698 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2022
    1. Again, support was found for the hypotheses that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because it motivates in-group favoritism. Put differently, oxytocin motivated in-group favoritism both when an intergroup compari- son was salient (experiments 1 and 2) and when such an intergroup comparison was substantially more implicit (experiments 3-5). Together, these results suggest that in-group favoritism emerges regardless of whether an explicit out-group comparison is ren- dered salient
    2. .

      In experiments 1, 2, and 3, in-group vs. out-group target presentation order did not effect whether or not in-group favoritism emerged. Experiments 4 and 5 evaluated in-group favoritism and out-group derogation in the absence of inter-group comparison. It can't be known for whether oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism in the absence of inter-group comparisons, so future research should investigate this.

    3. .

      It may be that oxytocin creates intergroup bias primarily by promoting in-group favoritism, and not so much by promoting out-group derogation. Oxytocin strongly promoting in-group favoritism and weakly promoting out-group derogation is adaptive, because in-group favoritism is much more important for survival and within-group coordination.

    4. .

      The results of this study showed that oxytocin system activation underlies the phenomenon of in group bias and, in some cases, the phenomenon of out-group derogation. Oxytocin has the same effects on in-group favoritism, regardless of what the compared out-group is.

    5. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because it motivates in-group favoritism and, in some cases, out-group der- ogation.
    6. Together, these results provide additional support for the hypothesis that (/) oxytocin creates intergroup bias because (ii) oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism. There was no support for the hypothesis that (Hi) oxytocin promotes out-group derogation.
    7. Experiment 3 thus supports the hy- pothesis that .(/) oxytocin creates intergroup bias because (ii) oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism. There was no support for the hypothesis that (Hi) oxytocin promotes out-group derogation.
    8. Thus, there is support for the hypothesis that (/) oxytocin creates in- tergroup bias because (//) oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism. Mixed support was obtained for the hypothesis (Hi) that oxytocin promotes out-group derogation.

      .

    9. .

      This article's researchers did experiments to determine whether oxytocin had an effect on in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Of two groups, one was administered oxytocin and the other was administered placebo. Both groups had to engage in a task that measured in-group favoritism and out-group derogation.

    10. In-group favoritism and out-group derogation conspire to create intergroup bias: the unfair response toward another group that devalues or disadvantages the other group and its members by valuing or privileging members of one's in-group (29). Here we predicted that (/) oxytocin creates such intergroup bias because (ii) oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism and, possibly, (///) out- group derogation.

      .

    11. .

      Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view one's own group as superior to others. It manifests itself as the valuation of members of the in-group as good and superior, and members of out-groups as bad and inferior. It is a survival mechanism because it builds cooperation between in-group members and avoids harm from out-group members.

    12. .

      Oxytocin has been shown to motivate in-group favoritism. Because in-group favoritism can sometimes manifest itself as out-group derogation, oxytocin may also motivate out-group derogation.

    13. .

      This article's researchers hypothesized that human ethnocentrism is motivated by oxytocin. Oxytocin is a neurotransmitter/peptide hormone that has various effects in different brain areas. Oxytocin promotes trust and cooperation in humans, but this effect may apply to in-group members only. If that is the case, then humans given oxytocin should show more in-group favoritism than humans given a placebo in an experiment.

    14. If in-group favoritism and out-group derogation have adaptive value and sustain in-group functioning, coordination, and co- operation, it follows that (/) throughout evolution those individ- uals who displayed in-group favoritism and out-group derogation and who detected such tendencies in others were more likely to spread than individuals lacking these capacities (5-8) and (ii) the human brain may have evolved to sustain ethnocentrism through yet-unknown neurobiological systems.

      .

    15. Human ethnocentrism - the tendency to view one's group as cen- trally important and superior to other groups- creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within- group trust cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that eth- nocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members.

      .

    16. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias be- cause oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser ex- tent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate "love drug" or "cuddle chem- ical" and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of in- tergroup conflict and violence.

      .

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    1. Overall, these data suggest a significant impact of ELE on enhancing hippocampal long-term potenti-ation. Although this finding is in contrast to data in adult mice demonstrating lack of enhancement in CA1-LTP after chronic voluntary wheel running9, it may implicate a specific, 1-week period of juvenile exercise that can lead to lasting changes in hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuit function and plasticity.
    2. Therefore, synaptic plasticity was examined in the CA3-CA1 Schaffer collateral pathway of the hippocampus in sedentary and ELE mice, to test the hypothesis that ELE also leads to an enhance-ment in synaptic strength in the same region involved in enabled memory performance after juv and juv-adol ELE.
    3. These results suggest that in both sexes, exercise taking place during a specific juvenile developmental period (P21–27) is sufficient for enhancing long-term memory for an OLM acquisition trial that is usually insufficient for long-term memory in sedentary controls, and fur-thermore, juv ELE-induced enabling of long-term memory is present at least 2 weeks after the juvenile exercise period ends.
    4. These data suggest that performance in the OLM task can be used as a robust measure of long-term memory formation in adolescent male and female mice.
    5. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: 1) that a learning stimulus typically insufficient for long-term memory formation in sedentary wild-type mice can become sufficient after ELE (as it does after 2–3 weeks of exercise in adulthood), and 2) the early-life timing of exercise during juvenile and/or ado-lescent periods will have a lasting impact on the duration of ELE-induced improvements in long-term memory.
    6. We next addressed the question whether there are sex differences in daily and cumulative running distances in our three ELE groups. Juv-adol ELE male and female mice gradually increased their daily running distance over the 3-week period (Fig. 1c).
    7. We next compared daily and cumulative running distances in 1-week runners, expecting that running distance would be significantly greater in adol ELE mice when compared to juv ELE mice (regardless of sex) given their developmental stage and body mass differences when entering running cages.
    8. Given the developmental timing of voluntary exercise in this model, we postulated that there would be important sex-specific and running group-specific differences in weight gain and distance ran across time.
    9. In sum, all running groups and both sexes of mice gradually and significantly increased their running distances across time. The cumulative amount of voluntary running throughout the running period was dependent on when early life exercise was initiated (in the juvenile period vs in adolescence).
    10. These findings suggest that a longer duration of ELE expo-sure (three weeks) during juvenile/adolescence significantly reduces weight gain in male mice, whereas in female mice, presence of a stationary wheel led to greater weight gain than mice in sedentary cages without running wheel and mice that ran during adolescence.
    11. .

      In rodents, the hippocampus develops milestone learning and memory functions by about the 3rd to 4th postnatal week. At this time, brain development via synaptic plasticity is especially sensitive to environmental experiences. For that reason, it makes sense to see whether exercise during this period modulates hippocampal development.

    12. .

      Both male and female mice that underwent exercise during the juvenile period showed enhanced hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity. The results of this study could be used to investigate the time-sensitive molecular mechanisms underlying the long-lasting effects of early life exercise on neuronal function and behavior.

    13. In this study we developed a model of voluntary physical activity during specific early life developmental periods in mice (early-life exercise, or ELE) to address the hypothesis that the timing of exercise during postnatal hippocampal maturation can lead to enduring benefits in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity.
    14. .

      The effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and memory formation are not long-lasting in exercise is done in adulthood, but may be longer lasting if exercise is done during development. The time frame of when exercise should be done to promote long-lasting changes to synaptic plasticity and memory formation, however, are not known.

    15. .

      In humans, exercise promotes synaptic plasticity mechanisms and enhances cognition, especially during childhood. In rodents, exercise similarly promotes synaptic plasticity mechanisms and enhances cognition, although it has only been studied in adults and not in juveniles.

    16. hysical exercise is a powerful modulator of learning and memory. Mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefits of exercise are well documented in adult rodents. Exercise studies targeting postnatal periods of hippocampal maturation (specifically targeting periods of synaptic reorganization and plasticity) are lacking. We characterize a model of early-life exercise (ELE) in male and female mice designed with the goal of identifying critical periods by which exercise may have a lasting impact on hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity.
    17. Our results suggest that early-life exercise, specifically during the 4th postnatal week, can enable hippocampal memory, synaptic plasticity, and alter hippocampal excitability when occurring during postnatal periods of hippocampal maturation.
    1. Powerful tools can support creativity: Innovation can be facilitated by powerful tools that supply templates and support exploratory processes such as brainstorming (offering links to related concepts), state-space expl oration (trying out all permutations), idea combining (systematic pairings), rapid prototyping, and simulation modeling.

      State-space exploration and idea combining (systematic pairings) are just modern reimaginings of ideas going back to Raymond Llull and possibly earlier.

    1. The present results ought to be considered alongside the lim-itations of this study.
    2. recruitment of prefrontal and subcortical circuitry. Beyond estab-lishing these basic differences between PI and comparison youth,thepresentstudyidentifiedaneuraladaptationamongPIyouththatpredicted greater resilience over time. Specifically, stronger hip-pocampal–prefrontal coupling prospectively predicted a reductionin anxiety symptomology over a 2 year period. This suggests thatgreater integration of information across brain systems involved inaversive learning and regulation is a protective factor for individualswho have experienced adversity.
    3. The present study revealed that PI and comparison youth arecapable of amygdala-based aversive learning. However, aversivelearning following institutionalization was associated with a broader

      .

    4. caregiving adversity.

      .

    5. Specifically, individual differences in hip-pocampal–vmPFC connectivity during aversive learning predictanxiety outcomes among individuals who have experienced early

      .

    6. Theseresults suggest that greater prefrontal–hippocampal communi-cation during development may protect against a pathologicalcourse of anxiety for individuals who have experienced caregiv-ing adversity.

      .

    7. Together withthe present findings, this suggests that adversity-induced altera-tions in hippocampal function may facilitate adaptive learning, atleast in the short term, about threats in one’s environment.

      .

    8. Together with the present findings, this suggests that earlycaregiving adversity changes the pacing of amygdala–hippo-campus–vmPFC circuit development and, in doing so, alters theway that aversive learning is represented in the brain.

      .

    9. These resultssuggest that age-atypical hippocampal–vmPFC connectivitymay be an important source of resilience for youth with ahistory of caregiving adversity.

      .

    10. The current study examined this rearing aberration in human development.Eighty-nine children and adolescents who were either previously institutionalized (PI youth; N46; 33 females and 13 males; age range,7–16 years) or were raised by their biological parents from birth (N43; 22 females and 21 males; age range, 7–16 years) completed anaversive-learning paradigm while undergoing functional neuroimaging, wherein visual cues were paired with either an aversive sound(CS) or no sound (CS).

      IVs: previously institutionalized children, biologically raised children. DVs: brain activity, trait anxiety.

    11. Given evidence from animal models that early caregiving adver-sity accelerates amygdala, hippocampal, and medial prefrontaldevelopment (Callaghan et al., 2014), we hypothesized that aver-sive learning would be supported by a more distributed, adult-like set of brain regions in PI youth relative to comparison youth.

      H1: aversive learning will be supported by a more distributed, adult-like set of brain regions in PI youth relative to comparison youth.

    12. Given evidence thatneural adaptations to caregiving adversity can be anxiolytic (Geeet al., 2013), it was hypothesized that altered amygdala–hip-pocampal–mPFC function during aversive learning would pre-dict reduced anxiety among PI youth.

      H2: altered amygdala-hippocampal-mPFC function during aversive learning will predict reduced anxiety among PI youth.

    13. The second question that the current study addressed waswhether differences in aversive learning might partially explainthe association between early institutionalization and anxiety.

      RQ2: do differences in aversive learning partially explain the association between early institutionalization and anxiety?

    14. The first question the present study addressed was whetherearly adversity, in the form of prior institutionalization, alters theneurobiology of aversive learning during human development.

      RQ1: does early adversity, in the form of prior institutionalization, alter neurobiology of aversive learning during human development?

    15. For the PI youth, better aversive learning was associated with higher concurrent trait anxiety. Both groupsshowed robust learning and amygdala activation for CSversus CStrials. However, PI youth also exhibited broader recruitment ofseveral regions and increased hippocampal connectivity with prefrontal cortex. Stronger connectivity between the hippocampus andventromedialPFCpredictedsignificantimprovementsinfutureanxiety(measured2yearslater),andthiswasparticularlytruewithinthePI group.

      .

    16. Juvenile animals rely exclu-sively on the amygdala for aversive learning (Kim et al., 2012; Li etal., 2012). During adolescence, striking changes in amygdala–hippocampal–mPFC connectivity are observed (Pattwell et al.,2011), and, by adulthood, aversive learning is supported bystrong interconnections among the amygdala, hippocampus, andmPFC in nonhuman animals (LeDoux et al., 1990; Corcoran andQuirk, 2007; Sierra-Mercado et al., 2011) and human adults (Ful-lana et al., 2016; Greco and Liberzon, 2016). Rodent models haverevealed that maternal separation leads to precocious prefrontaland hippocampal maturation (Huang et al., 2005; Muhammad etal., 2012), and adult-like aversive learning and anxiety duringdevelopment (Moriceau and Sullivan, 2006; Ono et al., 2008;Callaghan and Richardson, 2011).

      .

    17. Gorka et al., 2014), little is known about how it impacts aversivelearning during human development. This limits our under-standing of how early adversity begets adult anxiety.

      .

    18. Although it is known that early adversityalters the neural bases of aversive learning and predicts anxiety inadults (Bremner et al., 2005; Bagot et al., 2009; Kessler et al., 2010;

      .

    1. Design of helical trimers based on the HIV-1 6-HB model.

      Another application of peptide chemistry, Unsing those to target virus helical coils (a way to interrup PPIs). In this case they use helical peptides to bind virus helixes with high affinity (I wonder if we can use this to make libraries of helical stappled peptides and improve binding efficiency as well)

    1. “Scarcity: WhyHaving Too Little Means So Much” (2013) by Mullainathan andShafir. They investigate how the experience of scarcity has cognitiveeffects and causes changes in decision-making processes.

      I'm reminded of a reference recently to Republicans being upset that poor people of color would "waste" their money on frivolities like manicures and fake fingernails instead of on food or other necessities. How might this tie into the argument made in this book?

  2. Feb 2022
    1. .

      Previous research has found that barrel cortex NMDAR activation was required to initiate plasticity after learning a somatosensory task, but that barrel cortex mGluR activation was required to initiate plasticity after re-practicing that same task. The current study hypothesized that a similar phenomenon occurred with plasticity after learning a fear task in the hippocampus, and its results support this assertion.

    2. .

      Previous research has found that piriform cortex NMDAR activation was required for initial learning of an olfactory discrimination task, but piriform cortex neuron intrinsic excitability increase and synaptic NMDAR subunit composition alteration was required for subsequent learning of the same task. The current study hypothesized that a similar phenomenon occurred in the hippocampus with spatial/contextual learning, and its results support this assertion.

    3. .

      Blocking neuronal excitability or the reactivation of excitable neurons may reduce NMDAR-independent learning, and NMDAR-independent learning may persist over time before eventually disappearing. Recent study results support these assertions.

    4. .

      Two conditions must be met to conclude that hippocampal NMDAR activation is not required for subsequent memory formation: animals must form a new memory during training and not simply generalize from previous experiences, and NMDAR-independent memories must depend on the hippocampus. The current study found that both of these conditions were met, suggesting that hippocampal NMDAR activation is in fact not required for subsequent memory formation.

    5. .

      Hippocampal NMDAR activation is only required for initial memories to be formed, since subsequent memories can be formed in the presence of hippocampal NMDAR antagonists. Prior NMDAR-dependent learning has to be of a similar task for later NMDAR-independent learning to occur.

    6. .

      Some forms of hippocampal LTP that do not require NMDAR activation require the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) instead. The current study aimed to see if that was the case through the use of bioassays of animal models.

    7. .

      It is possible that initial learning increases intrinsic excitability, which allows subsequently learned information to be encoded by plasticity mechanisms that don't involve the activation of NMDARs. The current study aimed to see if this was the case using bioassays of animal models.

    8. .

      We know from psychology that previous experiences impact how individuals learn, but we don't know much about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this process. This is because we've only been able to experiment in lab settings that may not accurately reflect nature.

    9. .

      In various animal models, NMDA receptors have been found to activate when something is initially being learned, but not when it is subsequently being practiced or built upon.

    1. Every intellectual endeavour starts from an already existingpreconception, which then can be transformed during further inquiresand can serve as a starting point for following endeavours. Basically,that is what Hans-Georg Gadamer called the hermeneutic circle

      (Gadamer 2004).

      All intellectual endeavors start from a preexisting set of ideas. These can then be built upon to create new concepts which then influence the original starting point and may continue ever expanding with further thought.


      Ahrens argues that most writing advice goes against the idea of the hermeneutic circle and pretends as if the writer is starting with a blank page. This can prefigure some of the stress and difficulty Ernest Hemingway spoke of when he compared writing to "facing the white bull which is paper with no words on it."

      While it can be convenient to think of the idea of tabula rasa, in practice it really doesn't exist. As a result the zettelkasten more readily shows its value in the writing process.

    2. And the best ideas are usually the ones we haven’t anticipatedanyway.

      If the best ideas are the ones we haven't anticipated, how are we defining "best"? Most surprising from an information theoretic perspective? One which creates new frontiers of change? One which subsumes or abstracts prior ideas within it? Others?

    3. Make permanent notes.

      The important part of permanent notes are generating your own ideas and connecting (linking them densely) into your note system. The linking part is important and can be the part that most using digital systems forget to do. In paper zettelkasten, one was forced to create the first link by placing the note into the system for the first time. This can specifically be seen in Niklas Luhmann's example where a note became a new area of its own or, far more likely, it was linked to prior ideas.

      By linking the idea to others within the system, it becomes more likely that the idea can have additional multiple contexts where it might be used and improve the fact that context shifts will prove more insight in the future.

      Additional links to subject headings, tags, categories, or other forms of taxonomy will also help to make sure the note isn't lost completely into the system. Links to the bibliographical references within the system are helpful as well, especially for later citation. Keep in mind that these categories and reference links aren't nearly as valuable as the other primary idea links.

      One can surely collect ideas and facts into their system, but these aren't as important or as interesting as one's own ideas and the things that are sparked and generated by them.

      Asking questions in permanent notes can be valuable as they can become the context for new research, projects, and writing. Open questions can be incredibly valuable for one's thinking and explorations.

    4. you will have to deal with anincreasingly complex body of content, especially because it is notjust about collecting thoughts, but about making connections andsparking new ideas

      Collecting thoughts is great, but there is more value in linking them, encouraging them to have sex, and making new and more exciting ideas.

      Cross reference: Matt Ridley's When Ideas Have Sex https://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex

    1. It should be recognized that these basic note types are very different than the digital garden framing of 📤 (seedbox), 🌱 (seedling), 🪴 (sapling), 🌲 (evergreen), etc. which are another measure of the growth and expansion of not just one particular idea but potentially multiple ideas over time. These are a project management sort of tool for focusing on the growth of ideas. Within some tools, one might also use graph views and interconnectedness as means of charting this same sort of growth.

      Sönke Ahrens' framing of fleeting note, literature note, and permanent note are a value assignation to the types of each of these notes with respect to generating new ideas and writing.

    1. there remains adearth of research on societal-level factors of IPV in theUnited States (Gressard, Swahn, & Tharp, 2015; Spivaket al., 2014).

      topic sentence

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    1. .

      FBOE is a reliable correlate, but not predictor, of same sex attraction in men (more older brothers, but not more older sisters).

    2. .

      Many questions remain about how sexual orientation develops, despite how much research has been done into the topic. These studies cannot infer causality between the phenomena studied and the development of sexual orientation, however, this does not erase the possibility that they may contribute to the development of sexual orientation in some way (albeit indirectly). Overall, it seems like biology and prenatal hormone exposure do play a significant role in the development of sexual orientation in both men and women.

    1. State, territory, and Tribal administrative data sets

      We couldn't do this ourselves, but we might be able to write a proposal to do this with CCRC. It would be really interesting to explore whether we could track FFN providers using CCR&R level admin data. Churn? Movement into and out of licensing systems?

  3. Jan 2022
    1. .

      A study that examined the co-occurrence of sexual orientation biomarkers in adult men found that they don't significantly co-occur, but that the FBOE is the most accurate predictor of homosexuality in men.

    2. .

      The study that supports FBOE also supports that a maternal immune mechanism underlies FBOE. In addition, it provides evidence that a male specific protein may be important in the development of sexual orientation and in neurological functioning associated with forming social connections (including sexual ones).

    3. .

      A study found that mothers of gay sons had higher rates of antibodies to male-specific proteins expressed in the fetal brain than mothers of heterosexual sons, suggesting that the immune response to these proteins during pregnancy was greater in mothers of gay sons than in mothers of heterosexual sons (supports FBOE).

    4. .

      The study that supports FBOE had reliable methods, so the significance of its results should be trusted.

    5. .

      FBOE is biological in nature (non-biological older brothers do not contribute to the effect). Basically, male fetuses have proteins on the Y chromosome called HY antigens that mothers develop more antibodies to with each subsequent pregnancy. These antibodies are theorized to alter the function of proteins in areas of the brain that are relevant to the development of sexual attraction, leading to the incidence of homosexuality. So, the more sons a mother has (and the more antibodies she has), the more likely she is to have a son who is homosexual.

    6. .

      A study supported the idea that sexual orientation was a polygenic (controlled by multiple genes) characteristic in male and female homosexuals, as it was associated with the location of multiple specific SNPs. In homosexual men, one of these SNPs was located near a gene that regulates olfactory functioning (which may be tied to sexuality/sexual orientation), and one of them was located near a gene that regulates reproductive functioning and development. The study had a flawed methodology.

    7. .

      A study showed that male homosexuality may be associated with the location of specific SNPs, but the study's sample size wasn't large enough to make any definitive conclusions.

    1. The finding is supported by a related spike in face-lifts when elective surgeries opened last summer.

      Booming time to start a plastic surgeon affiliate marketing business targeted at frequent Zoom callers!

    1. It proves to be the agent of destiny for her; the hero, Kovalan (Kannagi’s husband); and the Pandya king who unjustly has Kovalan killed for a crime he has not committed, then himself dies on realising his blunder. The wrath of Kannagi burns down the capital city of the Pandyas. Later, the Chera king invades the North and pelts rocks on the heads of the defeated North Indian kings for installing an icon and building a temple to Kannagi. The anklet proves pivotal in all of this: any stage production of Silappadikaram should have a surrealistically huge image of the anklet as its backdrop. It represents Destiny.

      what is agent of destiny

      Anklet

      • Like, Lord of the rings (Ring)
      • Kannagi can be speculated as Kali for beheaded North indian kings
    1. In Kircher's system, ideograms were inferior to hieroglyphs because they referred to specific ideas rather than to mysterious complexes of ideas, while the signs of the Maya and Aztecs were yet lower pictograms which referred only to objects. Umberto Eco comments that this idea reflected and supported the ethnocentric European attitude toward Chinese and native American civilizations: "China was presented not as an unknown barbarian to be defeated but as a prodigal son who should return to the home of the common father". (p. 69)
    2. China Illustrata emphasized the Christian elements of Chinese history, both real and imagined: the book noted the early presence of Nestorian Christians (with a Latin translation of the Nestorian Stele of Xi'an provided by Boym and his Chinese collaborator, Andrew Zheng),[23] but also claimed that the Chinese were descended from the sons of Ham, that Confucius was Hermes Trismegistus/Moses and that the Chinese characters were abstracted hieroglyphs.

      Example of non-Europeans being considered the sons of Ham, in this case by an incredibly learned and influential Roman Catholic scholar.

    1. a more realistic and plausible target: using my digital trace (such as browser history, webpage annotations and my personal wiki) to make up for my limited memory
      • OK: tools for register, but NEED "THE TOOL" for searching and RECOVER these data!
    1. In this spirit he castigated Alexander Harden as "an enemy of the spirit that was fed by a small mind with a large card index," taking up what appears to have been a common criticism of the author, who because of his style that relied overly much on quotations [Die Fackel, Heft 360-62 (1912)].

      Some of this critique relates to my classification about the sorts of notes that one takes. Some are more important or valuable than others.

      Some are for recall and later memory, some may be collection of ideas, but the highest seems to be linking different ideas and contexts together to create completely new and innovative ideas. If one is simply collecting sententiae and spewing them back out in reasonable contexts, this isn't as powerful as nurturing one's ideas to have sex.

    1. Seneca gives an account of his ideas about note-taking in the 84th letter to Luculius ("On Gathering Ideas"). [1]The letter starts from what "men say" (ut aiunt), namely that we should imitate the bees in reading. As they produce honey from the flowers they visit and then "assort in their cells all that they have brought in" (277), so we should, Seneca himself says "sift (separare) whatever we have gathered from a varied course of reading" because things keep better in isolation from one another.

      Cross reference origin in

      Seneca (2006) Epistles 66-92. With an English translation by Richard G. Gummere. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Loeb Classical Library), 277-285.

  4. Dec 2021
    1. The role of accidents in the theory of science is not disputed, If you employ evolutionary models, accidents assume a most important role. Without them, nothing happens, no progress is made. Without variation in the given material of ideas, there are no possibilities of examining and selecting novelties. The real problem thus becomes therefore one of producing accidents with sufficiently enhanced probabilities for selection.
    2. The fixed filing place needs no system. It is sufficient that we give every slip a number which is easily seen (in or case on the left of the first line) and that we never change this number and thus the fixed place of the slip. This decision about structure is that reduction of the complexity of possible arrangements, which makes possible the creation of high complexity in the card file and thus makes possible its ability to communicate in the first place.

      There's an interesting analogy between Niklas Luhmann's zettelkasten numbering system and the early street address system in Vienna. Just as people (often) have a fixed address, they're able to leave it temporarily and mix with other people before going back home every night. The same is true with his index cards. Without the ability to remove cards and remix them in various orders, the system has far less complexity and simultaneously far less value.

      Link to reference of street addressing systems of Vienna quoted by Markus Krajewski in (chapter 3 of) Paper Machines.


      Both the stability and the occasional complexity of the system give it tremendous value.

      How is this linked to the idea that some of the most interesting things within systems happen at the edges of the system which have the most complexity? Cards that sit idly have less value for their stability while cards at the edges that move around the most and interact with other cards and ideas provide the most value.

      Graph this out on a multi-axis drawing. Is the relationship linear, non-linear, exponential? What is the relationship of this movement to the links between cards? Is it essentially the same (particularly in digital settings) as movement?

      Are links (and the active creation thereof) between cards the equivalent of communication?

    1. It would be just as easy (actually, rather easier) to identify things thatcan be interpreted as the first stirrings of rationalism, legality,deliberative democracy and so forth all over the world, and only thentell the story of how they coalesced into the current global system.24

      Nationalistic, racial, and cultural blinders have led us to posit broadly accepted (positive) ideas like democracy as having developed and grown out of Western ideas rather than attributing them to historical cultures and societies all over the world.

    1. Every serious (academic) historical work includes a conversation with other scholarship, and this has largely carried over into popular historical writing.

      Any serious historical or other academic work should include a conversation with the body of other scholarship with which argues for or against.

      Comparing and contrasting one idea with another is crucial for any sort of advancement.

    1. Unfortunately having reusable sections of content is almost the opposite of having the consistent and coherent narrative that a good thesis (allegedly) requires.

      let's change to wiki structure, instead "linear" text

    1. I don't have a proper answer to solve the problem that I mentioned related to the unsustainable community in web-dev. Maybe someone could create a version of NPM which has a revenue model similar to Netflix.

      I wonder how you might build pricate modules for the web. The most common solution we have to this currently is the SAAS model. This model does work generally well, like Auth0 for auth, Vercel for deployment, Stripe for payments. There are many more micro-saas companies that solve for more niche problems like Onfido for ID verification.

      I think the concern here is the amount of flexibility expected by most developers on the web. In Game Development people are much more invested in their tools. An Unreal Engine developer likely has no reason to ever leave unless they change jobs significantly. Really, this is similar to React. Which is why we are seeing frameworks built entirely around this like Remix and Next. Is this such a bad system?

      It seems like a No-Code solution really could just build on top of these frameworks and take advantage of their existing patterns for uniformity.

    1. I think smaller projects that are faster to build are better for research in this space. Building many smaller projects rather than large ambitious ones have helped me because I avoid getting too attached to one particular idea or product, and with smaller-scoped prototypes I can try many more iterations against the same question or problem. It also lowers the barrier to entry to try more risky ideas – “I’ll try this for a weekend” is much easier than “I’ll have to shift my schedule the next couple weeks to fit this in; is it worth that?” A culture of shorter, more atomic projects will also encourage everyone to break down large ideas into smaller ones that are individually testable, which I think is a good practice regardless of whether those ideas are for a product or an experiment. On the other hand, cycles that are too short obviously run the risk of keeping us from trying more ambitious or complex ideas.

      Atomizing projects and research ideas is very similar to the idea of the atomic note.

      If useful things can be turned into re-usable building blocks, then it can be easier to build and design larger and more complex systems out of them.

    2. Production-grade tools are tools that are battle-tested to be secure, reliable, intuitive, and polished enough to be load-bearing components of real-world workflows.

      likely attested elsewhere, but he credits https://www.inkandswitch.com/muse/

    3. Concept car projects explore the boundaries of current technologies or showcase what new designs and ideas enable. They are necessary to push the field forward, but usually too rough or incomplete for the rest of the world to depend on.

      via Jess Martin https://jessmart.in/

    1. Behind this order of paper slips that guarantees mobility and rearrange-ment, one can recognize the same economy of signs that a century earlier contributes to a major paradigmatic shift. Johannes Gutenberg ’ s invention of the printing press not only forges most obviously associations of typeset-ting, steel models, pouring mechanisms for individual letter types, special alloys, and composing sticks for setting lines of type. 28

      Much the same way printing was automated with Johannes Gutenberg's moveable type invention, the writing of longer pieces may be automated with moveable ideas. Ideas written down on slips (index cards) can be moved around easily and re-used as necessary in composing longer articles.

  5. Nov 2021
    1. And racial discrimination doesn’t exist just within the military rank-and-file. Every year, civilians working in the financial, technical and support sectors of the Army, Air Force and Navy file hundreds of complaints alleging race and skin color discrimination, according to an AP analysis of U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission data.

      discrimination everywhere against race and skin color

    2. “For Blacks and minorities, when we initially experience racism or discrimination in the military, we feel blindsided,” Davis said. “We’re taught to believe that it’s the one place where everybody has a level playing field and that we can make it to the top with work that’s based on merit.”

      racism and discrimination in the military.

    1. I would also like to talk about bathroom we have bathrooms for women bathrooms for men. But we don’t have bathrooms for People of the Transgender community and we also don’t have private feeding places for people who have baby. There is a free hands free sanitary napkins mishen in one of the bathrooms. It should be in all of the women’s and non gender bathrooms. This is also a right and for people who are having a hard time in school more homework help in all departments tutors. Also preparing us for the future and giving us more of an option for a gap year instead of pushing us out of the nest. Sometimes we are not ready for jobs.

    1. 10 Ideas to Start a SaaS Business in 2021

      Software as a service, or SaaS, is one of the most promising business models in 2021. It’s popular among entrepreneurs, investors, and customers alike. Learn about the most promising ideas you can tap into to build your own SaaS startup and make it successful.

  6. Oct 2021
    1. have only your own ob- jective before your eyes, without regard to that of the author which may be quite different.

      When reading and taking notes, one should have a reason or purpose in mind and endeavor to stick to it. While you're absorbing what the writer has written, allow the unnecessary portions with respect to your goal flow through the sieve of your mind and only catch and annotate the portions which supplement your end goal. Keep and elaborate on these.

      A few days after your reading and annotating, go back through your notes with a keen eye toward expanding on those important things to your goal or interests and set aside (or even discard) all the other less interesting pieces.

      Naturally there are other pieces which may be important for remembering the shape of the things you read or facts which you've highlighted and want to remember or memorize. Save these things also in a separate space from the bigger ideas you're working on creating. They're useful, but of an entirely different nature than the ideas.


      Two broad different types of notes:

      • facts to remember
      • ideas which can have sex with other ideas
    2. A new idea acts retrospectively; a torch throws its light behind as well as before. Materials that were laid aside take on a new aspect when they are classified by means of an idea. Then everything within us is reborn and animated with a new life. But for that to happen, the paths of light must be open, our thoughts must be in order and linked consecutively one with another.
    1. Đồ chơi gây phân tâm bất tận (Fidget Spinners) Phụ thuộc vào việc bạn hỏi ai, con quay fidget – một cái đinh ba cứ quay, quay, quay, có vẻ như là mãi mãi – sẽ là đồ vật gây phân tâm vô hại hay là một cơn bão khủng khiếp trong các lớp học ở Mỹ. Nhưng ở trường hợp nào, không ai có thể phủ nhận độ phổ biến của nó. Sau đó là sự ra đời một món đồ chơi tương tự mang tên “khối fidget” và các nhà sản xuất nhận thấy người dùng đang có xu hướng tìm kiếm từ khoá fidget ngày càng nhiều. Vì vậy họ ồ ạt cho ra thị trường các sản phẩm con quay. Mùa xuân vừa qua, nó đã trở thành một hiện tượng lan truyền rộng rãi, doanh số tại các cửa hàng chuyên bán lẻ đồ chơi so với cùng kì năm trước tăng vọt, tính riêng trong tháng tư đã là 20.000 USD theo trang đánh giá The Toy Insider. Cửa hàng đồ chơi nổi tiếng Toys “R” Us thuê cả chuyên cơ riêng để đảm bảo con quay lúc nào cũng có hàng trên giá. Giữa lúc nhu cầu tăng cao, một vài nhà sản xuất còn đưa ra vài nhận định đáng ngờ về chức năng trị liệu của loại đồ chơi này, rằng con quay này “hoàn hảo cho những người mắc chứng tăng động giảm chú ý ADD/ADHD, chứng lo âu và tự kỉ” (Chưa có bằng chứng khoa học nào công nhận tác động này). Sẽ là khôn ngoan nếu những người bán hãy cứ bám vào đặc tính được đồng thuận hơn của nó: “Mang lại hàng giờ vui say mê”.

      Cái này mua cho con bé chơi được đấy. Nó khá vô hại. Để hôm nào tim trên Shopee.

    1. The point of the system is this: Ideas do not do their best work independently of each other. They work best in tandem. So each index card (or Zettel or slipnote) should link to something else.

      Ideas work best when linked to related ideas.

  7. Sep 2021
    1. The point of my research is to reflect on the portfolio ideas that I have and then push myself to criticize them. Any idea that can’t stand up to scrutiny wasn’t a good idea in the first place. The power of investing is being able to get behind those ideas you have with conviction you’ve earned through doing the work. “Take one simple idea, and take it seriously.” (Charlie Munger)

      The conviction that leads to investments needs to be checked if it is grounded in truth

    2. I love investing because I love ideas. People sometimes talk about ideas as being “a dime a dozen.” The limitation on any idea is the infrastructure that lets it expand

      Ideas lead to investing, both need infrastructure. The quality of these three factors are interlinked, defending on each other

    1. With all of this—the desperation of the Jamestown settlers for labor, theimpossibility of using Indians and the difficulty of using whites, the availabilityof blacks offered in greater and greater numbers by profit-seeking dealers inhuman flesh, and with such blacks possible to control because they had justgone through an ordeal which if it did not kill them must have left them in astate of psychic and physical helplessness—is it any wonder that such blackswere ripe for enslavement?

      This is an interesting framing in hindsight, because it makes the question sound simple despite the fact that the easiest and kindest answer is simply to do the work oneself. Weren't these the sort of pull yourself up by the bootstrap sort of folks?

      (I'm using the problematic phrase pull yourself up by the bootstraps with derision here.)

    2. On one occasion, hearing a great noise from belowdecks where the blackswere chained together, the sailors opened the hatches and found the slaves indifferent stages of suffocation, many dead, some having killed others indesperate attempts to breathe. Slaves often jumped overboard to drown ratherthan continue their suffering. To one observer a slave-deck was “so coveredwith blood and mucus that it resembled a slaughter house.”

      Here I feel compelled to revisit an earlier quote:

      One slave trader, John Newton (who later became an antislavery leader), wrote about the people of what is now Sierra Leone:

      The state of slavery, among these wild barbarous people, as we esteem them, is much milder than in our colonies

      Which was really the more barbarous culture?

    3. The state of slavery, among these wild barbarous people, as we esteem them, is much milder than in our colonies

      Given the word barbarous here, I wonder if, on the whole, cultures viewed from outside of one's own culture are more often seen for the worst of their traits rather than the best or even just the average traits?

      With limited experience and exposure, what qualifies one correspondent to stereotype an entire culture? Is the lack of alternate and likely better information reason enough for the viewing culture to completely condemn the external culture? (Assuredly not...)

    4. Slavery existed in the African states, and it was sometimes used byEuropeans to justify their own slave trade. But, as Davidson points out, the“slaves” of Africa were more like the serfs of Europe—in other words, likemost of the population of Europe. It was a harsh servitude, but they had rightswhich slaves brought to America did not have, and they were “altogetherdifferent from the human cattle of the slave ships and the Americanplantations.”

      I like the framing of this.

      While Europeans used the fact that slavery existed in Africa to justify their own use of Africans as slaves, the concept of slavery in Africa was akin to the idea of serfs in Europe. These slaves/serfs in Africa certainly had hard and difficult lives, but they did have some rights and freedoms not granted to American slaves in any form.

    5. cultures that are different are often taken as inferior,especially when such a judgment is practical and profitable
    1. ple". The Mexican mineworker had the custom of returning to his village for corn planting and harvest: His lack of initiative, inability to save, absences while celebrating too many holidays, willingness to work only three or four days a week if that paid for necessities, insatiable desire for alchohol - all were pointed out as proof of a natural inferiority. He

      In the next paragraphs, it turns out that there isn't laziness, but misaligned incentives. The lifeways of the people involved were not those of the writer who jumped to conclusions about the people who were different from him.

      In generalizations supported by another study of Mexican labour conditions, Wilbert Moore remarks: "Work is almost always task-orientated in non-industrial societies ... and ... it may be appropriate to tie wages to tasks and not directly to time in newly developing areas".

      When comparing and contrasting cultures, empathy for each and their particular incentives must be taken into account.

      This is particularly important as he's spent a dozen pages talking about how poorly the English dealt with industrialization over centuries themselves. How quickly we forget.

    1. As the title of a research paper that the Vallée-Tourangeaus wrote with Lisa G. Guthrie puts it, “Moves in the World Are Faster Than Moves in the Head.”

      Perhaps this is some of the value behind the ability to resort index cards within a zettelkasten over the prior staticness of the commonplace tradition? The ideas aren't anchored to the page, but can be moved around, rearranged.

    1. https://youtu.be/qYsMtroVLeA?t=287

      The big thing that I want to talk about here is out groups. This is a phenomenon that we that we see, which is that it's very very easy for people to decide that someone else is not like them they're different and they should be shunned and talked about.

      This is the minimal group paradigm. Thanks to Rashmi for giving that term. [It] says the smallest possible difference will be magnified into in group and an outgroup. Kevin Marks, Web 2.0 Expo NY 09: "...New Words You Need to Know to Understand the Web"

      Perhaps we can decrease the levels of fear and racism in our society by tummelling? By bringing in outsiders, treating them with dignity and respect within your own group of friends, you can help to normalize their presence by decreasing the irrational fears that others have built up and carry with them about these supposed outsiders.

  8. Aug 2021
    1. The Attack on "Critical Race Theory": What's Going on?

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P35YrabkpGk

      Lately, a lot of people have been very upset about “critical race theory.” Back in September 2020, the former president directed federal agencies to cut funding for training programs that refer to “white privilege” or “critical race theory, declaring such programs “un-American propaganda” and “a sickness that cannot be allowed to continue.” In the last few months, at least eight states have passed legislation banning the teaching of CRT in schools and some 20 more have similar bills in the pipeline or plans to introduce them. What’s going on?

      Join us for a conversation that situates the current battle about “critical race theory” in the context of a much longer war over the relationship between our racial present and racial past, and the role of culture, institutions, laws, policies and “systems” in shaping both. As members of families and communities, as adults in the lives of the children who will have to live with the consequences of these struggles, how do we understand what's at stake and how we can usefully weigh in?

      Hosts: Melissa Giraud & Andrew Grant-Thomas

      Guests: Shee Covarrubias, Kerry-Ann Escayg,

      Some core ideas of critical race theory:

      • racial realism
        • racism is normal
      • interest convergence
        • racial equity only occurs when white self interest is being considered (Brown v. Board of Education as an example to portray US in a better light with respect to the Cold War)
      • Whiteness as property
        • Cheryl Harris' work
        • White people have privilege in the law
        • myth of meritocracy
      • Intersectionality

      People would rather be spoon fed rather than do the work themselves. Sadly this is being encouraged in the media.

      Short summary of CRT: How laws have been written to institutionalize racism.

      Culturally Responsive Teaching (also has the initials CRT).

      KAE tries to use an anti-racist critical pedagogy in her teaching.

      SC: Story about a book Something Happened in Our Town (book).

      • Law enforcement got upset and the school district
      • Response video of threat, intimidation, emotional blackmail by local sheriff's department.
      • Intent versus impact - the superintendent may not have had a bad intent when providing an apology, but the impact was painful

      It's not really a battle about or against CRT, it's an attempt to further whitewash American history. (synopsis of SC)

      What are you afraid of?

    1. Sketchnoting forces students to take ideas from a lesson and turn them into their own ideas. It also forces modality shifts.

      Reviewing over a lecture after the fact to create sketchnotes is incredibly similar to some of the point and purpose of Cornell Notes.

      While watching: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOHcWhdguIY

    1. Sketchnotes by Chad Moore and Chris Wilson

      https://vi.to/hubs/microcamp/pages/chad-moore-and-chris-wilson?v=chad-moore-and-chris-wilson&discussion=hidden&sidebar=hidden

      Sketchnotes are ideas not art.

      Squiggle birds - take squiggles and give them beaks, eyes, and bird feet. (Idea apparently from Austin Kleon.)

      How you might take notes if you'd never been told how to.

      • There is no particular app or platform that is the "right" one.

      Common elements:

      • Headlines and sub headlines are common
        • Elegant text / fancy text
      • Icons
      • containers - ways of holding information together
        • this can be explicit or via white space
      • flow of information (arrows)
      • arrangements or layouts of how information is displayed
        • top to bottom, circles, columns, stream of flow of ideas
      • people
        • emotions, perhaps using emoji-like faces
      • shadows, highlights

      Icons

      Simple can be better. Complexity may make understanding more difficult.

      Examples

      A few they pulled off of the web

      Sketchnote Selfie

      Goal: Create an info rich portrait with character. Portrait, name, info, location, passions, hobbies, interests, social usernames, now section, etc.

    1. The delivery business witness saw an unprecedented surge in demand owing to the prolonged lockdown and uncertainties. People have gotten used to online delivery services in the wake of stay in home orders. Now, the changed behavior is hard to go away. Due to lockdown, Uber’s ride-hailing service was the hardest hit, but its UberEats kept Uber thrive. 
    1. Middleware would reduce both platforms' own power and their function as levers for unaccountable state power, as governments increasingly pressure platforms to "voluntarily" suppress disfavored speech.2

      Tangentially related idea which this sparked:

      Within my beyond the pale thesis, banishing people in smaller social groups is easier, but doesn't necessarily scale well.

      In larger towns, cities, and even states, it may work in some of the smallest and most egregious cases like major crime or murder when carried out by the state, but what about the smaller social infractions?

      Cancel culture is attempting to apply this larger social pressure to bigger public figures in ways that it traditionally has been more difficult to do. It's even more difficult in a highly networked world where globalism has taken hold.

      How do we cater to the centric masses while potentially allowing some flexibility to the cultures considered at the edges? Ethics aren't universal, so there will be friction at a huge number of overlaps.

      Examples:

      • Paula Dean (racism), loses shows, deals, etc. but still has reach in certain sections of the country and online
  9. Jul 2021
    1. the problem of how to read a number of related books in relation to one another and read them in such a way that the complementary and conflict­ing things they have to say about a common subject are clearly grasped.

      This could be a fascinating discussion to take a close look at later in the book.

    1. Anaximander is said to have made the first map of the world. Although this map has been lost, we can imagine what it must have looked like, because Herodotus, who has seen such old maps, describes them. Anaximander’s map must have been circular, like the top of his drum-shaped earth. The river Ocean surrounded it. The Mediterranean Sea was in the middle of the map, which was divided into two halves by a line that ran through Delphi, the world’s navel. The northern half was called “Europe,” the southern half “Asia.” The habitable world (Greek: “oikoumenê”) consisted of two relatively small strips of land to the north and south of the Mediterranean Sea (containing Spain, Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor on the one side, and Egypt and Libya on the other side), together with the lands to the east of the Mediterranean Sea: Palestine, Assyria, Persia, and Arabia. The lands to the north of this small “habitable world” were the cold countries where mythical people lived. The lands to the south of it were the hot countries of the black burnt people.

      Does this map of the world with the black burnt people in the lands to the south (which includes the idea of "below") result in future racist ideas?

    1. if you are the one who is looking to start a delivery business or exploring the right business ideas, then this article is for you. We have rounded up the top profitable delivery business ideas that can help not fulfill your dream but help hundreds or even thousands of others to earn their daily wages.
    1. If you are exploring ideas to start a cryptocurrency business in 2020 or 2021, you have definitely made a daring yet excellent choice.  When it comes to the digital economy, cryptocurrency is the name of the game. Crypto coins are ruling the roost across digital trading platforms.
    1. Feature Idea: Chaos Monkey for PKM

      This idea is a bit on the extreme side, but it does suggest that having a multi-card comparison view in a PKM system would be useful.

      Drawing on Raymond Llull's combitorial memory system from the 12th century and a bit of Herman Ebbinghaus' spaced repetition (though this is also seen in earlier non-literate cultures), one could present two (or more) random atomic notes together as a way of juxtaposing disparate ideas from one's notes.

      The spaced repetition of the cards would be helpful for one's long term memory of the ideas, but it could also have the secondary effect of nudging one to potentially find links or connections between the two ideas and help to spur creativity for the generation of new hybrid ideas or connection to other current ideas based on a person's changed context.

      I've thought about this in the past (most likely while reading Frances Yates' Art of Memory), but don't think I've bothered to write it down (or it's hiding in untranscribed marginalia).

  10. Jun 2021
    1. "Many North American music education programs exclude in vast numbers students who do not embody Euroamerican ideals. One way to begin making music education programs more socially just is to make them more inclusive. For that to happen, we need to develop programs that actively take the standpoint of the least advantaged, and work toward a common good that seeks to undermine hierarchies of advantage and disadvantage. And that, inturn, requires the ability to discuss race directly and meaningfully. Such discussions afford valuable opportunities to confront and evaluate the practical consequences of our actions as music educators. It is only through such conversations, Connell argues, that we come to understand “the real relationships and processes that generate advantage and disadvantage”(p. 125). Unfortunately, these are also conversations many white educators find uncomfortable and prefer to avoid."

    1. for some analysts this myth of meritocracy entrenches gender and racial inequality. 

      I want to explore this idea a bit. Resources, citations? Which analysts?

    1. The practice, back then, was surprisingly social — people would mark up books for one another as gifts, or give pointedly annotated novels to potential lovers.

      This could be an interesting gift idea. Definitely shows someone that you were actively thinking about them for extended lengths of time while they were away.

  11. May 2021
    1. “If only I had channels in my head,” Lichtenberg had fantasized, “so as to promote domestic trade between the stockpiles of my thought! But alas, there they lie by the hundreds without being of use to one another.”

      A fascinating quote in the history of the commonplace book on it's way to becoming the Memex.

    2. Merchants have their waste book, Sudelbuch or Klitterbuch in German I believe, in which they list all that they have sold or bought every single day, everything as it comes and in no particular order. The waste book’s content is then transferred to the Journal in a more systematic fashion, and at last it ends up in the “Leidger [sic] at double entrance,” following the Italian way of bookkeeping. […] This is a process worthy of imitation by the learned.”(See Ulrich Joost’s analysis in this volume, 24-35.)

      I've seen this quote earlier today, but interesting seeing another source quote it.

    1. The point here is not to defend the uses of surveillance technology in China, the point is to emphasize that when big tech talks about China they are stoking Sinophobia in order to distract from their own malfeasance. By screeching with nationalistic panic “look what they’re doing over there!” the tech companies shift the conversation from what they themselves are doing over here.
  12. Apr 2021
    1. The power to target is the power to discriminate. By definition, targeted ads allow advertisers to reach some kinds of people while excluding others. A targeting system may be used to decide who gets to see job postings or loan offers just as easily as it is to advertise shoes. 
    1. “We understand that under colonialism African and Indigenous people had very different experiences,” Dr. Nelson said. “To conflate everything in one is to erase, which is the very nature of genocidal practice.”
  13. Mar 2021
    1. Or is this a call for mainstream operating systems and applications to get creative (read, nice tiling or splitting by default)?What if all browsers suported single page split view? So that the left side was your regular view, half width, and the right side was the continuation of the same page, where the left side ended.
    1. from SenorG’s comment that began with the caveat “Allow me to push back a bit here,” and which inspired four replies from three other annotators, to actualham’s observation

      There's something discordant here in a scholarly article about having academic participants with names like SenorG and actualham. It's almost like a 70's farce starring truckers with bizarre CB handles. It's even more bizarre since I know some of the researchers behind these screennames.

      Is the pseudonymous nature of some of these handles useful in hiding the identity of the participants and thereby forcing one to grapple only with their ideas and not the personas, histories and contexts behind them?

  14. Feb 2021
    1. Ecologists talk about the “productivity” of an ecosystem, which is a measure of how effectively the ecosystem converts the energy and nutrients coming into the system into biological growth. A productive ecosystem, like a rainforest, sustains more life per unit of energy than an unproductive ecosystem, like a desert. We need a comparable yardstick for information systems, a measure of a system’s ability to extract value from a given unit of information. Call it, in this example: textual productivity. By creating fluid networks of words, by creating those digital-age commonplaces, we increase the textual productivity of the system.

      Definition: textual productivity

      A measure of how much additional knowledge is generated by a system of ideas and thoug