1,615 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. In addition to the ii 7–V7–Imaj7 and ii≤57–V7–i progressions, there are other harmonicprogressions that often occur in standard tunes. Probably the most recognizableprogression is a turnaround, also known as a turnback. The turnaround is a two- orfour-bar progression, usually with a faster harmonic rhythm, that typically occurs at theend of 8- or 16-bar phrases. One of the formal functions of the turnaround is to effectivelyprepare the arrival of the “top of the chorus” by ushering in a familiar chord progression. 1Just as the ii 7 –V 7 –Imaj 7 progression can be transformed with different harmonicsubstitutions, so too can turnarounds
    2. Chapter 13 investigates two- and four-bar idiomatic jazz progressions. It also focuses onaural identification and keyboard realization of non-modulatory and modulatoryprogressions with various ii7–V7 or ii≤57–V7 interpolations, as well as miscellaneous four-bar phrases
    3. The musical depiction of the lyrics from Figure 9.2 illustrates an additional aspect of bluesperformance practice—the use of call and response. Originally practiced by a large groupof people, this improvisational technique involves sharing ideas between the leader andher/his followers. Mastering the call and response technique is especially important at thebeginning of our encounter with jazz improvisation. It engages us in a meaningfuldialogue that includes exchanging and communicating musical ideas. The communicativeaspect of call and response is relatively straightforward in the context of verbal conversation.

      In a musical setting, however, when spoken words and sentences are replaced with motifs and melodic phrases, the structure of the call and response might not be as obvious. To be a good communicator, we have to know how to listen, pay close attention to what the other musicians are playing, and try to be receptive to their ideas. In certain scenarios, however, the use of call and response technique might create less than desirable effects. For instance, when the call and response takes the form of exact and immediate repetition, it might be impressive but not necessarily in keeping with the surrounding musical context. A much more subtle way of thinking about the call and response technique involves musical interaction at the level of the entire performance in which non-adjacent sections relate to one another, and where the flow of the performance is regulated by logically introduced musical ideas. In creating a musical narrative, then, we can also respond to each other’s playing, but these responses are not as obvious as simple repetitions tend to be. We can demonstrate our listening skills, for instance, by incorporating an idea that we have previously heard (i.e. a rhythmic motive from the drummer, or a melodic gesture from the guitarist) and develop it in such a way that leads to a more satisfying musical discourse. The call and response aspect of improvisation means that musicians understand each other’s intentions, have an unspoken agreement, so to speak, and project them with a high level of personal expression and musical commitmen

    4. Broadly speaking, voice leading controls the interaction between chords and lines withinharmonic progressions. The principles of voice leading encompass several general topics,such as the role of outer-voice counterpoint, the types of melodic motion, the retentionof common tones, the treatment of dissonances, and others that will be discussedthroughout the book.At the surface level, jazz voice-leading conventions seem more relaxed than they are incommon-practice music. After all, jazz musicians use forbidden parallel perfect fifths andoctaves, move all the voices in the same direction, and tolerate voice crossings of differentsorts. The rules of jazz voice leading are different because the syntax of jazz is largelyincompatible with common-practice classical or other types of music. These differencesdo not mean, however, that the rules of jazz voice leading are any less strict. When jazzmusicians think about dissonance treatment or highlight a linear approach to harmony asopposed to a vertical one, they rely just as much on well-defined rules of voice leading asdo composers of common-practice music. The conventions of jazz voice leading dependgreatly on the soprano and bass, so-called outer-voice counterpoint.
    5. When using Roman numerals, however, complex five-, six-, orseven-part formations will be translated to their essential four-part framework. For instance,F7(≤13) in the key of C major will be simply notated as IV7
    6. The use of dynamics, legato, and especially articulation can substantially improve the overallpresentation of melodic lines. Generally, the use of dynamics should roughly follow thecontour of the melodic lines. Rising lines are typically played with a slight crescendo anddescending lines with a slight diminuendo. Additionally, melodic lines should be playedalmost legato with barely perceptible note detachment. Carefully distributed articulations(dynamic accents, staccato, tenuto, marcato, etc.) are also an essential component ofphrasing.
    7. The term “swing” has multiple meanings and associations. Sometimes it refers to a specificmusical style from the 1930s called Swing. It may also refer to a performance practicetradition or a specific rhythmic attribute attached to the quality of 8th notes
    8. Chapter 2 identifies the main characteristics of jazz rhythm
  2. May 2023
    1. n Pascal’s definition of style: ‘the manner in which a work of art is executed [...] which is orientated towards relationships rather than meanings, [...] it may be used to denote music characteristic of an individual composer, of a period, of a geographical area or centre, or of a society or social function’ (Pascal, 2001).

      definition is actually by Pascal

    1. 4.8-2 Definition (Weak convergence).

      weak convergence in a normed space

    2. 4.8-1 Definition (Strong convergence).

      Strong convergence in a normed space

    3. 4.5-1 Definition (Adjoint operator T X )

      Definiton of Adjoint operator in Normed spaces (Not Hilbert!!!)

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  3. Apr 2023
    1. The term meme was defined by Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene as "a unit of cultural transmission".
    2. n our tulpa theory of mind, each tulpa is such an agent.

      What does theory of mind have to do with agents?

    1. rove

      wander

    2. prate

      talk foolishly, tediously about

    3. squalid contentment

      ; showing or involving a contemptible lack of moral standards. -- in a state of satisfaction

    4. asinine

      extremely stupid or foolish.

    5. piquancy

      ;a pleasantly sharp and appetizing flavor. ;the quality of being pleasantly stimulating or exciting.

    1. small data
    2. physics-informed neural networks – neural networks that aretrained to solve supervised learning tasks while respecting any given laws ofphysics described by general nonlinear partial differential equation

      Definition of PINN

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    1. 2.10-3 Definition (Dual space X').
    2. 2.8-2 Definition (Bounded linear functional)

      Very similar to the definition of a linear mapping between 2 normed space.

    3. 2.8-1 Definition (Linear functional)

      Linear functonal maps from a vector space to the real space.

    4. 2.7-1 Definition (Bounded linear operator)

      If a vector is bounded, and we put this vector into the linear operator, then the output vector from the space would be bounded by the norm too.

    5. 2.6-1 Definition (Linear operator).

      Zero vector being the identity of the linear operator is not direct from the axiom, but rather, the property of the real field.

    6. 2.4-4 Definition (Equivalent norms).

      Take note that, if we treat the norm as a type of metric, then the conditions for equivalent norm is strictly stronger than the conditions needed for metric, which is stated in convergence of sequences.

    7. 2.5-1 Definition (Compactness)

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    1. schadenfreude

      pleasure derived by someone from another person's misfortune.

    2. catharsis

      the process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions.

    3. proleptic

      anticipatory; foreshadowing

    1. everse-dominance hierarchies

      In a reverse dominance hierarchy, individuals establish a hierarchy based on their willingness to cooperate and help others, rather than their ability to dominate or control others. In other words, individuals at the top of the hierarchy are those who are the most cooperative and helpful to others, while those lower in the hierarchy may be less cooperative or less helpful.

    1. We now state two alternate definitions ofa strongly feasible spanning tree.

      strong feasible spanning tree solution definition.

    1. ecclesiastical

      relating to the Christian Church or its clergy.

    2. jurisprudence

      the theory or philosophy of law.

    3. envisaged

      contemplate or conceive of as a possibility or a desirable future event.

    4. syndic

      a government official in various countries

    1. DSM-5(3)Childpsychologicalabuse(995.51),whichincludes“harming/ abandoning...peopleorthingsthatthechildcaresabout.”DSM-5, pg. 716,719(5thed. 2013); WilliamBernet,et. al. , ChildAffectedbyParentalRelationshipDistress55J. oftheAm. Acad. ofChildandAdolescentPsychiatry571-579(2016)
    2. DSM-5(2)Parent-childrelationalproblem(V61.20),whichincludes“negativeattributionsoftheother’sintentions,hostilitytowardorscapegoatingoftheother,andunwarrantedfeelingsofestrangement.”DSM-5, pg. 715,719(5thed. 2013); WilliamBernet,et. al. , ChildAffectedbyParentalRelationshipDistress55J. oftheAm. Acad. ofChildandAdolescentPsychiatry571-579(2016)
    3. DSM-5DSM-5 hasTHREEspecificdiagnosesunderwhichParentalAlienationmayfall,albeitbydifferentnames:(1)Childaffectedbyparentalrelationshipdistress(CAPRD)(V61.29),which“shouldbeusedwhenthefocusofclinicalattentionis thenegativeeffectsofparentalrelationshipdiscord(e.g., highlevelsofconflict,distress,ordisparagement)ona childinthefamily,includingeffectsonthechild’smentalorothermedicaldisorders.”DSM-5, pg. 716,719(5thed. 2013); WilliamBernet,et. al. , ChildAffectedbyParentalRelationshipDistress55J. oftheAm. Acad. ofChildandAdolescentPsychiatry571-579(2016
    4. SEVERE: thepreferredparentis obsessedwiththedesiretodestroythechild’srelationshipwiththeotherparent; thebehaviordoesnotrespondtotypicaloutpatientcounseling
    5. What is the difference betweenalienation and estrangement?ALIENATION= childrejectsa parentwithouta goodreason. Thechild’srejectionis faroutofproportiontoanythingtherejectedparenthasdone.ESTRANGEMENT=childrejectsa parentfora goodreason,suchashistoryofabuseorneglect.
    6. World Health OrganizationQE52.0:Caregiver-childrelationshipproblem= “substantialandsustaineddissatisfactionwithinacaregiver-childrelationshipassociatedwithsignificantdisturbanceinfunctioning.”INDEXTERMS◦Parent-childrelationshipproblem◦Parentalalienation◦Parentalestrangemen
    1. The young were trained to be loyal, law-regarding, patriotic, and a defined system of crimes and misdemeanours with properly associated pains, penalties, and repressions, kept the social body together.

      I think this description works good for the deinition of a "State"

  4. Mar 2023
  5. www.psychologytoday.com www.psychologytoday.com
    1. Identity encompasses the memories, experiences, relationships, and values that create one’s sense of self. This amalgamation creates a steady sense of who one is over time, even as new facets are developed and incorporated into one's identity.
    1. Inflation is a function of too much spending power “chasing” too little productive power.

      Definition

    2. caesaropapist

      Social order combining the power of secular government with the religious power

    1. The kernel module that manages userspace applications is named Gall. Each application is called an agent.

      Definition

    1. Our core criteria follow the definition of CCE provided in Tomasello's quotation above. We suggest that the minimum requirements for a population to exhibit CCE are (i) a change in behaviour (or product of behaviour, such as an artefact), typically due to asocial learning, followed by (ii) the transfer via social learning of that novel or modified behaviour to other individuals or groups, where (iii) the learned behaviour causes an improvement in performance, which is a proxy of genetic and/or cultural fitness, with (iv) the previous three steps repeated in a manner that generates sequential improvement over time.

      Definition - Cumulative Cultural Evolution - The core criteria follow the definition of CCE provided in Tomasello's quotation above - A population exhibits CCE iff - (i) a change in behaviour (or product of behaviour, such as an artefact), typically due to asocial learning, followed by - (ii) the transfer via social learning of that novel or modified behaviour to other individuals or groups, where - (iii) the learned behaviour causes an improvement in performance, - which is a proxy of genetic and/or cultural fitness, with - (iv) the previous three steps repeated in a manner that generates sequential improvement over time.

    2. In contrast [to non-human species' cultural traditions], human cultures do accumulate changes over many generations, resulting in culturally transmitted behaviors that no single human individual could invent on their own.
      • Boyd & Richerson give a nice explanation of CCE
      • In contrast [to non-human species' cultural traditions],
        • human cultures do accumulate changes over many generations,
        • resulting in culturally transmitted behaviors that no single human individual could invent on their own.
    1. crack up capitalism that is a form of economic activity 00:04:47 propagated by people whose profit model and their kind of a normative vision of change and the social future relies on an idea of an accelerating process of social dissolution and an accelerating process of political 00:05:00 fragmentation this is a form of this is sort of a profit model and a kind of a political vision that sees an acceleration in the near future and the medium-term future 00:05:14 of processes of political crack-up
      • Definition
        • Crack-Up Capitalism is defined as
          • a form of economic activity
          • propagated by people
            • whose profit model and
            • their kind of a normative vision of
              • change and
              • the social future
            • relies on an idea
            • of an accelerating process of
              • social dissolution and
              • an accelerating process of political fragmentation
                • in the near future and
                • the medium-term future
    1. Fear of missing out (FOMO) is the flip side of infoglut. We expect that we should be able to sanely monitor more than we actually can
      • new idea
      • new term
      • FOMO
    2. Information overload, once called infoglut, remains a challenge. We’re all flooded with more channels than we can handle, more conversations happening in more places than we can keep track of.
      • new idea 4me
      • infoglut
    1. When entering an unfamiliar field we lack the knowledge of how to get along in it, but over time our perspective shifts to fit new parameters, recognizing new patterns, and we fit ourselves to the norms we find and begin to share in the shaping of them. Luhrmann describes this process as “interpretive drift,” and explains how the process can be initiated through ritual practice.
      • Key Definition
        • Interpretative Shift (Luhrmann)
        • can be initiated through ritual practice // We can build interventions based upon encouraging ritual practice that causes interpretative shifts
    1. (2.3)

      This is the definition of a reduced costs with potential on the nodes.

    2. An algorithm is said to be !l(f(n» if for some numbers e / and no and all n ~no, the algorithm takes at least e'f(n) time on some problem instance.

      Big Omega definition

    3. An algorithm is said to be e(f(n» if the algorithm is both O(f(n» and !l(f(n».

      Definition of Big Theta.

    4. An algorithm is said to run in O{f(n» time if for some numbers c and no, thetime taken by the algorithm is at most cf{n) for all n 2: no.

      Big O definition

    5. We refer totwo directed paths from node s to node t as arc disjoint if they do not have any arcin common.

      arc disjont s-t path.

    6. by definition, the capacity 3 of an augmenting path is always positive

      positive flow path is part of the definition of an augmenting paths!

      • The conclusion of this study is that the ultimate definition of justice is that all of us have a right to a stable planet.
      • Earth System Boundaries are like doughnut economics and include social justice as well.
      • Earth System Justice is a multi-dimensional definition of justice including:
        • justice among present nations, communities and individuals (Intragenerational Justice),
        • justice for future generations (Intergenerational justice),.
        • justice for other living things and Earth system stability (‘Interspecies Justice and Earth system stability’)
  6. Feb 2023
    1. “Consider a future device …  in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.”
      • The explorations of a system that could
      • record our learning trail in life
        • personal individual synthesis
        • new knowledge gained by social learning:
          • from direct, synchronous, real-time interaction with another live other human being
          • from indirect, asynchronous, non-real-time interaction with cultural artefacts produced by another
      • Bush famously named cc this the "memex"
    1. understanding of the universe would not be found merely in the examination of ‘ parts ’ but in the recognition of ‘ wholes ’ and the observation of process.
      • Jan Smuts = definition of Holism = progression of wholes
    1. Ginsberg’s poem famously begins “I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness”. I am luckier than Ginsberg. I got to see the best minds of my generation identify a problem and get to work.

      I am going to steal this and use it as my definition of dystopia and utopia

    2. telos

      The end of a goal-oriented process.

    3. Las Vegas doesn’t exist because of some decision to hedonically optimize civilization, it exists because of a quirk in dopaminergic reward circuits, plus the microstructure of an uneven regulatory environment, plus Schelling points. A rational central planner with a god’s-eye-view, contemplating these facts, might have thought “Hm, dopaminergic reward circuits have a quirk where certain tasks with slightly negative risk-benefit ratios get an emotional valence associated with slightly positive risk-benefit ratios, let’s see if we can educate people to beware of that.” People within the system, following the incentives created by these facts, think: “Let’s build a forty-story-high indoor replica of ancient Rome full of albino tigers in the middle of the desert, and so become slightly richer than people who didn’t!”

      A definition of how Las Vegas functions

    1. 4.4.1. D EFINITION .

      Definition of Compactness Remarks

      Compactness is defined by the existence of converging subsequence of any sequences. The "close and boundedness" is only a characterizations of compactness when we have finite dimension Euclidean space.

    1. let this dot here represent the transcendental 00:00:26 ego or subject and this circle will represent the limits of this transcendental egos phenomenological experience so in Morton's terms well 00:00:39 refer to this is the sensory screen

      = Definition = sensory screen - the phenomenological limited of the experiencer - similar to SRG/ Deep Humanity idea definition

  7. Local file Local file
    1. limit point

      This definition is different compare to some literatures where a limit point \(x\) is a point if a sequence \(x_n\in A\) have \(\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty} x_n = x\). What distinguishes it here is the claim that "Other than X".

      A briefer way of defining it is: The point \(x\) is not isolated in if wrt to the set \(A\).

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    1. define Safetyism as “a culture or belief system in which safety has become a sacred value, which means that people are unwilling to make trade-offs demanded by other practical and moral concerns.”

      Definition

    1. myth is an arrangement of the past whether real or imagined in patterns that reinforce a culture's deepest values and aspirations

      Ronald Wright - definition of - = myth - an arrangement of the past - whether real or imagined - in patterns that reinforce a culture's deepest values and aspirations

      Quotes: - myths are so fraught with meaning that we live and die by them - myths are the maps by which cultures navigate through time - the myth of progress - progress has an internal logic that can lead beyond reason to catastrophe - a seductive trail of successes may end in a trap

    2. the victorian ideal of progress
      • Victorian definition of progress
      • historian Sydney Pollard, 1968
    1. belief perseverance
      • belief perseverance
      • definition
        • a cognitive bias in which people encountering evidence that runs counter to their beliefs will, instead of reevaluating what they’ve believed up until now, tend to reject the incompatible evidence
  8. duncanreyburn.substack.com duncanreyburn.substack.com
    1. A history of ideas would refer to “a dialectical or syllogistic process, the thoughts of one age arising discursively out of, challenging, and modifying the thoughts and discoveries of the previous one.”

      Definition

    1. Definition 2

      Open and closedness of a subset in the metric space via epsilon ball topologies.

    2. Definition 28

      2 Metric is equivalent if they one can be bounded by the other one with just a constant.

      This is important when we are talking about many different type of metrics all at the same time. And we would also have a way of categorizing them.

    3. Definition 15

      My interpretation of the matter:

      Let \(M\subseteq X\) be dense then for any element in \(M\), it's neighborhood has to contain some element of \(X\) then the subset is dense.

    4. Definition 12

      accumation point defined without the sequences and their covergence. This definition is cloest to the closure of the set.

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    1. polymorphous

      Polymorphism refers to the ability of something to take on multiple forms or shapes.

    2. polysemic

      In linguistics, the term is often used to describe words or concepts that have multiple meanings, often in different contexts.

    3. multivalent

      In linguistics, the term is often used to describe words or concepts that have multiple and sometimes conflicting meanings or interpretations.

    4. immersed

      Hermeneutics is concerned with the meaning of a text, and with the ways in which meaning is constructed through interpretation. It explores the relationships between the text, the reader, and the context in which the text was created and is being read. It also investigates the ways in which culture, history, language, and power shape the interpretation and understanding of texts.

    5. intertextuality

      the relationship between texts, especially literary ones.

    6. semiotics

      the study of signs and symbols and their use and interpretation

  9. Jan 2023
    1. twilight zone

      In the deep depths of the ocean below the level sunlight can travel through water, it is completely dark yet is filled with countless species of life, many unknown to scientists.

    1. egregores. Egregores don’t necessarily map onto humans. Rather than a hard-and-fast distinction, it’s more helpful to think of tulpas as a subtype of egregores, perhaps of the highest intensity. This is because egregores leech off of our tulpas. They are artificial entities that feel real (like actual beings), precisely because they’re parasitic. So brands, for instance, are egregores. An organization (workplace) or symbol (flag) or abstract idea can be egregoric. Fictional characters seem like tulpas insofar as they’re ‘people’, but they’re also egregores in that they’re not ‘real’.

      Definition

    1. This larger perspective is offered by an analysis of citizenship and the common good. I begin with the idea of citizenship as being a practice entrusted with the preservation and conservation of the nexus of recognitional practices in a society. Then I move to the notion of the common good, interpreted not as a collective thing, a transcendent principle, or an abstract concept, but as the flourishing of the recognitional nexus itself. 

      !- interpretation of citizenship : from perspective of common good - common good as the flourishing of the nexus of recognitional practices in a society.

      !- comment : salience of citizenship and common good - it's important to educate the public on what it means to be a citizen from the perspective of our empowering role in creating the society we want to live in

    1. I define surveillance capitalism as the unilateral claiming of private human experience as free raw material for translation into behavioral data. These data are then computed and packaged as prediction products and sold into behavioral futures markets — business customers with a commercial interest in knowing what we will do now, soon, and later.

      !- Definition : Surveillance Capitalism - as defined by Shoshana Zuboff

    1. Coral is far more red than her lips' red

      I see the repeated use of the colors red and white holding significance in the poem. There is a constant comparison of there being a lack of vibrancy in this mistress, with the color red being a descriptive term. If I am to take the term "mistress" under the definition of a woman having an extramarital affair, this could be seen as the speaker seeing all of the features he may have taken for granted at the time. The rose color of her cheeks and lips, the angelic white glow, all are muddied and faded as this is not the woman he truly loved.

    2. My mistress'

      The word "Mistress" can mean one of two definitions. The first being the lesser used of the two, with it meaning "a woman in a position of authority" (Oxford Languages, 2023). This could be inferred as, regardless of any physical characteristic, his mistress will always hold his heart, for he doesn't need to see a goddess, as the center of his love exists here. The second brings with it more troubling implications, being "a woman having an extramarital sexual relationship, especially with a married man." (Oxford Languages, 2023). This could bring a new meaning to the previously bitter start to the poem, being more of longing from the speaker for his previous lover, comparing this simple mistress to the goddess that was his previous relationship.

    1. foreign key is the combination of one or more columns in a table that reference (match) the primary key in the parent table (or parent row in the case of recursive relationships)

      foreign key = the combination of one or more columns in a table that reference (match) the primary key in the parent table (or parent row in the case of recursive relationships)

    2. primary key is a column or set of columns that uniquely identifies each row in a table.
    3. Data Definition Language (DDL)

      DDL is used to create database objects (tables, views, indexes, and so forth). Once objects are setup, they can be modified using the ALTER statement, destroyed using the DROP statement, and tables can be instantly cleared of contents using the special-purpose TRUNCATE statement.

    4. As in mathematics, an SQL function returns a single value each time it is executed

      see above?

    5. An inner join is best thought of as an exclusive join because the result set includes only rows where matches were found in both tables (unmatched rows are excluded from the results)

      TLDR inner join = exclusive to matches in both tables * Any row from the key table which has a value that is omitted from the key column (Horse table has key columns of sire_id and dam_id) is exlcuded from the final result. So if horse_id_x has a null value for its sire or dam id, then any information about the row corresponding to horse_id_X is entirely ommitted from the final result of the joined table.

    6. An outer join, on the other hand, can be thought of as an inclusive join because unmatched rows from either side of the join (the left side or the right side) can be included

      TLDR outer join = inclusive join that can contained rows that dont match to the key column?

    7. Cartesian product

      Where every row from table a is joined with each row of table b ( totalling A*B rows), Cartesian products arise when tables are merged with no matching logic (ie a shared column like owner_id which can distinguish how each row in table A should be joined with each row of table B)

    1. o the chariot doesn't just depend upon 00:56:29 the narrow base of parts it depends upon our conceptual imputation which is an essential idea for child security that what there is in the world depends not only on things 00:56:42 outside of us but also on how we think about things i call that broad super veniance if the chariot doesn't just depend on its parts it depends on the whole scheme in which chariots figure as 00:56:57 objects

      !- definition : broad superveniance - dependency on the entire associative network of ideas with which chariots are conceptually embedded

  10. Dec 2022
    1. ”Creating ‘social operating systems.’ An operating system, in the context of a single computer, manages the allocation of hardware and software resources such as memory, CPU time, disk space, and input/output devices. A social operating system, in addition to doing all these things, will also have to manage the mustering and allocation of human resources to tasks. This will require fast, robust infrastructures for contracts, payments, or other motivational elements, as well as scalable task-to-resource matchmaking such as markets. These will be challenging problems because people (unlike hardware resources) are diverse in all the ways we have described. But providing easy-to-use solutions for the problems of finding and motivating human participants—rather than requiring each system developer to solve this problem individually—will greatly facilitate programming the global brain.”

      Social Operating System, Based As Hell

    1. Keywords

      Definitions: 1. World Wide Web = An information system on the internet which allows documents to be connected to other documents by hypertext links.

      1. Search Engines = A program that searches for and identifies items in a database that correspond to keywords or characters specified by the user.

      2. Information Retrieval = The process of obtaining information system resources that are relevant to an information need from a collection of those resources, which uses searches based on a type of indexing.

      3. PageRank = PageRank works by counting the number and quality of links to a page to determine a rough estimate of how important the website is. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from other websites.

      4. Google = Google is a search engine which was discussed in this paper, which uses the PageRank algorithm to optimize searching for larger datasets.

  11. Nov 2022
    1. Services are duplicates if they are provided to the same target group, by the same provider, under the same agreement, to the same location, and using the same interface.
      • target group
      • provider
      • agreement
      • location
      • interface
    1. The meaning of the term "pedagogy" is often contested and a great variety of definitions has been suggested.[7]

      Burası önemli

    1. goal of learning is to find a model and its corresponding parame-ters such that the resulting predictor will perform well on unseen data

      important

    2. features, attributes, or covariates
  12. Oct 2022
    1. “Epistemology” is a philosophically complicated subject, but it’s essentially the study of knowledge – what it is, and how it’s formed.

      Definition

    1. The field of public choice has a name for this, regulatory capture: where corporations gain so much power in the government that they “capture” their regulator and end up implementing regulations in their industry that have the effect of cementing their market positions in place and preventing new competition. We see this in pharma, housing, healthcare, education, taxi cab industry — nearly every regulated industry. 

      Definition

    2. You could think of Bourgeois capitalism as Robber Baron capitalism (think Atlas Shrugged) — industrialists like Ford, Rockefeller, Carnegie building up their empires and retaining a controlling stake in them. What’s differentiating about Bourgeois capitalism is that the owners are also the managers. The people who own the company also run the company. There’s total alignment between managers and shareholders. 

      Definition

    3. Managerial capitalism, by contrast, is defined by the split between ownership and control — on both the founder and investor side. Instead of owners having direct control, you have layers of intermediary managers (e.g. board of directors, executive teams, hired CEOs) who are running the company on behalf of the shareholders and original owners, but who also have different incentives as a result of having less ownership. They may be more short-term driven than long-term driven, for example, since they are incentivized by their salary instead of their equity ownership. 

      Definition

    1. ARG game masters have described one of the pathologies of players as apophenia, or seeing connections that aren’t “really there” — that the designers didn’t intend — and therefore pursuing red herrings.

      Definitions

  13. Sep 2022
    1. rotation matrix

      coordinates of rotation in the form on basis vectors

    2. rotation

      linear mapping that rotates a plan by angle \(\theta\) with respect to origin

      if angle \(\theta\) > 0 rotate counterclockwise

    3. orthogonal basis

      $$<b_{i}, b_{j}> = 0, i \neq j$$

    4. orthogonal complement

      Let W be a subspace of a vector space V. Then the orthogonal complement of W is also a subspace of V. Furthermore, the intersection of W and its orthogonal complement is just the zero vector.

    5. normal vector

      vector with magnitude 1, \(||w|| = 1\) and is perpendicular to the surface

    6. Gram-Schmidt process

      concatenate basis vector (non-orthogonal and unnormalized) into a matrix, apply gaussian eliminate and obtain an orthonormal basis

    7. Orthonormal Basi

      basis vectors = subset of vectors linearly independent if orthonormal basis -> orthogonal basis

    8. 3.32

      distance of orthogonal matrix

    9. Orthogonal Matrix

      $$AA^T = I = A^TA \Rightarrow A^{-1} = A^T$$ orthonormal columns

    10. (Orthogonality

      if \(<x,y> = 0\) and \(||x|| = ||y|| = 0\)<br /> any two lines that are perpendicular - 90 degree angle

    11. x, y) 7 → d(x, y)

      if x and y are two points in a vector space then, you can find the distance

    12. atisfies (3.11) is called symmetric, positive definite

      symmetric positive definite

    13. se the dot product defined in (3.5), we call(V, 〈·, ·〉) a Euclidean vector space

      euclidean vector space

    14. The pair (V, 〈·, ·〉) is called an inner product space

      inner product space

    15. positive definite, symmetric bilinear mapping Ω : V ×V → R is calledan inner product on V
    16. positive definite if positive definite∀x ∈ V \{0} : Ω(x, x) > 0 , Ω(0, 0) = 0
    17. symmetric if Ω(x, y) = Ω(y, x)

      a symmetric matrix was: (A^(-1))^T = (A^(T))^-1

    18. x>y =n∑i=1xiyi

      inner product and dot product interchangeable here

    19. 3.4

      distance from the origin of a vector

    20. Positive definite: ‖x‖ > 0 and ‖x‖ = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 0
    21. Triangle inequality: ‖x + y‖ 6 ‖x‖ + ‖y‖
    22. Absolutely homogeneous: ‖λx‖ = |λ|‖x‖
    23. A norm on a vector space V is a function
    1. Pentecostalism “by definition assumes direct contact of the believer with God and, by extension, the direct agency of the Holy Spirit as instructor and counselor and commander as well as comforter.”

      Definition

    1. Hellenized

      Hellenism is the adoption of Greek culture, religion, language and identity by non-Greeks.

    1. Homo modulus

      Definition

    2. iniquities

      Definition: gross injustice

    3. agential

      Definition: pertaining to anagent or agency.

    4. fabulation

      Definition: to tell invented stories; create fables or stories filled with fantasy.

    1. The gestell, as Heidegger predicted, is a kind of all-encompassing cage since even our attempts to escape from technology are themselves technological.
    1. scathers

      noun from the verb "scathe" as in "one who injures or harms"?

    2. welkin

      the vault of the sky : FIRMAMENT

    3. Declivitous

      moderately steep; down sloping

  14. earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com
    1. Nesses

      OE næs "point of land running into the sea"; obsolete except in place names

  15. Aug 2022
    1. Parallelism means that an application splits its tasks up into smaller subtasks which can be processed in parallel, for instance on multiple CPUs at the exact same time.
    2. Concurrency means that an application is making progress on more than one task at the same time (concurrently)
  16. earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com
    1. moor-fens

      OE mor "morass, swamp" (i.e. a marsh, a tract of soft wet land) and fenn "mud, mire, dirt; fen, marsh, moor,"

    2. bairn

      from OE "child, son, descendant"

    1. tumultuous
      1. excited, confused, or disorderly.
      2. making a loud, confused noise; uproarious.
    2. derision
      1. ridicule; mockery: The inept performance elicited derision from the audience.
      2. an object of ridicule.
    3. benevolence

      the quality of being well meaning; kindness.

    4. pacifism

      the belief that any violence, including war, is unjustifiable under any circumstances, and that all disputes should be settled by peaceful means.

    5. bumptious

      self-assertive or proud to an irritating degree.

    1. ΔHvap,AΔHvap,A\Delta H_{vap,A} = Enthalpy of Vaporization for "A", always positive because it is endothermic

      definition - energy needed to transfer one mole of substance into a gas

  17. scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu
    1. According to Cuende, “A DAO is an internet-native entity with no central management which isregulated by a set of automatically enforceable ruleson a public blockchain, and whose goal is to take a lifeof its own and incentivize people to achieve a sharedmission.

      Great definition of a DAO

  18. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. her mother’s rights and consequence

      This was common at the time - someone had to step up to play mother / become the lady of the house. Fanny Knight (Austen's niece) did it. This would be considered parentification now. (Definition "the assumption of a parentlike (or adult) role by a child.")

  19. Jul 2022
  20. bafybeicho2xrqouoq4cvqev3l2p44rapi6vtmngfdt42emek5lyygbp3sy.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeicho2xrqouoq4cvqev3l2p44rapi6vtmngfdt42emek5lyygbp3sy.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. he aim of the present paper is to propose a radical resolution to this controversy: weassume that mind is a ubiquitous property of all minimally active matter (Heylighen, 2011). Itis in no way restricted to the human brain—although that is the place where we know it in itsmost concentrated form. Therefore, the extended mind hypothesis is in fact misguided,because it assumes that the mind originates in the brain, and merely “extends” itself a little bitoutside in order to increase its reach, the way one’s arm extends itself by grasping a stick.While ancient mystical traditions and idealist philosophies have formulated similarpanpsychist ideas (Seager, 2006), the approach we propose is rooted in contemporaryscience—in particular cybernetics, cognitive science, and complex systems theory. As such, itstrives to formulate its assumptions as precisely and concretely as possible, if possible in amathematical or computational form (Heylighen, Busseniers, Veitas, Vidal, & Weinbaum,2012), so that they can be tested and applied in real-world situations—and not just in thethought experiments beloved by philosophers

      The proposal is for a more general definition of the word mind, which includes the traditional usage when applied to the human mind, but extends far beyond that into a general property of nature herself.

      So in Heylighen's defintion, mind is a property of matter, but of all MINIMALLY ACTIVE matter, not just brains. In this respect, Heylighen's approach has early elements of the Integrated Information Theory (IIT) theory of Koch & Tononi