341 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2024
  2. docdrop.org docdrop.org
    1. Schuller differentiates between thewestern and African understandings of polyrhythmic playing by stating that westernmusicians generally see polyrhythm as two or more rhythmic patterns played simultaneouslybut always resolving or meeting at the start and ending of phrases, bar lines and other centralpoints in the music. In contrast, “African music” reveals a far more intricate, extended,“polymetrically organized” understanding of polyrhythms, in which the individual rhythmicphrases hardly ever, and sometimes never coincide vertically (Schuller 1968, 11). These twointerpretations of polyrhythm are apparent in much U.S.-American jazz and can be seen toshift closer to the African approach in the later styles of jazz through the rhythmiccontributions of musicians such as John Coltrane, Tony Williams and Miles Davis. KeithWaters states that polyrhythm and polymeter, which he terms “metrical conflict”, were a keyfeature of music performed and recorded by the Miles Davis Quintet from 1965 to 1968(Waters 2011, 68).In terms of the use of polyrhythm in Western music from the pre-jazz era, Schuller citesCharles Ives as the only European composer who experimented with polymetric andpolyrhythmic structures, stating as an example Ives’s Fourth Symphony. Gridley deviatesfrom Schuller by suggesting that polyrhythms were used in European folk and concert musicin America for a long time before the jazz era came about but were not as prominent as inAfrican music (Gridley 1999, 45). He acknowledges the African ancestry of polyrhythms asoriginating from combinations of rhythms which can be heard in ragtime music. He definespolyrhythms as “the sounding of some rhythms that have a basis of two pulses while
    2. Polyrhythms and Polymeter
  3. Dec 2023
  4. Nov 2023
  5. Oct 2023
  6. Sep 2023
  7. Aug 2023
  8. Jul 2023
    1. Quartal Harmony and sus ChordsQuartal chords can have a variety of uses. Sometimes they imply quartal harmonyand other times they are merely used to create interesting voicings of tertian chords; bothare staples of modern jazz keyboard harmony. There are many Preludes with isolatedchords voiced in fourths or with a right-hand figuration using fourths, and even thesequick references, along with Kapustin’s other devices, create a modern jazz context forhis musical ideas. Most of the examples discussed below feature more extensive use ofquartal techniques, and most use tertian harmony with quartal chord voicings
  9. Jun 2023
    1. But everything changes when degrees I and IV are treated as sev-enths, which is a quality only associated with the fifth degree in tonal harmony.This makes any hypothesis of assimilation impossible.The link between the function and the quality of a chord, which is organic in atonal situation, does not exist in blues. Indeed, let us look at the first degree withfour sounds: C-E-G-B b. All four notes belong to the scale as it has been defined.But this is neither true with the fourth degree (F-A-C-E b), as A does not belongto the scale, nor the fifth (G-B-D-F), which involves a B natural and a D that donot appear in the scale. This lack of organic link between the scale of referenceand how chords are built is a fundamental difference between blues and worksusing the tonal system.

      there is also no link between the quality of a chord and its function in blues harmonic system (I and IV chords are both 7th-chords)

    1. Smooth Voice Leading
    2. BLUES HARMONY
    3. In the 20th and 21st centuries, composers sometimes used the diatonic collection, but without making anyattempt to make a specific pitch sound like the the pitch center. Such examples are not tonal, nor are theymodal; instead, they are considered pandiatonic. Igor Stravinsky often wrote pandiatonic passages; manycan be heard throughout the opening of his ballet Petrushka
    1. During the Baroque Era, the “Rule of the Octave” was a practical tool that enabledmusicians to gain harmonic flexibility at the keyboard.5 The rule prescribed how toharmonize a scale in the bass using stylistic tonal progressions. In jazz, a similar rule canalso be developed. Instead of placing the scale in the bass, the major scale is placed in thesoprano voice. The jazz rule of the octave explains how to harmonize a descending majorscale with idiomatic jazz progressions. By examining different harmonic outcomes, therelationship of melodies to chords and chords to melodies becomes clear. The jazz ruleof the octave also helps us to realize the harmonic potential of different melodic segmentsand examines their behavior in the context of underlying chord progressions. Figures21.3a–21.3d illustrate four distinct harmonizations of the descending major scale
    2. Chapter 13 investigates two- and four-bar idiomatic jazz progressions. It also focuses onaural identification and keyboard realization of non-modulatory and modulatoryprogressions with various ii7–V7 or ii≤57–V7 interpolations, as well as miscellaneous four-bar phrases
    3. Chapter 23 examines the 32-bar ABAC form and its two tonal variants: on-tonic and off-tonic. As an example of this formal design, “All Of You” is analyzed
    4. Chapter 22 undertakes a study of song forms and its most common type: the 32-barAABA. Two tonal variants, on-tonic and off-tonic, are examined and, as an example ofthe on-tonic AABA formal design, “Have You Met Miss Jones?” is analyzed.
    5. In modal jazz theory, there are 14 modes: seven diatonic and seven chromatic. Modes inmodal jazz typically function as independent scalar formations that are devoid of traditionaltonal relationships. For instance, a complete section of a tune might feature only a singlemodal scale (e.g. John Coltrane’s “Impressions” or McCoy Tyner’s “Passion Dance”).5In tonal jazz, however, modes exhibit similar functional behaviors comparable to thoseof four-, five-, or larger-part structures. In Chapter 8, diatonic and chromatic modes willbe combined and their tonal functional associations shown
    6. Chapter 2 identifies the main characteristics of jazz rhythm
    7. Chapter 27 makes forays into post-tonal music theory in an attempt to demonstrate howsome of its concepts—trichords, in particular—are implemented in jazz. Familiar topicsare presented anew with the emphasis on ear training and harmony
    8. hapter 24 provides a list of standard tunes with extended and unusual formal designs.As an example of the extended form, “Dream Dancing” is analyzed
    9. Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study

      https://docdrop.org/pdf/Terefenko---2014---JazzTheory-1ed-2--x7zx4.pdf/

      Jazz Theory: From Basic to Advanced Study Terefenko, D. 2014

    1. ICKETY SPLIT: Modern Aspects of Composition and Orchestration in the Large Jazz Ensemble Compositions of Jim McNeely:An Analysis of EXTRA CREDIT, IN THE WEE SMALL HOURS OF THE MORNING, andABSOLUTION

      https://docdrop.org/pdf/Belck---2008---composition---jazz---orchestraion-tvcnb.pdf/

      LICKETY SPLIT: Modern Aspects of Composition and Orchestration in the Large Jazz Ensemble Compositions of Jim McNeely:An Analysis of EXTRA CREDIT, IN THE WEE SMALL HOURS OF THE MORNING, andABSOLUTION

      Belck, S. 2008

    1. Apart from mbaqanga and marabi, other styles also developed due to the amalgamation oflocal styles and American jazz. One of these is Cape jazz, which Coplan (2013) describes asfollows:I use the term ‘Cape jazz’ knowingly, because the Mother City has its owncharacteristic style, strongly indebted to the American tradition starting with African-American minstrelsy, but mixed with old indigenous rhythms and melodies, mission

      hymnody, ‘Malaysian’ choral music, and Afrikaans Coloured ghoema parade band music. (Coplan, 2013:56) Cape jazz also bears influences from moppies (up-beat Malay choirs) and langarm, as well as music played by bands from the Muslim community (Ansell, 2005:70). A telling characteristic of Cape jazz is the ghoema beat (see Figure 1.3), which Johannes (2010:35) describes as: a low pitch on every beat within the bar of music which gives the music its driving quality with the higher pitch playing a syncopated pattern to complement the singing and prevailing syncopation of ghoema music (Johannes, 2010:35). Figure 1.3 Ghoema beat (from Johannes, 2010:35) This influence is more noticeable in the music of Cape Townian musicians such as Abdullah Ibrahim or Robbie Jansen, although it is also regarded as an important element of jazz in South Africa. Marabi, mbaqanga and ghoema rhythms are markers in the broad style known as South African jazz

    2. As Chapter One pointed out, ‘South African jazz’ derives from the amalgamation oftransnational (mainly American) jazz and indigenous South African musics. Although this stylehas many ‘dialects’, there is some conceptual consensus regarding elements that historicallycame to signify a South African jazz sound. These include marabi (with its distinctive I-IV-Vchord progression), mbaqanga (this was especially felt in the importance of the rhythmicaldrive and interest and repeating harmonic progressions, rather than the other formal attributes

      of mbaqanga itself), ghoema or indlamu, amongst others. One of the ways in which Shepherd, Dyer and Makhathini connect with the South African lineage of jazz, and a sense of place therefore registers in their work, is through the incorporation of these elements in certain songs or tracks.

    3. Shepherd’s music also contain American jazz elements, including as bebop linesin his improvisations and his approach to harmonic progressions reminiscent of Keith Jarrett’s.His experiments with irregular meter connect with West African music practices. Theseattributes preclude a simple reading of the artists’ work ‘South African’ in a singular sense,and rather reminds us that the notion of a ‘South African’ jazz is in a continuing dialogue othermusic practices – whether this is with American jazz (which has historically powerfullyinformed South African jazz and continues to do so) or musics from other places or genres
    4. Sonic signatures in South African jazz: A stylistic analysis of the trio music of Kyle Shepherd, Bokani Dyer and Nduduzo Makhathini

      https://docdrop.org/pdf/De-Villiers---2021---Sonic-signatures-in-South-African-jazz--pi6en.pdf/

      Sonic signatures in South African jazz: A stylistic analysis of the trio music of Kyle Shepherd, Bokani Dyer and Nduduzo Makhathini De Villiers, M. 2021

    1. In the third chapter, ‘Modes of experience: modal jazz and the authority of experience in Ishmael’s Reed’s Mumbo Jumbo, Morrison’s The Bluest Eye and Song of Solomon’, I examine different emphases in notions of ethnic identity that takes place in the middle of the twentieth century.
  10. docdrop.org docdrop.org
    1. t can be argued that it was the use of these short harmonic cycles that then led tocertain styles of melodic and rhythmic phrasing which mirrored the short, repetitive harmonicmovement, thus resulting in characteristics common to much South African jazz, such asshort repetitive motivic melodies, basslines and drum grooves
    2. Although, mbaqanga became exceptionally popular both locally and internationally, it willnot be a key focus of the analysis presented in this dissertation as, like tsaba tsaba, its musicaltraits reveal it as being more of a hybrid, sub-genre of the original styles of South Africanjazz: marabi, African Jazz and kwela
    3. DECONSTRUCTING “THE SOUTH AFRICANJAZZFEEL”: ROOTS, RHYTHMS AND FEATURES OF SOUTH AFRICAN JAZZ

      https://docdrop.org/pdf/Thorpe---Unknown---DECONSTRUCTING-%E2%80%9CTHE-SOUTH-AFRICAN-JAZZ-FE-wicy9.pdf/

      DECONSTRUCTING “THE SOUTH AFRICANJAZZFEEL”: ROOTS, RHYTHMS AND FEATURES OF SOUTH AFRICAN JAZZ

      Thorpe, C.J. 2018

    4. MarabiMarabi is described by Ballantine as just as important in the development of South Africanpopular music as the blues was to American popular music (Ballantine 2012, 7). Merz (2016)echoes this statement claiming prominent South African “musicians ranging from tenor-manBazil Mannenberg Coetzee to pianist Darius Brubeck” have referred to marabi as “SouthAfrica’s blues”, highlighting its central importance in South African jazz as “the form to basecompositions on” (Merz 2016, 34). Described by Matshikiza as a set of “highly rhythmicrepetitive single-themed dance tunes” (Matshikiza in Ballantine 2012, 32) which developedbetween the 1910s to 1930s, marabi was generally performed on keyboard, banjo or guitar inshebeens5 and at drinking and dancing parties. Like the blues, it followed a three-chordcyclical harmonic structure. However, in the case of marabi, the three chords were usuallyplayed in short two or four bar phrases, and were most commonly voiced as triads in thesequence I-IV-I-V. Due to the preference for diatonic tonality in marabi, few chord extensiontones were used other than the occasional addition of a major 6th to chord IV and the use ofthe dominant 7th on chord V. The resulting progression is the iconic I-IV6-Ic-V7 whichbecame the harmonic foundation of the South African sound.
    5. In the pre-colonial music of Southern Africa there seems to be little evidence of the I-IV-V-Iprogression typical to the U.S.-American blues style, or many longer harmonic cycles.Instead, there seems to be a definite predilection for short harmonic progressions, such as theaforementioned two-chord progression of traditional Xhosa music of the Eastern Cape notedby Dargie. It can be argued that it was the use of these short harmonic cycles that then led tocertain styles of melodic and rhythmic phrasing which mirrored the short, repetitive harmonicmovement, thus resulting in characteristics common to much South African jazz, such asshort repetitive motivic melodies, basslines and drum grooves.
    6. Although, mbaqanga became exceptionally popular both locally and internationally, it willnot be a key focus of the analysis presented in this dissertation as, like tsaba tsaba, its musicaltraits reveal it as being more of a hybrid, sub-genre of the original styles of South Africanjazz: marabi, African Jazz and kwela.