truth: he desires the pleasant, life-preserving consequences of truth. He is indifferent toward pure knowledge which has no consequences; toward those truths which are possibly harmful and destructive he is even hostilely inclined.

      We want only what benefits us. Operant condition.

    18. That is to say, a uniformly valid and binding designation is invented for things, and this legislation of language likewise establishes the first laws of truth

      Truth socially constructed, desire to be part of the "herd"

    19. "forms

      Shadows and objects

    20. This art of dissimulation reaches its peak in man. Deception, flattering, lying, deluding, talking behind the back, putting up a false front, living in borrowed splendor, wearing a mask, hiding behind convention, playing a role for others and for oneself-in short, a continuous fluttering around the solitary flame of vanity-is so much the rule and the law among men that there is almost nothing which is less comprehensible than how an honest and pure drive for truth could have arisen among them.

      We are merely trying to fill roles and hide our true selves because we recognize our insufficiency.

    21. It is remarkable that this was brought about by the intellect, which was certainly allotted to these most unfortunate, delicate, and ephemeral beings merely as a device for detaining them a minute within existence

      Humbling, but I really like this perspective. It's refreshing

    22. One might invent such a fable, and yet he still would not have adequately illustrated how miserable, how shadowy and transient, how aimless and arbitrary the human intellect looks within nature.

      Ouch. Do we really know so little? Or in accepting how little we know, do we know more than we realize?

    1. The whole of the following sixth book is taken up with the arts for stirring the emotions and causing delight; here nothing is the property of dialectic or of rhetoric.

      Really? What art would they belong to then? And why is emotion and pathos such a huge part of speaking or writing?

    2. for he does not see that this "hypothesis" is the proposition of a connected syllogism

      Even though hypothesis is used in a different sense here, it still is interesting to think of it in a scientific sense, and many similarities apply

    3. "Therefore all artistic proof," says Quintilian, "consists either of signs, arguments, or exam-ples" - as if examples and signs were not arguments!

      Interesting idea

    4. First, since there are countless questions about those subjects and arts which use the evi-dence of scholars and learned men although they do not come into the forum, in what way can they be called inartistic? Again, how can we call something inartistic which is taught by the pre-cepts of art

      He has a point. There is a lot of crafting and art that goes into witnesses, documents, etc.

    5. Our instructor teaches that all the things which one can say about anything are either causes, effects, subjects, adjuncts, opposites, compari-sons, names, divisions, definitions, or witnesses, and he carefully explains these thing

      All deals with relationships to each other

    6. But indeed I shall instead agree with Quinti-lian's opinion that rhetoric is defined as the sci-ence of speaking well, not about this or that, but about all subjects. Rhetoric therefore requires no partition of its areas of investigation

      What, he agrees on something? Rhetoric covers all subject matter

    7. I say first of all that this partition is false, since there are countless questions which are not contained in any part of these classes.

      Though he is annoying and harsh, I agree that these three categories are too limiting

    8. there is one faculty of judgment which the syllogism alone executes and accomplishes

      Is this true? It seems very limiting. Haven't we seen other ways of judging and reasoning?

    9. Therefore dialectic comprises, as proper to it, the arts of invention, arrangement, and memory

      you can see his bias toward dialectic

    10. For although I admit that rhetoric is a virtue, it is virtue of the mind and the intelligence, as in all the true liberal arts, whose followers can still be men of the utmost moral depravity. Nor is rhetoric a moral virtue as Quintilian thinks, so that whoever possesses it is incapable )f being a wicked man

      This sounds more realiistic

    11. The parts of the material which belong to the art of rhetoric are only two, style and delivery

      Again this seems limiting

    12. Rhetoric should demonstrate the embellishment of speech first in tropes and figures, second in dignified delivery

      Divides it into separate categories, makes rhetoric very specific and almost trivial

    13. Because a definition of any artist which covers more than is included in the rules of his art is superfluous and defective

      It's true that many of the definitions we have read seem to cover so much area that they in fact say nothing at all

    14. "I teach," he says, "that the orator cannot be perfect unless he is a good man. Con-sequently I demand from him not only outstand-ing skill in speaking but all the virtuous qualities of character." This is the type of orator that Quin-tilian constructs for us. Afterwards in the twelfth book, where he defines him in similar terms as a good man skilled in speaking well, he identifies those virtuous qualities of character as justice, courage, self-control, prudence, likewise knowl-edge of the whole of philosophy and of law, a thorough acquaintance with history, and many other attributes worthy of praise.
    15. Cicero seems to have spoken in an age of gold, Quin-tilian in an age of iron

      Beautiful metaphor

    16. If you wish, attribute to Cicero these equal ornaments of dialectic, invention, and arrangement


    17. As a result, if the arts were taught with greater conciseness they would certainly be more easily understood, and once the true method for their use was revealed, they would be more easy to practice

      Critical thinking and questioning doesn't complicate things but is supposed to simplify

    18. We shall distinguish the art of rhetoric from the other arts, and make it a single one of the liberal arts, not a confused mixture of all art

      Interesting idea. But it still gets mixed in and influences so many areas. It's harder to qualify and contain than that

    19. We have added to the art the virtues it lacked

      Which are? He seems excessively harsh but doesn't give much in return

    1. Significant in our day is the way in which tithing is distributed. As we see examples of greed and avarice among some irresponsible corporate executives, we can be grateful that the Lord has provided a way for tithing to be administered under His direction. According to revelation, bishops are ordained to “keep the Lord’s storehouse; to receive the funds of the church.” 15 Both bishops and clerks are expected to be full-tithe payers who have learned to live prudently within their means. Within hours of receiving tithing funds from members of their wards and branches, these local leaders transmit the funds directly to the headquarters of the Church. Then, as revealed by the Lord, the use of tithing is determined by a council comprised of the First Presidency, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and the Presiding Bishopric. The Lord specifically states that the council’s work be directed “by mine own voice unto them.” 16 This council is called the Council on the Disposition of the Tithes. It is remarkable to witness this council heed the Lord’s voice. Each member is aware of and participates in all the council’s decisions. No decision is made until the council is unanimous. All tithing funds are spent for the purposes of the Church, including welfare—care for the poor and needy—temples, buildings and upkeep of meetinghouses, education, curriculum—in short, the work of the Lord.
    2. it is “sacrifice [that] brings forth the blessings of heaven,” not the sum of our contributions
  2. Oct 2013
    1. let his manner of living be an eloquent sermon in itself

      Can actions be considered a type of rhetoric?

    2. But the man who cannot speak both eloquently and wisely should speak wisely without eloquence, rather than eloquently without wisdom

      seems a synopsis of most of this chapter

    4. For as the function of all eloquence, whichever of these three forms it may assume, is to speak persuasively, and its object is to persuade, an eloquent man will speak persuasively, whatever style he may adopt;

      Link of eloquence and persuasion--seems a little contradictory to earlier statements

    5. And the speaker has it in his discretion to use the subdued style even where the majestic would be allowable, in order that the majestic when it is used may be the more majestic by comparison, and may as it were shine out with greater brilliance from the dark background

      This is a little tangential, but it like our use of exclamation points today. They are so overused they have no meaning or emphasis anymore

    6. But after the interposition of matter that we have to treat in a quieter style, we can return with good effect to that which must be treated forcibly, thus making the tide of eloquence to ebb and flow like the sea

      This is a beautiful metaphor which carries over well to the musicality of the voice

    7. When, however, something is to be done, and we are speaking to those who ought, but are not willing, to do it, then great matters must be spoken of with power, and in a manner calculated to sway the mind.

      The word calculated carries overtones of manipulation without emotion or concern

    8. even though he do not carry with him the assent of his hearer

      Eloquence is separate from persuasion and not affected by it

    9. either to teach, or to give pleasure, or to move, and should pray and strive, as we have said above, to be heard with intelligence, with pleasure, and with ready compliance· And when he does this with elegance and propriety, he may justly be called eloquent
    10. For as the medicines which men apply to the bodies of their fellow-men are of no avail except God gives them virtue (who can heal without their aid, though they cannot without His), and yet they are applied; and if it be done from a sense of duty, it is esteemed a work of mercy or benevolence; so the aids of teaching, applied through the instrumentality of man, are of advantage to the soul only when God works to make them of advantage, who could give the gospel to man even without the help or agency of men

      All things, even rhetoric and medicine, have effect only through the divine

    11. The eloquent divine, then, when he is urging a practical truth, must not only teach so as to give instruction, and please so as to keep up the attention, but he must also sway the mind so as to subdue the will. For if a man be not moved by the force of truth, though it is demonstrated to his own confession, and clothed in beauty of style, nothing remains but to subdue him by the power of eloquence.

      It's interesting that he links the divine or persuasion of the spirit with rhetorical persuasion

    12. And as he is pleased if you speak with sweetness and elegance, so he is persuaded if he be drawn by your promises, and awed by your threats

      persuasion defined

    13. true eloquence consists, not in making people like what they disliked, nor in making them do what they shrank from, but in making clear what was obscure

      Rhetoric is to enlighten men, not manipulate

    14. Only two conditions are to be insisted upon, that our hearer or companion should have an earnest desire to learn the truth, and should have capacity of mind to receive it in whatever form it may be communicated, the teacher not being so anxious about the eloquence as about the clearness of his teaching.

      we must have the right perspective when using rhetoric

    15. clearness of speech

      concision and clarity the most important. He could learn from his own advice

    16. But an intelligent reader will not be so much instructed by carefully analysing it as kindled by reciting it with spirit. Nor was it composed by man's art and care, but it flowed forth in wisdom and eloquence from the Divine mind; wisdom not aiming at eloquence, yet eloquence not shrinking from wisdo

      rhetoric linked directly to God and the divine as users and shapers of rhetoric

    17. But if a man desire to speak not only with wisdom, but with eloquence also (and assuredly he will prove of greater service if he can do both), I would rather send him to read, and listen to, and exercise himself in imitating, eloquent men, than advise him to spend time with the teachers of rhetoric
    18. But we must beware of the man who abounds in eloquent nonsense, and so much the more if the hearer is pleased with what is not worth listening to, and thinks that because the speaker is eloquent what he says must be true.

      Danger of rhetoric. Reflects modern view of empty language

    19. And, therefore, as infants cannot learn to speak except by learning words and phrases from those who do speak, why should not men become eloquent without being taught any art of speech, simply by reading and learning the speeches of eloquent men, and by imitating them as far as they can?

      Rhetoric compared to speech. interesting comparison, makes it closely linked to day to day activity

    20. For men of quick intellect and glowing temperament find it easier to become eloquent by reading and listening to eloquent speakers than by following rules for eloquence.

      It is an art best learned through exposure and example

    21. Since, then, the faculty of eloquence is available for both sides, and is of very great service in the enforcing either of wrong or right, why do not good men study to engage it on the side of truth

      Responsibility is placed on those who use rhetoric

    22. Now, the art of rhetoric being available for the enforcing either of truth or falsehood

      It can support both equally. Rhetoric is an object and its inherent goodness depends on application

    1. And I know not whether both exercises, when we perform them with care and assiduity, are not reciprocally beneficial, as it appears that by writing we speak with greater accuracy, and by speaking we write with greater ease

      Link between writing and speaking

    2. But this talent requires maintenance with no less practice than it is acquired. An art, indeed, once thoroughly learned, is never wholly lost.

      Views writing and speaking as arts, require habit and practice

    3. The fear of failure, moreover, and the expectation of praise for what we shall say gives a spur to our exertions, and it may seem strange that though the pen delights in seclusion and shrinks from the presence of a witness, extemporal oratory is excited by a crowd of listeners, as the soldier by the mustering of the standards.

      Do we approach audiences different in writing and speaking? How do we distinguish and approach each?

    1. But if by chance, while we are speaking, some glowing thought, suggested on the instant, should spring up in our minds, we must certainly not adhere too superstitiously to that which we have studied, for what we meditate is not to be settled with such nicety that room is not to be allowed for a happy conception of the moment, when thoughts that suddenly arise in our minds are often inserted even in our written compositions
    2. But we cannot arrive at such power of thought suddenly or even soon. 3. In the first place, a certain form of thinking must be acquired by great practice in writing, a form which may be continually attendant on our meditations. A habit of thinking must then be gradually gained by embracing in our minds a few particulars at first, in such a way that they may be faithfully repeated.

      Writing is hard and it is not something you can put off. It is a habit, a lifestyle and way of thinking

    3. NEXT to writing is meditation, which indeed derives strength from it and is something between the labor of writing and the trial of our fortune in extemporary speaking

      Writing is not spontaneous but requires thought

    1. Hence it happens that their writings are, so to speak, scarred and bloodless, and rendered worse by the remedies applied.

      Just like with writers block or other writing problems, sometimes the pressure to be so perfect keeps us from communicating our ideas

    2. Of correction, there are three ways: to add, to take away, and to alter.

      Why are Greek and Roman philosophers so enchanted with threes?

    1. But to enable us to write more, and more readily, not practice alone will assist (and in practice there is doubtless great effect), but also method.

      It is not enough to write, we must apply and stretch ourselves

    2. The sum of the whole matter, indeed, is this: that by writing quickly, we are not brought to write well, but that by writing well we are brought to write quickly
    3. In writing are the roots, in writing are the foundations of eloquence. By writing, resources are stored up, as it were, in a sacred repository, from where they may be drawn forth for sudden emergencies or as circumstances require.

      Writing is the foundation and the source from which we grow. Seems strange, distances writing from us, makes it seem something disconnected and inspired from some other force beyond us

    4. We must write, therefore, as carefully and as much as we can, for as the ground, by being dug to a great depth, becomes more fitted for fructifying and nourishing seeds, so improvement of the mind, acquired from more than mere superficial cultivation, pours forth the fruits of study in richer abundance and retains them with greater fidelity.

      Plant metaphor yet again

    1. But let imitation (for I must frequently repeat the same precept) not be confined merely to words.

      We must act the part, assume the role

    2. Such an orator ought now surely to be formed, when so many more examples of eloquence exist than fell to the lot of those who have hitherto been considered the best orators, for to them will belong the praise, not only of surpassing those who preceded them, but of instructing those who followed.

      Ideal orator

    3. they yet never fully attain to his force or fertility of language

      Those we imitate act as the fertile soil we grow from

    4. rather one of those images of Epicurus, which he says are perpetually flying off from the surfaces of bodies
    5. Moreover, everything that resembles something else must necessarily be inferior to that of which it is a copy, as the shadow to the substance, the portrait to the natural face, and the player's acting to the real feeling

      It sounds like Plato's cave metaphor

    6. imitation is not sufficient of itself,

      Requires ingenuity and imagination. We must do something more with what we imitate

    7. Our minds must be directed to the imitation of all their excellences, for it cannot be doubted that a great portion of art consists in imitation, since, though to invent was first in order of time and holds the first place in merit, it is of advantage to copy what has been invented with success.

      Imitation is a continual theme throughout this work

    1. fertilizing and grateful aliment

      Back to the plant metaphor

    2. Some speeches contribute more to our improvement when we hear them delivered, others when we peruse them.

      We must understand how to use different media and what best suits our purpose

    3. it is evident that commencement of the art arose from speaking, followed by imitation, and, last of all, diligent exercise in writing

      Writing is the last and highest in the progression

    4. I know it is an ordinary subject of inquiry whether more is contributed by writing, reading, or speaking. This question we should have to examine with careful attention, if we could confine ourselves to any one of those exercises. 2. But they are all so connected, so inseparably linked with one another that if any one of them is neglected, we labor in vain in the other two, for our speech will never become forcible and energetic unless it acquires strength from great practice in writing.

      Writing is essential to improve not only the way we speak, but how we organize our thoughts. It produces clarity

    1. But that it is an art may be proved in a very few words, for whether, as Cleanthes maintained, an art is a power working its effects by a course, that is by method, no man will doubt that there is a certain course and method in oratory; or whether that definition, approved by almost everybody, that an art consists of perception consenting and cooperating to some end useful to life, be adopted also by us, we have already shown that everything to which this definition applies is to be found in oratory

      Establishing oratory as art

    2. They speak falsely, however, in this respect likewise, for we have already shown that oratory has an end and have stated what that end is, an end which the true orator will always attain, for he will always speak well.

      Refuting past philosophers, especially Plato. It has a subject and end, both of which are speaking well

    1. If, moreover, there is a sort of virtue in every species of animals in which it excels the rest, or the greater number, of other animals, as force in the lion and swiftness in the horse, and it is certain that man excels other animals in reason and speech, why should we not consider that the distinctive virtue of man lies as much in eloquence as in reason
    2. But that oratory which I endeavor to teach, of which I conceive the idea in my mind, which is attainable only by a good I man and which alone is true oratory, must be regarded as a virtue.

      Rhetoric itself is inherently virtuous

    1. I AM aware that it is also a question whether nature or learning contributes most to oratory. This inquiry, however, has no concern with the subject of my work, for a perfect orator can be formed only with the aid of bot

      need both

    1. be called an active or a practical art, for the one term is of the same signification as the other.
    2. Others consist of action, the object of which lies in the act and is fulfilled in it, leaving nothing produced from it, a sort of art which is called πρακτική (praktikē), as dancing.

      No product

    1. We must reject food, for it has often given rise to ill health; we must never go under roofs, for they sometimes fall upon those who dwell beneath them; a sword must not be forged for a soldier, for a robber may use the same weapon.

      These are interesting metaphors which suggest rhetoric is a tool or object which is neither inherently good or bac

    1. that oratory is the art of speaking well, since when the best definition is found, he who seeks for another must seek for a worse
    2. With this character of it, the definition that oratory is the science of speaking well agrees excellently, for it embraces all the virtues of oratory at once and includes also the character of the true orator, as he cannot speak well unless he be a good man

      He seems hesitant to commit to one definition

    3. The most common definition therefore is that oratory is the power of persuading. What I call a power, some call a faculty and others a talent, but that this discrepancy may be attended with no ambiguity, I mean by "power" δύναμις (dynamis). 4. This opinion had its origin from Isocrates, if the treatise on the art which is in circulation under his name is really his. That rhetorician, though he had none of the feelings of those who defame the business of the orator, gives too rash a definition of the art when he says, "That rhetoric is the "worker of persuasion," πειθοῦς δημιουργός (peithous dēmiourgos), for I shall not allow myself to use the peculiar term that Ennius applies to Marcus Cethegus, suadae medulla, "marrow of persuasion." 5. In Plato too, Gorgias, in the dialogue inscribed with his name, says almost the same thing, but Plato wishes it to be received as the opinion of Gorgias, not as his own. Cicero, in several passages of his writings, has said that the duty of an orator is to speak in a way adapted to persuade. 6. In his books on rhetoric also, but with which, doubtless, he was not satisfied, he makes the end of eloquence to be persuasion.

      History of term and other defintions

    1. Rhetoric, then, (for we shall henceforth use this term without dread of sarcastic objections) will be best divided, in my opinion, in such a manner that we may speak first of the art, next of the artist, and then of the work.

      Rhetoric as an art

    2. or oratoria will be taken in the same sense as elocutoria, oratrix as elocutrix, but the word rhētorikē, of which we are speaking, is the same sort of word as eloquentia, and it is doubtless used in two senses by the Greeks. 3. In one acceptation, it is an adjective, ars rhetorica, as navis piratica: in the other a substantive, like philosophia or amicitia.

      Key concept--the words are not as interchangeable as I thought

    1. Quintilian does not give rules from which there is no departure;

      Rules made to be broken

    2. In like manner, whether an exordium be necessary or superfluous, whether it should be short or long, whether it should be wholly addressed to the judge, or, by the aid of some figure of speech, directed occasionally to others, whether the statement of facts should be concise or copious, continuous or broken, in the order of events or in any other, the nature of the causes themselves must show

      Everything depends on context and situation, writer's must learn how to gauge these for themselves.

    1. By such persons a gladiator, who rushes to battle without any knowledge of arms, and a wrestler, who struggles with the whole force of his body to effect that which he has once attempted, is called so much the braver, though the latter is often laid prostrate by his own strength, and the other, however violent his assault, is withstood by a gentle turn of his adversary's wrist.

      The ignorant are fearless. Is this why my writer's block has gotten worse in college? Now I know how much there is I can do wrong I'm afraid to even begin?

    1. Some think instruction in oratory unnecessary, § 1, 2. Boasts and practices of the ignorant, 3-5. Some study only parts of their speeches; want of connection in their matter, 6, 7.

      Counter against teaching rhetoric

    1. Such is the practice of actors who do not pronounce exactly as we speak in common conversation, for such pronunciation would be devoid of art; nor do they depart far from nature, as by such a fault imitation would be destroyed; but they exalt the simplicity of familiar discourse with a certain scenic grace.
    2. But even if a declamation be composed merely for display, we ought surely to exert our voice in some degree to please the audience.
    3. The practice, however, has so degenerated through the fault of the teachers that the license and ignorance of declaimers have been among the chief causes that have corrupted eloquence.

      We see this problem with rhetoric today

    1. And as the generation of man is effected by both parents, and as you will in vain scatter seed unless the furrowed ground, previously softened, cherish it so, neither can eloquence come to its growth unless by mutual agreement between him who communicates and him who receives.

      plant metaphor again

    2. that they are to love their tutors not less than their studies and to regard them as parents, not indeed of their bodies, but of their minds
    1. But he who is destined for public speaking must strive to excel not merely in one accomplishment, but in all the accomplishments that are requisite for that art, even though some of them may seem too difficult for him when he is learning them, for instruction would be altogether superfluous if the natural state of the mind were sufficient

      Well rounded teaching which creates a better person, not merely an orator

    2. Variety of talent and disposition in pupils requires variety of treatment, § 1-5. How far an inclination for any particular line of study should be encouraged and cultivated

      This is an important section which seems very applicable today

    1. Something of this kind we see birds practice, which divide food collected in their beaks among their tender and helpless young ones, but when they seem sufficiently grown, teach them, by degrees, to venture out of the nest and flutter round their place of abode, themselves leading the way, and at last leave their strength, when properly tried, to the open sky and their own self-confidence.

      Great metaphor. My tutoring center would love this quote

    1. We may even err with greater safety in regard to the ancients, and I would therefore defer the reading of the moderns, that imitation may not go before judgment

      Be careful not to imitate old styles which are no longer used and therefore not useful, but we can learn more from ancient writing which has been tested and still lasts

    2. what authors ought to be read by beginners

      Still important today. This is nearly all we talk about in my children's literature class

    3. Nor will the preceptor be under the obligation merely to teach these things, but frequently to ask questions upon them and try the judgment of his pupils

      Questions, a sign of deeper understanding and investment

    4. Nor is it without advantage, indeed, that inelegant and faulty speeches, yet such as many, from depravity of taste, would admire, should be read before boys and that it should be shown how many expressions in them are inappropriate, obscure, tumid, low, mean, affected, or effeminate

      We often learn the most through bad examples

    5. would exercise the pupils under his care in the reading of history and even still more in that of speeches,

      Read examples and surround students with good rhetoric

    1. The praise or censure of laws requires more mature powers, such as may almost suffice for the very highest efforts.
    2. I would even have it an object with teachers themselves to nourish minds that are still tender with more indulgence and to allow them to be satiated, as it were, with the milk of more liberal studies.

      nourish imagination. Plant metaphor. The teachers are the basis, the soil from which students are nourished and grow

    3. Since of narrations (besides that which we use in pleadings) we understand that there are three kinds: the fable, which is the subject of tragedies and poems, and which is remote, not merely from truth, but from the appearance of truth; the argumentum, which comedies represent and which, though false, has a resemblance to truth; and the history, in which is contained a relation of facts.

      Three types of narration: history, argumentum, and fable

    1. Is there not then, it may be asked, a certain height of eloquence too elevated for the immaturity of boyhood to comprehend it? I readily confess that there is, but the eloquent professor must also be a man of sense, not ignorant of teaching and lowering himself to the capacity of the learner, as any fast walker, if he should happen to walk with a child, would give him his hand, relax his pace, and not go on quicker than his companion could follow

      Teaching, we must first master the subject so that we can slow it down or break it apart into understandable pieces

    1. Let him adopt, then, above all things, the feelings of a parent towards his pupils and consider that he succeeds to the place of those by whom the children were entrusted to him

      To be a great teacher you must see value in the work and your student

    2. Of these professors the morals must first be ascertained, a point of which I proceed to treat in this part of my work, not because I do not think that the same examination is to be made, and with the utmost care, in regard also to other teachers (as indeed I have shown in the preceding book), but because the very age of the pupils makes attention to the matter still more necessary

      morality a central issue. Teaching children while young and still susceptible

    1. .

      Rhetoric should be well rounded and include a large breadth

    2. Let us assign each of these professions its due limits.

      Grammar, declamation, etc. are not enough on their own. They must all be used together and build upon the others weaknesses

    1. That boys will be unable to bear the fatigue of many studies is by no means to be apprehended, for no age suffers less from fatigue.

      You need to build up, start small

    1. The actor will also be required to teach how a narrative should be delivered, with what authority persuasion should be enforced, with what force anger may show itself, and what tone of voice is adapted to excite pity

      Acting seems to come from practice and the use of emotion from practice as well. Contrasts with Cicero, emotion is not felt but portrayed

    2. It is not even every gesture or motion that is to be adopted from the actor, for though the orator ought to regulate both to a certain degree, yet he will be far from appearing in a theatrical character and will exhibit nothing extravagant either in his looks, or the movements of his hands, or his walk.

      Moderation, imitation balanced together

    3. SOME TIME is also to be devoted to the actor, but only so far as the future orator requires the art of delivery,
    1. Order, in the first place, is necessary in geometry, and is it not also necessary in eloquence?

      comparison between geometry and rhetoric

    2. But let us consider what peculiar advantage he who is to be an orator may expect from music. Music has two kinds of measures, the one in the sounds of the voice, the other in the motions of the body, for in both a certain due regulation is required.

      Here's the point, finally.

    3. Nature herself, indeed, seems to have given music to us as a benefit, to enable us to endure labors with greater facility, for musical sounds cheer even the rower

      What does he mean by Nature, is it some higher being like god he is evoking?

    4. Nature does not forbid the formation of a perfect orator, and it is disgraceful to despair of what is possible.

      Ideal orator is attainable

    1. express the same simplicity in writing

      Again, common, simple language important to communicate

    1. Let his mode of reading, however, be, above all, manly, uniting gravity with a certain degree of sweetness.

      It's interesting how he conflates spoken reading with personal reading. I remember hearing once that reading at that time, even privately was often spoken aloud

    2. In lecturing on the poets, the grammarian must attend also to minor points, so that after taking a verse to pieces, he may require the parts of speech to be specified, and the peculiarities of the feet, which are necessary to be known, not merely for writing poetry, but even for prose composition.

      Sounds like any English class I've ever taken since junior high. Things haven't changed much

    3. READING remains to be considered.

      First time this has been addressed explicitly for education, though Cicero did mention the need to be well-read

    1. 28.

      Why doesn't he address difference in voice and use? Why does he refer to written words by how they sound when on the page it is more important how they look and are arranged?

    1. Custom in speaking, therefore, I shall call the agreement of the educated, as I call custom in living the agreement of the good.

      Danger of custom relying too much on past or the vulgar and popular

    2. Words derived from antiquity have not only illustrious patrons, but also confer on style a certain majesty not unattended with pleasure, for they have the authority of age and, as they have been disused for a time, bring with them a charm similar to that of novelty

      beautifully written

    3. Some have not hesitated to apply to etymology for the origin of every name or word;

      danger of etymology, it can be over done and lead to no deeper insight. should be used with care

    4. Etymology,

      The history of words and the way they change is significant and effects our understanding

    5. Etymology, which inquires into the origin of words,
    6. robur, so spoken and written by the greatest authors, are made to change the vowel of the second syllable into -o, because their genitives are roboris and eboris, and because sulpur and guttur preserve the vowel -u in the genitive. For which reason also jecur and femur have raised disputes. 23. This change of theirs is no less audacious than if they were to substitute the letter -o for -u in the genitive case of sulpur and guttur, because eboris and roboris are formed with -o. Consider the example of Antonius Gnipho, who acknowledges that robur and ebur are proper words, and even marmur, but would have the plurals of them to be robura, ebura, marmura. 24. But if they had paid attention to the affinity of letters, they would have understood that roboris is as fairly formed from robur as militis, limitis, from miles, limes, or judicis, vindicis, from judex, vindex,

      This is hard to understand. Do these principles translate over to English?

      This is all Greek to me, Sorry, bad pun.

    7. But we must remember that the course of analogy cannot be traced through all the parts of speech, as it is in many cases at variance with itself.

      Analogy is not a sound basis for argument

    8. Language is based on reason, antiquity, authority, custom. It is analogy, and sometimes etymology, that affords the chief support to reason. A certain majesty, and, if I may so express myself, religion, graces the antique.


    9. Custom, however, is the surest preceptor in speaking, and we must use phraseology, like money, which has the public stamp.

      Money metaphor. We use our language like currency and must be able to exchange and understand.

    1. Words are proper when they signify that to which they were first applied; metaphorical, when they have one signification by nature, and another in the place in which they are used.
    2. Foreign words, like men, and like many of our institutions, have come to us, I might almost say, from all nations.

      Language is formed on complex interactions and has many histories, especially English. It cannot be classified as our language and other language because these so often overlap

    3. They shall therefore be called figures, which are more common among the poets, but allowable also to writers and speakers in prose.

      Sounds like he is describing a cliche

    4. These three sorts of irregularity some distinguish from the solecism, and call a fault of addition "a pleonasm," of retrenchment "an ellipsis," of inversion "an anastrophe,

      Many rhetorical styles are irregularities in proper grammar

    5. by addition (as nam enim, de susum, in Alexandriam); by retrenchment (as Ambulo viam, Aegypto venio, ne hoc fecit); 39. by transposition, by which the order of words is confused (as, Quoque ego, Enim hoc voluit, Autem non habuit)

      Can these faults/errors be deliberately used to our advantage

    6. In sounds also occur those faults of utterance and pronunciation, of which specimens cannot be given in writing;

      Speech is a different medium than writing and it is easier to detect differences in voice. We can choose to alter our voice, accent, and tone, or use these to our advantage

    7. A word taken singly is more often objectionable than faultless, for however we may express anything with propriety, elegance, and sublimity, none of these qualities arise from anything but the connection and order of the discourse, since we commend single words merely as being well suited to the matter.

      Importance of context. meaning only comes through connection

    1. The attention of the learner will then be transferred to syllables,

      It builds upon itself

    2. ppear much subtlety on points, which may not only sharpen the wits of boys, but may exercise even the deepest erudition and knowledge

      teaches discretion, attention to detail

    3. The grammarian has also need of no small portion of eloquence that he may speak aptly and fluently on each of those subjects which are here mentioned.

      Must have a wide knowledge paired with eloquence. Sounds like Cicero

    4. into two parts, the art of speaking correctly, and the illustration of the poets

      Grammars two parts. This seems to be how our schools now develop skills with English

    1. When a tutor has observed these indications, let him next consider how the mind of his pupil is to be managed. Some boys are indolent unless you stimulate them; some are indignant at being commanded; fear restrains some and unnerves others; continued labor forms some; with others, hasty efforts succeed better.

      Tailor teaching to the student

    2. The next symptom is imitation, for that is an indication of a teachable disposition, but with this provision: that it express merely what it is taught, and not a person's manner or walk, for instance, or whatever may be remarkable for deformity.

      imitation, mimesis

    3. The chief symptom of ability in children is memory, the excellence of which is twofold: to receive with ease and retain with fidelity

      Memory key link to success

    1. It is of advantage, therefore, for a boy to have schoolfellows whom he may first imitate and afterwards try to surpass. Thus will he gradually conceive hope of higher excellence.

      competition is essential to success

    2. 25
    3. hough ambition itself is a vice, it is often the parent of virtues.

      ? Strange logic

    4. First of all, let him who is to be an orator and who must live amidst the greatest publicity and in the full daylight of public affairs

      Sociability is required in orators

    5. For the tutor does not stand by the pupil while he is writing, or learning by heart, or thinking; and when he is engaged in any of those exercises, the company of any person whatsoever is a hindrance to him.

      Self-learning or teaching. I am a tutor for both a center and granite school district and this is a huge idea right now. children learn better when they discover things themselves and they don't have to rely on someone handing them answers

    6. Hence, rendered effeminate and luxurious, they do not imbibe immorality from schools, but carry it themselves into schools.

      Character already formed from earliest experience with parents

    1. Memory (as I shall show in its proper place) is most necessary to an orator and is eminently strengthened and nourished by exercise; and, at the age of which we are now speaking, and which cannot, as yet, produce anything of itself, it is almost the only faculty that can be improved by the aid of teachers.
    2. 33

      We learn by being surrounded by words, sounds, images. Learn through immersion and association as well as mistake

    3. , as the elements of learning depend on the memory alone, which not only exists in children, but is at that time of life even most tenacious

      This sounds like modern psychology, particularly of children's plasticity when young

    4. If I seem to my reader to require a great deal, let him consider that it is an orator that is to be educated, an arduous task even when nothing is deficient for the formation of his character;

      Mirrors Cicero. The Romans seem to take rhetoric far more seriously

    5. It is they that the child will hear first; it is their words that he will try to form by imitation.

      early experience is the most formative. We learn through imitation

    6. not natural ability, but care, that was wanting

      Here he differs from our earlier readings. Suggests genius is not a part of us but a product. It reminds me of Gladwell's book Outliers.

    7. As birds are born to fly, horses to run, and wild beasts to show fierceness, so to us peculiarly belong activity and sagacity of understanding

      Uses metaphor to make it seem natural and inborn

  3. Sep 2013
    1. So we must aim at these three points: Antithesis, Metaphor, and Actuality.

      Components of good writing

    2. words express ideas, and therefore those words are the most agreeable that enable us to get hold of new ideas.
    1. The best way to counteract any exaggeration is the well-worn device by which the speaker puts in some criticism of himself

      Does this hurt ethos though?

    2. Your language will be appropriate if it expresses emotion and character, and if it corresponds to its subject. "Correspondence to subject" means that we must neither speak casually about weighty matters, nor solemnly about trivial ones;
    1. Describe a thing instead of naming it: do not say "circle," but "that surface which extends equally from the middle every way.

      Is this the equivalent to show not tell?

    1. A fifth rule is to express plurality, fewness, and unity by the correct wording


    2. A fourth rule is to observe Protagoras' classification of nouns into male, female, and inanimate;

      4 are these equally applicable today and to English

    3. The third is to avoid ambiguities;

      3 sounds like #2 similar

    4. calling things by their own special names and not by vague general ones


    5. First, the proper use of connecting words, and the arrangement of them in the natural sequence


    6. The foundation of good style is correctness of language, which falls under five heads.

      Good Style outline

    1. The materials of metaphor must be beautiful to the ear, to the understanding, to the eye or some other physical sense.

      effects/faculties of beauty

    2. Further, the materials of metaphors must be beautiful; and the beauty, like the ugliness, of all words may, as Licymnius says, lie in their sound or in their meaning.

      Beauty considered. here he looks at not only what is said, but the effects it has and how it can be artistic, aesthetic

    3. Metaphor, moreover, gives style clearness, charm, and distinction as nothing else can:
    4. We can now see that a writer must disguise his art and give the impression of speaking naturally and not artificially.

      consider the audience and mask rhetoric, make it seem spontaneous

    5. Style to be good must be clear, as is proved by the fact that speech which fails to convey a plain meaning will fail to do just what speech has to do. It must also be appropriate, avoiding both meanness and undue elevation; poetical language is certainly free from meanness, but it is not appropriate to prose.

      Is this his definition?

    1. What about gestures, facial expressions, etc? He gets at this a little by comparing it to acting, but doesn't go far enough

    2. the way in which a thing is said does affect its intelligibility

      It has real effects and should not be belittled or ignored

    3. Three questions to consider for writing/speaking

    1. the ironical man jokes to amuse himself, the buffoon to amuse other people
    2. The written style is the more finished: the spoken better admits of dramatic delivery

      written vs. spoken

    3. Periodic style. The language of prose must be either (1) free-running, like that of Herodotus; or (2) compact (i.e. periodic

      Is this the same concept as journalistic writing? Is this where we get the term periodical