74 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
    1. okay so remind you what is a sheath so a sheep is something that allows me to 00:05:37 translate between physical sources or physical realms of data and physical regions so these are various 00:05:49 open sets or translation between them by taking a look at restrictions overlaps 00:06:02 and then inferring

      Fixed typos in transcript:

      Just generally speaking, what can I do with this sheaf-theoretic data structure that I've got? Okay, [I'll] remind you what is a sheaf. A sheaf is something that allows me to translate between physical sources or physical realms of data [in the left diagram] and the data that are associated with those physical regions [in the right diagram]

      So these [on the left] are various open sets [an example being] simplices in a [simplicial complex which is an example of a] topological space.

      And these [on the right] are the data spaces and I'm able to make some translation between [the left and the right diagrams] by taking a look at restrictions of overlaps [a on the left] and inferring back to the union.

      So that's what a sheaf is [regarding data structures]. It's something that allows me to make an inference, an inferential machine.

  2. Oct 2022
    1. I have always been impressed by those academics who can sit impassively through a complex lecture by some visiting luminary without finding it necessary to make a single note, even a furtive one on the back of an envelope. They’d lose face, no doubt, if they were seen copying it all down, like a first-year undergraduate.

      In academia, the act of not taking notes can act as an external signal of superiority or even indifference.

    1. useful in that it will catch readers up with the current state of the literature in extended cognition, looking at discussions of extended perception, belief and memory

      Downloaded the paper to Zotero

      I'm mostly interested in the current thinking about the role of the external environment in extended congition. Offloading K to our environment is extremely old, and digital PKM takes it on faith. At the same time personal experience suggests interplay with what I offload is also key. Sveiby saw external structure as the next component after PKM, for KM. The better I remember what I offloaded and how/why the more useful it is to work with the offloaded stuff.

  3. Sep 2022
    1. In the United States, we have col-lectively decided that we are not going to protect all families to the same degree,and this is reflected in our social policies and resulting poverty rates for thesefamilies.

      Presumably this is part of the reason for the problem mentioned above: https://hypothes.is/a/2uAmuEENEe2KentYKORSww

  4. Aug 2022
    1. languageis a “habit structure” or a network of associative connections,

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  5. Jul 2022
  6. Jun 2022
    1. Chefs use mise en place—a philosophy and mindset embodied ina set of practical techniques—as their “external brain.”1 It gives thema way to externalize their thinking into their environment

      Dan Charnas, Work Clean: The Life-Changing Power of Mise-en-Place to Organize Your Life, Work, and Mind (Emmaus, PA: Rodale Books, 2016)

      mise-en-place is an example of a means of thinking externally with one's environment

      link to - similar ideas in Annie Murphy Paul's The Extended Mind

  7. Apr 2022
    1. One of those factors is globalization which has helped lift hundreds and millions out of poverty, most notably in China and India, but which, along with automation has also ended entire economies, accelerated global inequality, and left millions of others feeling betrayed and angry at existing political institutions.

      An awareness of other structural, economic issues that are weakening democracy: Globalization, Automation, Inequality.

    2. increased mobility and urbanization of modern life, which further shakes up societies, including existing family structures and gender roles

      Another possible structural cause of weakened democracy, though I'm not sure how urbanization leads to a decrease in communal glue.

    3. chronic political dysfunction, here in the U.S. and in Europe
    4. the near collapse of the global financial system in 2008
    5. the rise of China
    1. Krapp argues that, despite its ‘respectablelineage’, the card index generally ‘figures only as an anonymous,furtive factor in text generation, acknowledged – all the way into thetwentieth century – merely as a memory crutch’ (361).2 A keyreason for this is due to the fact that the ‘enlightened scholar isexpected to produce innovative thought’ (361); knowledgeproduction, and any prostheses involved in it, ‘became and remaineda private matter’ (361).

      'Memory crutch' implies a physical human failing that needs assistance rather than a phrase like aide-mémoire that doesn't draw that same attention.

    2. The filing cards or slipsthat Barthes inserted into his index-card system adhered to a ‘strictformat’: they had to be precisely one quarter the size of his usualsheet of writing paper. Barthes (1991: 180) records that this systemchanged when standards were readjusted as part of moves towardsEuropean unification. Within the collection there was considerable‘interior mobility’ (Hollier, 2005: 40), with cards constantlyreordered. There were also multiple layerings of text on each card,with original text frequently annotated and altered.

      Barthes kept his system to a 'strict format' of cards which were one quarter the size of his usual sheet of writing paper, though he did adjust the size over time as paper sizes standardized within Europe. Hollier indicates that the collection had considerable 'interior mobility' and the cards were constantly reordered with use. Barthes also apparently frequently annotated and altered his notes on cards, so they were also changing with use over time.


      Did he make his own cards or purchase them? The sizing of his paper with respect to his cards might indicate that he made his own as it would have been relatively easy to fold his own paper in half twice and cut it up.

      Were his cards numbered or marked so as to be able to put them into some sort of standard order? There's a mention of 'interior mobility' and if this was the case were they just floating around internally or were they somehow indexed and tethered (linked) together?

      The fact that they were regularly used, revise, and easily reordered means that they could definitely have been used to elicit creativity in the same manner as Raymond Llull's combinatorial art, though done externally rather than within one's own mind.

    1. However, the great advantage of enumerations over sets is that they are ordered and they force the brain to list them always in the same order. An ordered list of countries contains more information than the set of countries that can be listed in any order. Paradoxically, despite containing more information, enumerations are easier to remember.

      Enumerations are sets with a particular order. The fact that they have an order, in which each item might be associated with the next, makes them easier to remember.

      The greater information in an enumeration provides additional structure which makes the items easier to remember.

  8. Mar 2022
    1. “Noteson paper, or on a computer screen [...] do not make contemporaryphysics or other kinds of intellectual endeavour easier, they make itpossible” is one of the key takeaways in a contemporary handbookof neuroscientists (Levy 2011, 290) Concluding the discussions inthis book, Levy writes: “In any case, no matter how internalprocesses are implemented, insofar as thinkers are genuinelyconcerned with what enables human beings to perform the

      spectacular intellectual feats exhibited in science and other areas of systematic enquiry, as well as in the arts, they need to understand the extent to which the mind is reliant upon external scaffolding.” (Ibid.)

      Does Neil Levy go into anything on orality with respect to this topic? Check: Levy, Neil. 2011. “Neuroethics and the Extended Mind.” In Judy Illes and B. J. Sahakian (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics, 285–94, Oxford University Press

      Link this to P.M. Forni's question about how I think about mathematics and my answer relating to scaffolding or the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

      Link this to the 9/8 zettel quote from Luhmann about writing being thinking.

      Compare the ideas of visual thinking (visualizations) and a visualization of one's thinking being instantiated in writing along with the Feynman quote about the writing being the thinking. What ways are they similar or different? Is there a gradation in which one subsumes the other?

      What does Annie Murphy Paul have to say on this topic in The Extended Mind?

  9. Feb 2022
    1. This is why choosing an external system that forces us todeliberate practice and confronts us as much as possible with ourlack of understanding or not-yet-learned information is such a smartmove.

      Choosing an external system for knowledge keeping and production forces the learner into a deliberate practice and confronts them with their lack of understanding. This is a large part of the underlying value not only of the zettelkasten, but of the use of a commonplace book which Benjamin Franklin was getting at when recommending that one "read with a pen in your hand". The external system also creates a modality shift from reading to writing by way of thinking which further underlines the value.

      What other building blocks are present in addition to: - modality shift - deliberate practice - confrontation of lack of understanding

      Are there other systems that do all of these as well as others simultaneously?


      link to Franklin quote

    2. We need a reliable and simple external structure tothink in that compensates for the limitations of our brains

      Let's be honest that there are certainly methods for doing all of this within our brains and not needing to rely on external structures. This being said, using writing, literacy, and external structures does allow us to process things faster than before.


      Can we calculate what the level of greater efficiency allows for doing this? What is the overall throughput difference in being able to forget and write? Not rely on communication with others? What does a back of the envelope calculation for this look like?

  10. Dec 2021
    1. Let’s consider a fairly random example of one of these generalistaccounts, Francis Fukuyama’s The Origins of Political Order: FromPrehuman Times to the French Revolution (2011). Here isFukuyama on what he feels can be taken as received wisdom aboutearly human societies: ‘In its early stages human politicalorganization is similar to the band-level society observed in higherprimates like chimpanzees,’ which Fukuyama suggests can beregarded as ‘a default form of social organization’.

      The answer to my earlier question: They are taking Fukuyama and others to task here.

      One should note that even among our primate cousins, there are a variety of social structures and social norms beyond only the chimpanzees. Folks forget about the differing structures of animals like bonobos which show much different structures.

  11. Mar 2021
  12. Feb 2021
    1. Purely functional data structures are persistent. Persistency is required for functional programming; without it, the same computation could return different results.
  13. Jan 2021
    1. We could change the definition of Cons to hold references instead, but then we would have to specify lifetime parameters. By specifying lifetime parameters, we would be specifying that every element in the list will live at least as long as the entire list. The borrow checker wouldn’t let us compile let a = Cons(10, &Nil); for example, because the temporary Nil value would be dropped before a could take a reference to it.
  14. Nov 2020
    1. Interaction with stable storage in the modern world isgenerally mediated by systems that fall roughly into oneof two categories: a filesystem or a database. Databasesassume as much as they can about the structure of thedata they store. The type of any given piece of datais known (e.g., an integer, an identifier, text, etc.), andthe relationships between data are well defined. Thedatabase is the all-knowing and exclusive arbiter of ac-cess to data.Unfortunately, if the user of the data wants more di-rect control over the data, a database is ill-suited. At thesame time, it is unwieldy to interact directly with stablestorage, so something light-weight in between a databaseand raw storage is needed. Filesystems have traditionallyplayed this role. They present a simple container abstrac-tion for data (a file) that is opaque to the system, and theyallow a simple organizational structure for those contain-ers (a hierarchical directory structure)

      Databases and filesystems are both systems which mediate the interaction between user and stable storage.

      Often, the implicit aim of a database is to capture as much as they can about the structure of the data they store. The database is the all-knowing and exclusive arbiter of access to data.

      If a user wants direct access to the data, a database isn't the right choice, but interacting directly with stable storage is too involved.

      A Filesystem is a lightweight (container) abstraction in between a database and raw storage. Filesystems are opaque to the system (i.e. visible only to the user) and allow for a simple, hierarchical organizational structure of directories.

    1. It affords an immediate step, however, to associative indexing, the basic idea of which is a provision whereby any item may be caused at will to select immediately and automatically another. This is the essential feature of the memex. The process of tying two items together is the important thing.

      What Bush called "associative indexing" is the key idea behind the memex. Any item can immediately select others to which it has been previously linked.

    2. Selection by association, rather than indexing, may yet be mechanized. One cannot hope thus to equal the speed and flexibility with which the mind follows an associative trail, but it should be possible to beat the mind decisively in regard to the permanence and clarity of the items resurrected from storage.

      It should be easy to surpass the mind's performance in terms of storage capacity as well as lossiness. It might be more difficult to surpass it in terms of the speed and flexibility with which it "follows an associative trail"

    3. The human mind does not work that way. It operates by association. With one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in accordance with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain. It has other characteristics, of course; trails that are not frequently followed are prone to fade, items are not fully permanent, memory is transitory. Yet the speed of action, the intricacy of trails, the detail of mental pictures, is awe-inspiring beyond all else in nature.

      The human mind doesn't work according to the file-cabinet metaphor — it operates by association.

      "With one items in its gras, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in accordance with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain."

  15. Oct 2020
    1. So who’s up for a blogchain, or a hyperconversation?

      I'm definitely up for it.

      The idea of blogchains is an interesting one and actually seems to be the meta-subject of an ever-growing and rhizomatic one amongst about a dozen locations. The web of it has grown so large that it's hard to see and conglomerate the entire discussion among Tom Critchlow, Kicks Condor, CJ Ellers, Brendan Schlagel, Venkatesh Rao, and many, many others.

      It's been interesting to see it growing slowly but surely.

      Next we'll need some additional organization support on some new topics to see where the next iteration of it might go.

      I do quite like the idea of the version at https://blog.cjeller.site/blogging-futures, though I suspect that having a stub on something like IndieWeb.xyz might be helpful/useful as well.

      In addition to the original discussions of hyperchat and blogchains, many of us have also been having a distributed conversation about the overlap of blogging and wikis for a bit. That conversation has been even less centralized than some of the first and the two have even crossed in places.

      What's next?

  16. Aug 2020
  17. Jul 2020
  18. Apr 2020
    1. Ainsi l’architecture a eu, à un moment de l’histoire, la capacité de rendre visibles les supposées qualités (spatiales) d’un environnement numérique en cours de co-construction par les informaticiens et les architectes, un espace redéfini comme pur milieu d’apprentissage
    1. Peut-être, au lieu que d’espace numérique, nous devrions parler d’architectures numériques, en donnant au mot « architecture » une signification à la fois spatiale et temporelle. Le nuage est une architecture, l’infrastructure d’Internet est une architecture, et l’ensemble d’algorithmes, données, plateformes et câbles est une architecture.
  19. Apr 2019
  20. Mar 2019
    1. Knowing an injustice is taking place may make educators feel all the more helpless,without a productive avenue of resistance.
    2. As Brian Street has (1984) noted, literacy practices are neither neutral nor “autonomous,” and as researchers we must be attentive to worldviews and issues of power and identity that underlie them.
  21. Dec 2018
    1. eople prefer to know who else is present in a shared space, and they usethis awareness to guide their work

      Awareness, disclosure, and privacy concerns are key cognitive/perception needs to integrate into technologies. Social media and CMCs struggle with this knife edge a lot.

      It's also seems to be a big factor in SBTF social coordination that leads to over-compensating and pluritemporal loading of interactions between volunteers.

  22. Aug 2018
    1. create the effect of temporal symmetry, of the group sharing a moment, even though individual members clearly read the message at different moments.

      description of temporal symmetry

    2. The notion of temporal structuring views "real time" not as an inherent property of Internet­based activities, or an inevitable consequence of technol­ogy use, but as an enacted temporal structure, reflecting the decisions people have made about how they wish to structure their activities, both on or off the Internet. As an alternative to the idea of '·real time," Bennett and Wei II ( 1997) have suggested the notion of "real-enough time," proposing that people design their process and technology infrastructures to accommodate variable timing demands, which are contingent on task and context. We believe such "real-enough" temporal structures are important ar­eas of further empirical investigation, allowing us to move beyond the fixation on a singular, objective "real time" to recognize the opportunities people have to (re)shape the range of temporal structures that shape their lives.

      real time vs real-enough time

    3. The notion of temporal structuring we have de­veloped here suggests instead that people enact multiple, heterogeneous, and shifting temporal structures in all as­pects of their lives.

      people experience temporal structures as dynamic

    4. Our empirical example also highlighted the value of achieving virtual temporal symmetry for members of a geographically dispersed community. As electronic me­dia become increasingly central to organizational life, in­dividuals may use asynchronous media in various ways to shape devices of virtual symmetry that help them co­ordinate across geographical distance and across multiple temporal structures. This suggests that when studying the use of electronic media, researchers should pay attention to the conditions in which virtual temporal symmetry may be enacted to coordinate distributed activities, and with what consequences. Interesting questions for empirical research include the following. As work groups in orga­nizations become more geographically dispersed and/or more dependent on electronic media, do members enact virtual temporal symmetry for certain purposes? If so, for which types of purposes? And how? If not, how do such work groups achieve temporal coordination?

      virtual coordination across geographic distance via electronic media and how it shapes/is shaped by temporal structures

    5. By examining a community's repertoire of temporal struc­tures, we can understand the variety of ways in which community members' actions (re)produce the different temporal structures they constitute through their ongoing practices

      A good justification for the SBTF study.

    6. The notion of temporal structuring focuses attention on what people actually do temporally in their practices, and how in such ongoing and situated activity they shape and are shaped by particular temporal structures. By exam­ining when people do what they do in their practices, we can identify what temporal structures shape and are shaped (often concurrently) by members of a community; how these interact; whether they are interrelated, over­lapping, and nested, or separate and distinct; and the ex­tent to which they are compatible, complementary, or contradictory.

      Different interaction patterns of temporal structures that are shaped by people and shape people's activities.

    7. In all these cases, the notion of temporal structuring through ongoing practices helps us understand and bridge the temporal oppositions underlying the research litera­ture. We tum now to an empirical example to demonstrate how this perspective can offer a new understanding of the temporal conditions and consequences of organizational life.

      Succint summation of previous section and transition.

    8. In practice, however. an open-ended or closed temporal orientation is not a stable property of occupational groups, but an emergent property of the temporal structures being enacted at a given moment by the groups' members.

      describes how a group orients around an emergent property of temporal structures depending on context.

      Orlikowski and Yates write later in this passage:

      "Moreover, point of view and moment of observation may also affect the type of structuring observed."

    9. Viewed from a practice perspective, the distinction be­tween cyclic and linear time blurs because it depends on the observer's point of view and moment of observation. In particular cases, simply shifting the observer's vantage point (e.g., from the corporate suite to the factory floor) or changing the period of observation (e.g., from a week to a year) may make either the cyclic or the linear aspect of ongoing practices more salient.

      Could it be that SBTF volunteers are situating themselves in time as a way to respond to a cyclic/linear tension? or a spatial tension?

    10. An emphasis on the cyclic temporality of organizational life also underpins the work on entrain­ment, developed in the natural sciences and gaining cur­rency in organization studies. Defined as "the adjustment of the pace or cycle of one activity to match or synchro­nize with that of another" (Ancona and Chong 1996, p. 251 ), entrainment has been used to account for a variety of organizational phenomena displaying coordinated or synchronized temporal cycles (Ancona and Chong 1996, Clark 1990, Gersick 1994, McGrath 1990).

      Entrainment definition.

    11. In spite of the general movement from particular to­wards universal notions of time (Castells 1996, Giddens 1990, Zerubavel 1981 ), we can see that in use, all uni versa! temporal structures must be particularized to local contexts because they are enacted through the situated practices of specific community members in specific locations and time zones.

      Cites Castells (networks), Giddens (structuration) and Zerubavel (semiotics) as moving away from particular time to more universal notions of real-time, 24-hour clock, and calendars, respectively.

      Orlikowski and Yates argue that even universal notions need situated and contextual practices to make sense of time.

    12. One such op­position is that between universal (global, standardized, acontextual) and particular (local, situated, context­specific) time.

      Orlikowski and Yates describe situated, contextual time as particular.

    13. Table 1 Different Perspectives on Time in Organizations

      Objective vs Subjective vs Practice-based perspectives in time

    14. That is, people are purposive, knowledgeable, adaptive, and inventive ac­tors who, while they are shaped by established temporal structures, can also choose (whether explicitly or implic­itly) to (re)shape those temporal structures to accomplish their situated and dynamic ends.

      People can enact their agency through practices, habits or planned intentions to change temporal structures against what frequently feels like an external time that operates independently.

    15. scholars have begun to recognize the importance of what Nowotny (1992, p. 424) has termed pluritemporalism­"the existence of a plurality of different modes of social time(s) which may exist side by side." Our structuring lens sees this not so much as the existence of multiple times, but as the ongoing constitution of multiple tem­poral structures in people"s everyday practices.

      Cites Nowotny's pluritemporalism.

      Orlikowski and Yates interpret this as enacting multiple temporal structures that are often interdependent and can also be in conflict. Raises the example of tensions between work and family temporal structures.

    16. Like social structures in general (Giddens 1984 ), tem­poral structures simultaneously constrain and enable.

      The paper provides an example of how work vacations and office schedules are restricted during certain seasons, and more open in other seasons.

    17. While adopting one side or the other of this dichotomy may offer re­searchers analytic advantages in their temporal studies of organizations, difficulties arise when these positions are treated-not as conceptual tools-but as inherent prop­erties of time. Focusing on one side or the other misses seeing how temporal structures emerge from and are em­bedded in the varied and ongoing social practices of peo­ple in different communities and historical periods, and at the same time how such temporal structures powerfully shape those practices in turn. By focusing on what or­ganizational members actually do, our practice-based per­spective on temporal structuring may offer new insights into how people construct and reconstruct the temporal conditions that shape their lives.

      Nice summation of how practice-based experiences of time are not well-served by treating the objective-subjective dichotomy as properties of time.

      Need for a different perspective to explore other emergent ways people engage with or experience time.

    18. Thus temporal structures, like all social structures (Giddens 1984), are both the medium and the outcome of people's recurrent practices.

      Wrapping Giddens' structuration theory into the concept of temporal structures.

    19. This in­tegration suggests that time is instantiated in organiza­tional life through a process of temporal structuring,1 where people (re)produce (and occasionally change) tem­poral structures to orient their ongoing activities.

      Succinct definition of temporal structures.

    20. We contribute to this discussion within organizational re­search by offering an alternative third view-that time is experienced in organizational life through a process of temporal structuring that characterizes people's everyday engagement in the world. As part of this engagement, people produce and reproduce what can be seen to be temporal structures to guide, orient, and coordinate their ongoing activities.

      How the concept of temporal structures fits in the literature.

    21. emporal structures here are under­stood as both shaping and being shaped by ongoing hu­man action, and thus as neither independent of human action (because shaped in action), nor fully determined by human action (because shaping that action). Such a view allows us to bridge the gap between objective and subjective understandings of time by recognizing the ac­tive role of people in shaping the temporal contours of their lives, while also acknowledging the way in which people's actions are shaped by structural conditions out­side their immediate control.

      Temporal structures definition

  23. Jul 2018
    1. implies the virtual inseparability of semantics from syntactics, and, indeed, Saussure's followers are often quite appropriately called structuralists, as they view signs not so much in terms of their substantive "content" as in terms of the ways in which they are formally related to other signs (i.e., in terms of the structure of the symbolic system to which they belong). More specifically, they tend to focus particularly on the formal relation of opposition or contrast, because, "in any semiological system, whatever distin- guishes one sign from the oth

      What is the SBTF structure? What differentiates it?

      Do the temporal signs for data collection contrast/differ enough from the temporal signs for the crowd process to describe a single structure for digital humanitarian work?

      Data time = desire for real time information where units of data have their own time contexts (meta data, periods, timelines, qualitative representations/metaphors, etc.)

      Process time = acceptance that work time is always 24/7, urgent and feels like a step behind. The people who perform the process also have their own time contexts (personally situated time, trajectories, rhythms, horizons, etc.)

  24. Jun 2017
    1. Yet, for all the seeming convenience of Microsoft Excel (and its ilk), we pay a hefty price — our time and sanity. “Hyperbole!” I hear you shout. “Nonsense!” I hear you cry. And, when these initial protestations fade, we are left with the ever popular: “I have a system.”

      If I had a dollar

  25. Oct 2016
    1. Sheldon uses this knowledge to blackmail Leonard into successfully signing a new room-mate agreement.While discussions of work become one way to show their professional roles, another way lies in showing these characters performing their professional roles in a work setting.

      She just ends the summary without analysis or saying what it has to do with the topic and then just brings it to a different subject

    2. For example, in “The Justice League Recombination,” Bernadette misses a key event because she remains under quarantine for possible yellow fe-ver because of drinking out of contami-nated petri dishes. Amy’s discussions of her expertise and her work appear more frequently throughout the show.

      McIntosh goes from talking about one person to talking about another without a transition

    3. In particular, these nuances appear through their discussions of their areas of expertise and their careers, their per-formances of their work, and their exter-nal recognitions for their achievements. Because Bernadette and Amy work as scientists, they both have the potential to contribute to the discussions among the friends about their own work and to share their own observations based on scientific inquiry.

      Both are talking about the same topic it is as if they should be part of the same paragraph

    4. The three main female characters do appear in the work situations at different times, but their locations remain primarily in the domestic ones. A hegemonic tension operates throughout situation comedies and pro-vides a flexible boundary along which these tensions humorously play out.

      McIntosh finally does not end on a quote and her transition flows to the next paragraph

    5. More specifically, female scientists were considered “good” nine out of 10 times, with the remaining scientists being considered “mixed” (Dudo et al. 762).

      Again ended with a quote and no transition

    6. Children’s programming further features scientists, such as Bill Nye The Science Guy. Steinke et. al ex-amined middle-schoolers’ responses to the scientists in these and other shows using traits such as “intelligence, domi-nance, alone, and respected” (172) and found the overall response favorable.

      McIntosh ends on a quote not analyzing it or relating it back to what she is trying to say.

    7. While other female scientists do appear briefly throughout the series, Amy and Berna-dette appear most frequently and with the most developed storylines.The Big Bang Theory offers a unique moment to explore the representations of female scientists within the situa-tion comedy.

      McIntosh does the same thing here. She does not have a great ending she does start the next paragraph connecting to the ones before

    8. When the scientists get caught try-ing to unravel some seemingly compli-cated puzzle, Penny provides the laughs in suggesting the “obvious” solution. Starting with the third and fourth sea-sons, The Big Bang Theory introduced more regular female characters as love interests for the main characters.

      At the end of McIntosh's first paragraph where she describes the show, she just ends the paragraph without stating an end. She leaves the next paragraph to start on its own, although she does start the next paragraph relating to the one before.

  26. Mar 2016
    1. Minecraft can discourage imagination in children.

      Key word here, I imagine, is "can." It probably all depends on how the time on Minecraft is structured, and I worry that I haven't done this well enough for my students.