- Sep 2022
Download our e-book containing 7 strategies for using social annotation in your teaching.
Or annotate it right now: https://docdrop.org/pdf/Are-Your-Students-Doing-the-Rea---Hypothes.is-gaulj.pdf/
- Jun 2022
Reid, A. J. (Ed.). (2018). Marginalia in Modern Learning Contexts. New York: IGI Global.
Heard about this at the Hypothes.is SOCIAL LEARNING SUMMIT: Spotlight on Social Reading & Social Annotation
But systems of schooling and educational institutions–and much of online learning– are organized in ways that deny their voices matter. My role is to resist those systems and structures to reclaim the spaces of teaching and learning as voice affirming. Voice amplifying.
Modeling annotation and note taking can allow students to see that their voices matter in conversation with the "greats" of knowledge. We can and should question authority. Even if one's internal voice questions as one reads, that might be enough, but modeling active reading and note taking can better underline and empower these modes of thought.
There are certainly currents within American culture that we can and should question authority.
Sadly some parts of conservative American culture are reverting back to paternalized power structures of "do as I say and not as I do" which leads to hypocrisy and erosion of society.
Education can be used as a means of overcoming this, though it requires preventing the conservative right from eroding this away from the inside by removing books and certain thought from the education process that prevents this. Extreme examples of this are Warren Jeff's control of religion, education, and social life within his Mormon sect.
Link to: - Lawrence Principe examples of the power establishment in Western classical education being questioned. Aristotle wasn't always right. The entire history of Western science is about questioning the status quo. (How can we center this practice not only in science, but within the humanities?)
My evolving definition of active reading now explicitly includes the ideas of annotating the text, having a direct written conversation with it, questioning it, and expanding upon it. I'm not sure I may have included some or all of these in it before. This is what "reading with a pen in hand" (or digital annotation tool) should entail. What other pieces am I missing here which might also be included?
- student voices
- Western science
- questioning authority
- social annotation
- Warren Jeffs
- Lora Taub-Pervizpour
- open questions
- Western culture
- institutional power
- voice amplifying
- active reading
- power over
- power with
By asking students to share their annotations openly, we help students to see a wide range of annotation practices, thus demystifying what has often been a private, individual practice.
Teachers can model their own reading and annotating practices for students, but this can be expanded when using social annotation. This will allow students to show each other a wider variety of potential note taking and annotation strategies which help to reinforce the teacher's own modeling. This can be useful modelling of a practice in public which has historically been done privately.
By featuring notes which might be reused for papers or developing later research, teachers can also feature the portions of the note taking process which can be reused for developing new ideas. How might annotations within a text be linked to each other outside of the particular flow of the paper? Might there have been different orderings for the arguments that may have been clearer?
What ideas in the broader class might the ideas within a particular text be linked to? What ideas outside of the class can be linked to those found within the text?
In less experienced groups, teachers might occasionally call out individual annotations in discussion to ask the group for what purposes a student might have annotated specific portions to highlight the various methods and reasons.
What are the list of particular note types here? - Paraphrasing segments to self-test for understanding - Creation of spaced repetition type notes for memorizing definitions and facts - Conversations with the text/original author and expansion of the ideas - Questioning the original text, do we agree/disagree? - Linking ideas from the text into one's broader knowledge base - Highlighting quotes for later reuse - others??
Link to - double-entry journaling in Bruce Ballenger<br /> - types of questions one might ask within a text, Ballenger again
there is clear evidence that explicitly teaching reading strategies to students improves their overall academic performance, such instruction is often limited to developmental reading or study skills courses (Saxby 2017, 37-38).
Teaching reading strategies to students improves their overall academic performance, but this instruction is often limited to developmental reading or study skills courses.
ref: Saxby, Lori Eggers. “Efficacy of a College Reading Strategy Course: Comparative Study.” Journal of Developmental Education 40, no. 3 (2017): 36-38.
Using Hypothes.is as a tool in a variety of courses can help to teach reading strategies and thereby improve students' overall academic performance.
- digital pedagogy
- academic performance
- note reuse
- reading strategies
- double-entry journaling
- social annotation
- note taking
- Apr 2022
A 2019 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences supports Wieman’s hunch. Tracking the intellectual advancement ofseveral hundred graduate students in the sciences over the course of four years,its authors found that the development of crucial skills such as generatinghypotheses, designing experiments, and analyzing data was closely related to thestudents’ engagement with their peers in the lab, and not to the guidance theyreceived from their faculty mentors.
Learning has been shown to be linked to engagement with peers in social situations over guidance from faculty mentors.
Cross reference: David F. Feldon et al., “Postdocs’ Lab Engagement Predicts Trajectories of PhD Students’ Skill Development,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (October 2019): 20910–16
Are there areas where this is not the case? Are there areas where this is more the case than not?
Is it our evolution as social animals that has heightened this effect? How could this be shown? (Link this to prior note about social evolution.)
Is it the ability to scaffold out questions and answers and find their way by slowly building up experience with each other that facilitates this effect?
Could this effect be seen in annotating texts as well? If one's annotations become a conversation with the author, is there a learning benefit even when the author can't respond? By trying out writing about one's understanding of a text and seeing where the gaps are and then revisiting the text to fill them in, do we gain this same sort of peer engagement? How can we encourage students to ask questions to the author and/or themselves in the margins? How can we encourage them to further think about and explore these questions? Answer these questions over time?
A key part of the solution is not just writing the annotations down in the first place, but keeping them, reviewing over them, linking them together, revisiting them and slowly providing answers and building solutions for both themselves and, by writing them down, hopefully for others as well.
A major point in Chloé Collins's text is that traditional annotations risk feeling like a chore, done to fulfill teachers' requirements. In Collins's experience, the collaborative dimension of social annotation helps make it into something learners do for themselves.
- Nov 2021
- Sep 2021
I love this outline/syllabus for creating a commonplace book (as a potential replacement for a term paper).
I'd be curious to see those who are using Hypothes.is as a communal reading tool in coursework utilize this outline (or similar ones) in combination with their annotation practices.
Curating one's annotations and placing them into a commonplace book or zettelkasten would be a fantastic rhetorical exercise to extend the value of one's notes and ideas.
- Mar 2021
A summary/paraphrase of specific parts of the article you found interesting Definitions of terms used in the article (with links)References to people/places/things mentioned in the article (with links or images/videos)Opinions (respectfully, with evidence)Questions Links to related materials or further evidence on the same subject
This is a great list of some common types of annotations for students just starting out, but it misses one key annotation that I think is the goal of all annotations:
New ideas from the reader that have been sparked by the writing.
Incidentally, this is also one of the more difficult types to create and it's also harder to model to students.
In some sense, many of these annotation types fall relatively neatly into Bloom's taxonomy with my addendum falling under the top level of the pyramid usually labeled "create".
- Feb 2021
Collaborative annotations can have a deep impact on approaches to learning and teaching.
- Oct 2020
After all, Harry Potter wouldn’t have completed his Potions course were it not for an annotated version of the Advanced Potion-Making textbook.
One also has to question for pedagogy’s sake why the new professor of the course continued the adoption of that text which was patently “off” in its recipes to the point that a student who had the corrections and better descriptions (via those annotations) excelled while others were only passable?
- Feb 2017
- Dec 2016
There’s something to be said about making the text your own in this manner: my students took ownership of the content and (literally) left their mark on it!
- Dec 2015