1,811 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Our annotators achieve thehighest precision with OntoNotes, suggesting thatmost of the entities identified by crowdworkers arecorrect for this dataset.

      interesting that the mention detection algorithm gives poor precision on OntoNotes and the annotators get high precision. Does this imply that there are a lot of invalid mentions in this data and the guidelines for ontonotes are correct to ignore generic pronouns without pronominals?

    2. an algorithm with high precision on LitBank orOntoNotes would miss a huge percentage of rele-vant mentions and entities on other datasets (con-straining our analysis)

      these datasets have the most limited/constrained definitions for co-reference and what should be marked up so it makes sense that precision is poor in these datasets

    3. Procedure: We first launch an annotation tutorial(paid $4.50) and recruit the annotators on the AMTplatform.9 At the end of the tutorial, each annotatoris asked to annotate a short passage (around 150words). Only annotators with a B3 score (Bagga

      Annotators are asked to complete a quality control exercise and only annotators who achieve a B3 score of 0.9 or higher are invited to do more annotation

    4. Annotation structure: Two annotation ap-proaches are prominent in the literature: (1) a localpairwise approach, annotators are shown a pairof mentions and asked whether they refer to thesame entity (Hladká et al., 2009; Chamberlain et al.,2016a; Li et al., 2020; Ravenscroft et al., 2021),which is time-consuming; or (2) a cluster-basedapproach (Reiter, 2018; Oberle, 2018; Bornsteinet al., 2020), in which annotators group all men-tions of the same entity into a single cluster. InezCoref we use the latter approach, which can befaster but requires the UI to support more complexactions for creating and editing cluster structures.

      ezCoref presents clusters of coreferences all at the same time - this is a nice efficient way to do annotation versus pairwise annotation (like we did for CD^2CR)

    5. owever, these datasets vary widelyin their definitions of coreference (expressed viaannotation guidelines), resulting in inconsistent an-notations both within and across domains and lan-guages. For instance, as shown in Figure 1, whileARRAU (Uryupina et al., 2019) treats generic pro-nouns as non-referring, OntoNotes chooses not tomark them at all

      One of the big issues is that different co-reference datasets have significant differences in annotation guidelines even within the coreference family of tasks - I found this quite shocking as one might expect coreference to be fairly well defined as a task.

    6. Specifically, our work investigates the quality ofcrowdsourced coreference annotations when anno-tators are taught only simple coreference cases thatare treated uniformly across existing datasets (e.g.,pronouns). By providing only these simple cases,we are able to teach the annotators the concept ofcoreference, while allowing them to freely interpretcases treated differently across the existing datasets.This setup allows us to identify cases where ourannotators disagree among each other, but moreimportantly cases where they unanimously agreewith each other but disagree with the expert, thussuggesting cases that should be revisited by theresearch community when curating future unifiedannotation guidelines

      The aim of the work is to examine a simplified subset of co-reference phenomena which are generally treated the same across different existing datasets.

      This makes spotting inter-annotator disagreement easier - presumably because for simpler cases there are fewer modes of failure?

    7. this work, we developa crowdsourcing-friendly coreference annota-tion methodology, ezCoref, consisting of anannotation tool and an interactive tutorial. Weuse ezCoref to re-annotate 240 passages fromseven existing English coreference datasets(spanning fiction, news, and multiple other do-mains) while teaching annotators only casesthat are treated similarly across these datasets

      this paper describes a new efficient coreference annotation tool which simplifies co-reference annotation. They use their tool to re-annotate passages from widely used coreference datasets.

  2. desalesuniversity-my.sharepoint.com desalesuniversity-my.sharepoint.com
    1. Kalir, Jeremiah H. “The Value of Social Annotation for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Comprehension, Collaboration and Critical Thinking with Hypothesis.” White paper. San Francisco: Hypothes.is, October 21, 2022. https://web.hypothes.is/research-white-paper/

    2. onversation among groups ofreaders over time.

      An intriguing story of influential annotations in the history of science can be seen in Gingerich's The Book Nobody Read in which he traces annotations by teachers and students of Copernicus' De revolutionibus to show spread of knowledge in early modern astronomy.

      Gingerich, Owen. The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions of Nicolaus Copernicus. William Heinemann, 2004.

  3. Nov 2022
    1. It’s interesting to divide the internet into Word People and Image People because the Internet is a modern evolution of oral culture — and technological/bandwidth limitations have enabled text to serve as the leading means to transfer information online up till now, when more direct oral presentations (podcasts, video streaming, video) become a feasible way to distribute more of the pool of information.

      Tracy Durnell comments on a quote that divides internet users in 'word people' and 'image people' by by position the entire internet as a modern form of oral culture. The only reason in that perspective for the abundance of text is early bandwidth and technology limitations. Nowadays presentations, streaming, videos and podcasts make a much direct version of distributing oral expressions. When Durnell talks about oral culture is that because of the style more than the format? Blogs, IRC chats, microblogging and messaging are more oral in tone. Whereas ;'serious' texts are still in document shape. Reminds me of annotation as conversation and as social interaction.

    1. Testing frameworks often introduce their own abstractions for e.g. evaluation order, data validation, reporting, scope, code reuse, state, and lifecycle. In my experience, these abstractions are always needlessly different from (and inferior to) related abstractions provided by the language itself.
    1. Changing the second line to: foo.txt text !diff would restore the default unset-ness for diff, while: foo.txt text diff will force diff to be set (both will presumably result in a diff, since Git has presumably not previously been detecting foo.txt as binary).

      comments for tag: undefined vs. null: Technically this is undefined (unset, !diff) vs. true (diff), but it's similar enough that don't need a separate tag just for that.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: undefined/unset vs. null/set

    1. "This is a job market that just won't quit. It's challenging the rules of economics," said Becky Frankiewicz,  chief commercial officer of hiring company ManpowerGroup in an email after the data was released. "The economic indicators are signaling caution, yet American employers are signaling confidence."

      This article explains the economic market. Creating 528,000 jobs is an outstanding aspect for the American people. But It also needs to explain the bad parts of creating jobs in this situation. Because challenging the rules of economics should not make a better situation, There are also high risks.

    1. That could create even more burdens for businesses because hiking interest rates tends to create higher rates on consumer and business loans, which slows the economy by forcing employers to cut back on spending.

      This article describes the disadvantages of high-interest rates. Although there are facts and parts that we need to be concerned about, high-interest rates also have advantages. There are more information about advantages about high-interest.

  4. Oct 2022
    1. a little flaw (Google translation can not find the translation of the word "瑕疵", so can only use the word "flaw" instead)

      annotation meta: may need new tag: no exact translation in other language

    1. so this means that there are no documentation telling you that this is the way you have to do it anywhere so naturally a lot of devs do not know about this, unless they ask about it by luck or of curiousity.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: how could they know / how would one find out?

    1. This is an attempt to contextualize and reveal abstract ideas by bringing in references and annotations in order to add relevance for our current time.
    1. First and foremost, we need to acknowledge that even though the funding goal has been met–it does not meet the realistic costs of the project. Bluntly speaking, we did not have the confidence to showcase the real goal of ~1.5 million euros (which would be around 10k backers) in a crowdfunding world where “Funded in XY minutes!” is a regular highlight.

      new tag: pressure to understate the real cost/estimate

    1. As Glasp stands for Greatest Legacy Accumulated as Share Proof, we want to visualize your contribution to human (knowledge) history.
    2. Our mission is to democratize access to other people’s learning and experiences that they have collected throughout their lives as a utilitarian legacy.
    1. https://glasp.co/home

      Glasp is a startup competitor in the annotations space that appears to be a subsidiary web-based tool and response to a large portion of the recent spate of note taking applications.

      Some of the first users and suggested users are names I recognize from this tools for thought space.

      On first blush it looks like it's got a lot of the same features and functionality as Hypothes.is, but it also appears to have some slicker surfaces and user interface as well as a much larger emphasis on the social aspects (followers/following) and gamification (graphs for how many annotations you make, how often you annotate, streaks, etc.).

      It could be an interesting experiment to watch the space and see how quickly it both scales as well as potentially reverts to the mean in terms of content and conversation given these differences. Does it become a toxic space via curation of the social features or does it become a toxic intellectual wasteland when it reaches larger scales?

      What will happen to one's data (it does appear to be a silo) when the company eventually closes/shuts down/acquihired/other?

      The team behind it is obviously aware of Hypothes.is as one of the first annotations presented to me is an annotation by Kei, a cofounder and PM at the company, on the Hypothes.is blog at: https://web.hypothes.is/blog/a-letter-to-marc-andreessen-and-rap-genius/

      But this is true for Glasp. Science researchers/writers use it a lot on our service, too.—Kei

      cc: @dwhly @jeremydean @remikalir

    1. Machines understand languages, that are formal and rigid, with unique and unambiguous instructions that are interpreted in precisely one way. Those formal, abstract languages, and programming languages in general, are hard to understand for humans like ourselves. Primarily, they are tailored towards the requirements of the machine. The user is therefore forced to adapt to the complexity of the formal language.

      .

  5. Sep 2022
    1. Brown relies on personal testimony to set up his main idea \Smith develops an appeal to need with several paragraphs.Brown directly addresses opposing assumptions about transportation. !Johnson immediately appeals to emotion by connecting the topic, telemarketers, to apredatory economic climate—to the fear and quiet anger associated with corporatepower,

      use instead

    2. Evaluation (ClaimsofValue)Browndoesagoodjobofsupportinghismainidea.Smith'sideasarerightontarget.Browneffectivelyconvincesmethatwearereliantonautomobileculture.Idon’tacceptSmith'sclaimsLamsuspiciousofJohnson’ideasbecausetheyseemungrounded.

      avoid

    3. irst,some writers get lured inside the points of the argument they are analyzing, andrather than remain outside of that argument, on solid analytical ground, they beginmaking a case for the argument.

      Don't make a case: analyze

    4. bothidentifytheargumentativemove(suchasanappealtovalue)andthenexplainhowitworks.

      Identify and explain

    5. Tobeananalyticalreader,wehavetoaskhowthepassageworks.

      Ask how passage works

    6. such questions must be put aside.

      Reflex needs to be put aside for analysis

    1. One of the reasons I initially pushed back on the creation of a JSON Schema for V3 is because I feared that people would try to use it as a document validator. However, I was convinced by other TSC members that there were valid uses of a schema beyond validation.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: fear would be used for ... valid uses for it beyond ...

    2. without a schema, you do not have a spec, you have an aspiration.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: you don't have a _; you have a _

    3. When we do release a final version of JSON Schema, please do not use JSON Schema to guarantee an OpenAPI document is valid. It cannot do that. There are numerous constraints in the written specification that cannot be expressed in JSON Schema.
    1. JSONPath contains verbiage that allows for an empty array to be returned in the case that nothing was found, but the primary return in these cases is false.

      annotation meta: may need new tag:

      distinction between nothing, false, and empty array

      verbiage that allows for ...

    1. We do not want to change or remove additionalProperties. Providing a clear solution for the above use case will dramatically reduce or eliminate the misunderstandings around additionalProperties.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: - don't want to change or remove existing feature [because...] - solving problem B will reduce misunderstandings around feature A

    1. Bjorn, Genevive A., Laura Quaynor, and Adam J. Burgasser. “Reading Research for Writing: Co-Constructing Core Skills Using Primary Literature.” Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice 7, no. 1 (January 14, 2022): 47–58. https://doi.org/10.5195/ie.2022.237

      Found via:

      #AcademicTwitter I survived crushing reading loads in grad school by creating a straightforward method for analyzing primary literature, called #CERIC. Saved my sanity and improved my focus. @PhDVoice. Here’s the free paper - https://t.co/YehbLQNEqJ

      — Genevive Bjorn (@GeneviveBjorn) September 11, 2022
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

      I'm curious how this is similar to the traditions of commonplace books and zettelkasten from a historical perspective.

    2. Traditionally, doctoral students are expected to implicitly absorb thisargument structure through repeated reading or casual discussion.

      The social annotation being discussed here is geared toward classroom work involving reading and absorbing basic literature in an area of the sort relating to lower level literature reviews done for a particular set of classes.

      It is not geared toward the sort of more hard targeted curated reading one might do on their particular thesis topic, though this might work in concert with a faculty advisor on a 1-1 basis.

      My initial thought on approaching the paper was for the latter and not the former.

    3. A review of the early scholarship on social annotationconcluded that the benefits to learners are positive overall (Cohn,2018). A more recent comprehensive review of social collaborativeannotation in the published literature included 249 studies, of whichthe authors analyzed 39 studies with empirical designs. Most ofthese studies focused on undergraduate or K-12 classrooms, andonly two studies focused on graduate students (Chen, 2019; Hollett& Kalir, 2017). Interestingly, both studies with graduate studentscompared, in different ways, two social app tools, Slack (SanFrancisco, CA) and Hypothes.is (San Francisco, CA), for annotationgeneration and management. Both studies found increasedengagement with academic texts and high quality discussionsrelated to use of the social app tools.

      Research on social annotation

    4. with socialcollaborative annotation (SCA).

      I super curious about how one does social collaborative annotation at the doctoral level? Doesn't the reading at this level get very sparce for these sorts of techniques?

    1. Any curious person, I would think, at some point would say, "Well, wait a minute. 55 people. How could they draft this thing? How do they..." Well, you see it right there. The answer is that every night the annotated stuff was typeset. Remember, it was Philadelphia, which is the city of printers. So, it was typeset overnight. It was printed before breakfast. When they came into their meeting, everybody had a fresh copy that looked like the thing there, but without any handwriting on it. They debated about that. They each had their own copy. They wrote their own notes. Then, towards the end of the day, they'd assemble what was going to happen on the next draft. Isn't that great?

      !- example : annotation - work by 55 authors of the US Constitution demonstrate the power of annotation on the margins

    1. But do ESG ratings really deliver on the promise? Are highly-ranked ESG businesses really more caring of the environment, more selective of the societies in which they operate, and more focused on countries with good corporate governance? In short, is ESG really good? The answer is no.

      black box

      opaque score

  6. Aug 2022
    1. NOTICE OF FILING OF REDACTED DOCUMENTS

      Annotation documents redacted documents. </br>Stamped, signed, and labeled “Notice of Filing of Redacted Documents,” with a search warrant and Property Receipt, for investigation of potential crimes associated with violations of the Espionage Act. #Annotate22 224/365

    1. A graphic by the National Park Service depicts the off-limits area of the North Beach Swimming area. 

      Annotation documents bomb on beach. </br>“Attention | Unexpected Ordinances (Bombs) from WWII target practice on Assateague Island are washing up on the beach. DO NOT touch or move these. Notify a Park Ranger immediately.” Notice added to doorway welcome signs. #Annotate22 222/365 Original photograph.

    1. They found a way for the radio guidance transmitter and the torpedo’s receiver to jump simultaneously from frequency to frequency, making it impossible for the enemy to locate and block a message before it had moved to another frequency. This approach became known as “frequency hopping.”

      Annotation documents invention. “Patent #2,292,387 for a 'Secret Communication System,' granted to actress Hedy Kiesler Markey. At the time it was filed, in 1941, Lamarr was married to Gene Markey, a Hollywood screenwriter. She felt that having her married name on the patent would give it more credibility.” Lamarr's patent was granted on this day, August 11th, 1942. #Annotate22 223/365 Image credit: National Archives and Records Administration.

    1. The letter became effective when Secretary of State Henry Kissinger initialed it at 11:35 a.m.

      Annotation documents resignation. </br>“The letter became effective when Secretary of State Henry Kissinger initialed it at 11:35 a.m.” Nixon resigned the Office of the President on this day, August 9th, in 1974. #Annotate22 221/365

    1. This is the Dream Team

      Annotation documents Olympic Gold. </br>On this day, August 8th, the US “Dream Team” defeated Croatia to win the gold medal at the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games. A Spalding basketball autographed by co-captains Larry Bird and Earvin "Magic" Johnson, plus the note "Barcelona '92" added to the ball. #Annotate22 220/365 Image credit: National Museum of African American History and Culture.

    1. "We work in the dark—we do what we can—we give what we have. Our doubt is our passion and our passion is our task. The rest is the madness of art."

      Annotation documents alteration. </br>“We work with our lacks–we do what we can–we give what we have.” An “altered,” and annotated, quote from Henry James’ “The Middle Years” as the Chapter III epigraph in Margo Jefferson’s recently published book Constructing a Nervous System (which I recommend). #Annotate22 219/365

    1. Historical Hypermedia: An Alternative History of the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 and Implications for e-Research. .mp3. Berkeley School of Information Regents’ Lecture. UC Berkeley School of Information, 2010. https://archive.org/details/podcast_uc-berkeley-school-informat_historical-hypermedia-an-alte_1000088371512. archive.org.

      https://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/events/2010/historical-hypermedia-alternative-history-semantic-web-and-web-20-and-implications-e.

      https://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/audio/2010-10-20-vandenheuvel_0.mp3

      headshot of Charles van den Heuvel

      Interface as Thing - book on Paul Otlet (not released, though he said he was working on it)

      • W. Boyd Rayward 1994 expert on Otlet
      • Otlet on annotation, visualization, of text
      • TBL married internet and hypertext (ideas have sex)
      • V. Bush As We May Think - crosslinks between microfilms, not in a computer context
      • Ted Nelson 1965, hypermedia

      t=540

      • Michael Buckland book about machine developed by Emanuel Goldberg antecedent to memex
      • Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces (New Directions in Information Management) by Michael Buckland (Libraries Unlimited, (March 31, 2006)
      • Otlet and Goldsmith were precursors as well

      four figures in his research: - Patrick Gattis - biologist, architect, diagrams of knowledge, metaphorical use of architecture; classification - Paul Otlet, Brussels born - Wilhelm Ostwalt - nobel prize in chemistry - Otto Neurath, philosophher, designer of isotype

      Paul Otlet

      Otlet was interested in both the physical as well as the intangible aspects of the Mundaneum including as an idea, an institution, method, body of work, building, and as a network.<br /> (#t=1020)

      Early iPhone diagram?!?

      (roughly) armchair to do the things in the web of life (Nelson quote) (get full quote and source for use) (circa 19:30)

      compares Otlet to TBL


      Michael Buckland 1991 <s>internet of things</s> coinage - did I hear this correctly? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things lists different coinages

      Turns out it was "information as thing"<br /> See: https://hypothes.is/a/kXIjaBaOEe2MEi8Fav6QsA


      sugane brierre and otlet<br /> "everything can be in a document"<br /> importance of evidence


      The idea of evidence implies a passiveness. For evidence to be useful then, one has to actively do something with it, use it for comparison or analysis with other facts, knowledge, or evidence for it to become useful.


      transformation of sound into writing<br /> movement of pieces at will to create a new combination of facts - combinatorial creativity idea here. (circa 27:30 and again at 29:00)<br /> not just efficiency but improvement and purification of humanity

      put things on system cards and put them into new orders<br /> breaking things down into smaller pieces, whether books or index cards....

      Otlet doesn't use the word interfaces, but makes these with language and annotations that existed at the time. (32:00)

      Otlet created diagrams and images to expand his ideas

      Otlet used octagonal index cards to create extra edges to connect them together by topic. This created more complex trees of knowledge beyond the four sides of standard index cards. (diagram referenced, but not contained in the lecture)

      Otlet is interested in the "materialization of knowledge": how to transfer idea into an object. (How does this related to mnemonic devices for daily use? How does it relate to broader material culture?)

      Otlet inspired by work of Herbert Spencer

      space an time are forms of thought, I hold myself that they are forms of things. (get full quote and source) from spencer influence of Plato's forms here?

      Otlet visualization of information (38:20)

      S. R. Ranganathan may have had these ideas about visualization too

      atomization of knowledge; atomist approach 19th century examples:S. R. Ranganathan, Wilson, Otlet, Richardson, (atomic notes are NOT new either...) (39:40)

      Otlet creates interfaces to the world - time with cyclic representation - space - moving cube along time and space axes as well as levels of detail - comparison to Ted Nelson and zoomable screens even though Ted Nelson didn't have screens, but simulated them in paper - globes

      Katie Berner - semantic web; claims that reporting a scholarly result won't be a paper, but a nugget of information that links to other portions of the network of knowledge.<br /> (so not just one's own system, but the global commons system)

      Mention of Open Annotation (Consortium) Collaboration:<br /> - Jane Hunter, University of Australia Brisbane & Queensland<br /> - Tim Cole, University of Urbana Champaign<br /> - Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Laboratory annotations of various media<br /> see:<br /> - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311366469_The_Open_Annotation_Collaboration_A_Data_Model_to_Support_Sharing_and_Interoperability_of_Scholarly_Annotations - http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/20130205/index.html - http://www.openannotation.org/PhaseIII_Team.html

      trust must be put into the system for it to work

      coloration of the provenance of links goes back to Otlet (~52:00)

      Creativity is the friction of the attention space at the moments when the structural blocks are grinding against one another the hardest. —Randall Collins (1998) The sociology of philosophers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (p.76)

    1. “This Advisory Notice shall serve to inform you that this book has been identified by some community members as unsuitable for students,” the label states.

      Annotation documents "Advisory Notice." </br>“This Advisory Notice shall serve to inform you that this book has been identified by some community members as unsuitable for students." A Florida school district adds labels to 100+ books, "many of which touch on issues related to race or the LGBTQ community." #FReadom #Annotate22 218/365

    1. Dover Police Department Seeks Public Feedback From Community Satisfaction Survey

      Annotation documents subtle resistance. </br>“FTP” </br>Added to a DPD sticker, seen while walking around Dover, Delaware, earlier this afternoon. #Annotate22 217/365

    1. Louis Armstrong recorded his own cover of this song

      Annotation documents Satchmo's cover and creativity. </br>Annotated version of “Nobody Knows The Trouble I’ve Seen,” from a collection of Louis Armstrong music manuscripts, archived in the National Museum of American History. Louis Armstrong was born on this day, August 4th, in 1901. #Annotate22 216/365 Image credit: Louis Armstrong Music Manuscripts, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.

    1. 100 meters

      Annotation documents achievement. </br>A note–“Vierfacher Olympiasieger in Berlin 1936”–added to the Jesse-Owens-Allee street sign at Olympiastadion Berlin. On this day, August 3rd, Jesse Owens won the men's 100 metres sprint event at the 1936 Olympic Games in 10.3 seconds. #Annotate22 215/365 Image credit: Flying Puffin.

    1. with a handwritten note at the bottom asking Paula to check with American Express in reference to a money order that never arrived.

      Annotation documents annoyance. </br>“I’d just like to know what’s happening–they are really impossible.” </br>James Baldwin, annotating a 1961 letter to his sister, asking about a money order that never arrived. Baldwin was born on this day, August 2nd, in 1924. #Annotate22 214/365

    1. a handwritten note in the margins of a book in 1637: “I have a truly marvellous demonstration of this proposition which this margin is too narrow to contain,” he wrote (in Latin).

      Annotation documents theorem. </br>In 1637 French mathematician Pierre de Fermat annotated Diophantus' Arithmetica: “I have a truly marvellous demonstration of this proposition which this margin is too narrow to contain.” A 1670 edition of Arithmetica subsequently included Fermat’s "Scholium," which today is know as his “last theorem.” #Annotate22 213/365 Image credit: Wikimedia Commons.

    1. describes the author's experiences from the liberation of Auschwitz (Monowitz), which was a concentration camp, until he reaches home in Turin, Italy, after a long journey.

      Annotation marks “The Author’s Route Home.” </br>A map of Primo Levi's journey from Auschwitz to Turin–indicating the direction and location–and added to translated versions of his book La Tregua (“The Truce”/"The Reawakening" in US). Levi was born on this day, July 31st, in 1919. #Annotate22 212/365 Image credit: Screenshot via Internet Archive.

  7. Jul 2022
    1. we want to shift our gaze to the simple beauty of the designs, known as backmarks,  featured on the backs of the card mounts that conveyed information about the photographer.

      Annotation marks backmark. </br>“Paul Pitman” and “Anna Heberling’s husband” added to a cartes-de-visite backmark. Read this lovely Smithsonian Archives post about “shift[ing] our gaze to the simple beauty of the designs, known as backmarks.” #Annotate22 211/365 Original photographs.

    1. Project 23

      Annotation marks bone. </br>Two labels–one for a Harlan’s Ground Sloth's “Elbow,” and a second for a Saber-Toothed Cat’s “Molar tooth”–added to photographs of Box 9 at La Brea Tar Pits Project 23. A lovely visit with the toddler yesterday. #Annotate22 210/365

    1. So it’s just me being indulgent. If I’ll have something that I have in a folder and I can’t find a way to fit it in that isn’t distracting or annoying for the reader, I’ll put it in a footnote.

      Annotation marks “being indulgent.” </br> "If I’ll have something that I have in a folder and I can’t find a way to fit it in that isn’t distracting or annoying for the reader, I’ll put it in a footnote.” From a lovely 2014 Mental Floss interview with author Mary Roach. #Annotate22 209/365

    1. Created by the renowned scribe, the Benedictine monk, Matthew Paris of St Albans Abbey in England, the manuscript chronicles the life of St Alban, the first Christian martyr in England.

      Annotation marks St Alban. </br> “Created by the renowned scribe, the Benedictine monk, Matthew Paris of St Albans Abbey in England, the manuscript chronicles the life of St Alban.” With lovely annotation and now digitized by The Library of Trinity College Dublin. #Annotate22 208/365

    1. The final version of the bill was signed into law on July 26, 1990, by President George H. W. Bush.

      Annotation marks #ADA32. </br> The #ADA was signed into law 32 years ago. The act was signed by Tom Harkin, “Acting President of the Senate, pro tempore.” When Harkin introduced the ADA in the Senate, part of his speech was signed so his brother could understand. #Annotate22 207/365

    1. Annotation marks Marceau. </br>“Julie,” written alongside a drawing of Marceau, added to “The Marcel Marceau Alphabet Book” (1970). It begins: “Marcel Marceau is a sea of faces… his body bends an alphabet of spaces…” Thanks, Julie, for bending your book, too. #Annotate22 206/365 Original photograph.

    1. Overdue notice postcard from the Wausau Public Library 1932

      Annotation marks overdue notice. </br>“and life goes on” </br>Added to an overdue notice postcard sent on May 26, 1932 to Louis Jalen asking that the book be returned or renewed. I'm featuring this overdue notice today after not sharing a post yesterday–and life goes on. #Annotate22 205/365

    1. Henry Charles Bukowski

      Annotation marks “having none of this shit.” </br>“go to therapy dummy” </br>Happy one-year anniversary to @Leftovers_Movie for sharing one of the best threads ever about reader marginalia, found books, and serendipity. Revisit all the glory. #Annotate22 204/365

    1. Born on July 22, 1849

      Annotation marks “A mighty woman with a torch.” </br>"Give me your tired, your poor, </br>Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,” </br>From Emma Lazarus’ poem “The New Colossus,” added as a plaque to the Statue of Liberty pedestal. Lazarus was born on this day, July 22nd, in 1849. #Annotate22 203/365

    1. "School" by Ernest Hemingway.

      Annotation marks “a civic conscience.” </br>A short piece titled “School" written by Ernest Hemingway, as a high school student circa 1910s, annotated and graded by his teacher. He received an A. Hemingway was born July 21st in 1899. #Annotate22 202/365

    1. Eagle landed at 20:17:40 UTC on Sunday July 20

      Annotation marks a footprint. </br>"That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." </br>Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed the lunar module Eagle on the moon on this day, July 20th, in 1969. #Annotate22 201/365 Image credit: WBAP-TV via The Portal to Texas History, UNT Libraries Special Collections.

    1. The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention.

      Annotation marks Declaration. </br>A name–“Janet Cowing”–added to “Report of the Woman's Rights Convention." This is the earliest known reproduction of the convention's Declaration of Sentiments. Seneca Falls Convention began on this day, July 19th, in 1848. #Annotate22 200/365 Image credit: Seneca Falls Historical Society/New York Heritage Digital Collections.

    1. USS Magoffin (APA/LPA-199)

      Annotation marks APA-199. </br>As the 199th entry in my year-long project, I'm sharing an annotated photograph of the USS Magoffin (APA-199) with handwritten labels, abbreviations and arrows of “RADIO/RADAR ANTENNA ARRANGEMENT & RIGGING.” #Annotate22 199/365 Image credit: National Archives.

    1. The Little Red Fish, (Dial Books, 2007)

      Annotation marks library loan. </br>“MAY 31 2007” “DATE DUE,” with fifteen stamped dates, and ending with “OCT 23 2014,” added to “The Little Red Fish” by Taeeun Yoo. Tonight’s bedtime read with the toddler, greatly enjoyed, and thanks to the Altadena Libraries. #Annotate22 198/365

    1. Crusade for Justice, original manuscript

      Annotation marks the Crusade for Justice. </br>Annotated and original manuscript of “Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells,” in Wells' own hand. Wells was born on this day, July 16th, in 1862. From DPLA’s Black Women’s Suffrage Collection. #Annotate22 197/365

    1. Woodrow Wilson Guthrie was born on July 14, 1912, in Okemah, Oklahoma.

      Annotation marks music. </br>“This Machine Kills Fascists” </br>Happy birthday Woody Guthrie, born on this day, July 14th, in 1912. #Annotate22 195/365 Image credit: Lester Balog via The Morgan Museum & Library. Image credit: Library of Congress. Image credit: miSci - Museum of Innovation and Science.

    1. Though refused materials such as books, pens, and paper, he still wrote a significant body of poems and notes criticising the Nigerian government while in prison.[60]

      Annotation marks The Unacknowledged. </br>“After the indescribably exquisite pleasure of reading, I proceeded to cover the spaces between the lines with my own writing.” Wole Soyinka from his 1972 book The Man Died: Prison Notes. Soyinka was born on this day, July 13th, in 1934. #Annotate22 194/365

    1. Dymaxion airocean world : the Raleigh edition of Fuller projection / R. Buckminster Fuller & Shoji Sadao, cartographers

      Annotation marks map. </br>“with text on separate sheet” </br>“gift from authors 6/16/55” </br>"Edges of icosa triangles equal to: 63°26ʹ" </br>The Dymaxion Airocean World, created by R. Buckminster Fuller and Shoji Sadao. Fuller was born #OTD 1895. #Annotate22 193/365

    1. De sermone domini in monte habito (On the Sermon on the Mount) and other treatises

      Annotation marks sermon. </br>An annotated manuscript from 1399, “De sermone domini in monte habito (On the Sermon on the Mount),” by Augustine of Hippo. According to Free Library of Philadelphia, “The partially cropped inscription in the upper margin of this page names the Carthusian monastery of St. Albans, near Trier.” #Annotate22 192/365

    1. find Little Free Libraries near you!

      Annotation marks book box. </br>“BOOK,” presumably written by a precocious child, added to a Little Free Library at Loma Alta Park in Altadena. Toddler and grandma loved the library's butterfly book, it was a wonderful complement to our afternoon adventures. #Annotate22 191/365

    1. Civil rights legislation before and after the passage of the 14th amendment, January 25, 1947

      Annotation marks demand. </br>Annotated version of W. E. B. Du Bois’ 1947 speech to the National Lawyers Guild about “civil rights legislation before and after the passage of the 14th amendment.” The 14th Amendment was adopted on this day, June 9th, in 1868. #Annotate22 190/365

    1. Jacques Seligmann & Co. records

      Annotation marks transaction. </br>The everyday business of art, as recorded–and annotated–by hand in “Notebook, 4” from the Jacques Seligmann & Co. records via the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution. #Annotate22 189/365

    1. As the sun bore down around 2:15 p.m. on Wednesday, Dale Gibson began affixing signs to the iron fence surrounding Mississippi’s only abortion clinic. 

      Annotation marks the Pink House. </br>“As the sun bore down around 2:15 pm on Wednesday, Dale Gibson began affixing signs to the iron fence surrounding Mississippi’s only abortion clinic.” </br>“The fight is not over." </br>“This is not the end.” #Annotate22 188/365

    1. Radio Log of the Last Communications of Amelia Earhart Radio Log of the Last Communications of Amelia Earhart Additional Information About this Item National Archives Identifier: 6210268 Creator(s): Bellarts, Leo G., 1907-1974  (Most Recent) From: Series: Textual Materials Relating to the Last Flight and Disappearance of Amelia Earhart, 1937 - 1/31/1971Collection: Leo G. Bellarts Papers, 1937 - 1971 Details Level of Description: Item Type(s) of Archival Materials: Textual Records The creator compiled or maintained the series between: 1937 - 1/31/1971 This item documents the time period: 7/1/1937 - 7/2/1937 Access Restriction(s): Unrestricted Use Restriction(s): Unrestricted Subjects Represented in the Archival Material(s): Earhart, Amelia, 1897-1937 Contributors to Authorship and/or Production of the Archival Material(s): Bellarts, Leo G., 1907-1974, Other Scope & Content This item is the original radio log of Amelia Earhart's last communications with the US Coast Guard cutter Itasca. Also included are notes and edits to the log by the radioman Leo G. Bellarts. The last communication occurred on 8:43 am on July 2. 1937, as indicated on the log. Variant Control Numbers ARC Identifier: 6210268 HMS Record Entry ID: HF1-114976154 HMS/MLR Entry Number: P 1 HMS/MLR Entry Number: P 1 Archived Copies Copy 1: Preservation Contact(s): National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2)National Archives at College Park8601 Adelphi RoadCollege Park, MD 20740-6001Phone: 301-837-3510Fax: 301-837-1752Email: Archives2reference@nara.gov Copy 1 Media Information: Specific Media Type: PaperContainer ID: Box 1APhysical Restriction Note: This item is specially protected and is not available to researchers.Reproduction Count: 2 Page(s) Item 3 of 4 More Info Lists Share Contribute Tags 1937 Amelia Earhart Disappearance ftrcrdts Howland Island More ... Less ... Enter new tags Add Record Hierarchy Record Hierarchy Collection BLRTS: Leo G. Bellarts Papers, 1937 - 1971 Series: Textual Materials Relating to the Last Flight and Disappearance of Amelia Earhart, 1937 - 1/31/1971 Item: Radio Log of the Last Communications of Amelia Earhart Additional Details National Archives Identifier: 6210268 Creator(s): Bellarts, Leo G., 1907-1974  (Most Recent) From: Series: Textual Materials Relating to the Last Flight and Disappearance of Amelia Earhart, 1937 - 1/31/1971Collection: Leo G. Bellarts Papers, 1937 - 1971 Details Level of Description: Item Type(s) of Archival Materials: Textual Records The creator compiled or maintained the series between: 1937 - 1/31/1971 This item documents the time period: 7/1/1937 - 7/2/1937 Access Restriction(s): Unrestricted Use Restriction(s): Unrestricted Subjects Represented in the Archival Material(s): Earhart, Amelia, 1897-1937 Contributors to Authorship and/or Production of the Archival Material(s): Bellarts, Leo G., 1907-1974, Other Scope & Content This item is the original radio log of Amelia Earhart's last communications with the US Coast Guard cutter Itasca. Also included are notes and edits to the log by the radioman Leo G. Bellarts. The last communication occurred on 8:43 am on July 2. 1937, as indicated on the log. Variant Control Numbers ARC Identifier: 6210268 HMS Record Entry ID: HF1-114976154 HMS/MLR Entry Number: P 1 HMS/MLR Entry Number: P 1 Archived Copies Copy 1: Preservation Contact(s): National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2)National Archives at College Park8601 Adelphi RoadCollege Park, MD 20740-6001Phone: 301-837-3510Fax: 301-837-1752Email: Archives2reference@nara.gov Copy 1 Media Information: Specific Media Type: PaperContainer ID: Box 1APhysical Restriction Note: This item is specially protected and is not available to researchers.Reproduction Count: 2 Page(s) Comments Login to Contribute Login to Contribute Post a new Comment Post

      Annotation marks last communications. </br>The annotated radio log of Amelia Earhart's last communications with the US Coast Guard cutter Itasca, near Howland Island, on July 1st and 2nd, 1937. Her last transmission at 8:43 am is underlined: "Wait." #Annotate22 187/365

    1. "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?" speech by Frederick Douglass, typescript version

      Annotation marks “injustice and cruelty.” Annotated, typescript version of Frederick Douglass’ "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?" Douglass delivered the speech on this day, July 5, 1852, in Rochester, New York. #Annotate22 186/365

    1. Horror on the Fourth: Suspect in custody after 6 killed, dozens wounded at Highland Park Fourth of July parade

      Annotation marks tragedy. </br>Given today’s tragedy, a uniquely American epidemic of gun violence that ceases to pause even during the collective celebration of independence, I’m re-upping an image from entry 162 with the unfortunate addition of Highland Park. #Annotate22 185/365 Image credit: Tom Hilton.

    1. Brief an den Vater.

      Annotation marks "the Kafkaesque moment." </br>Franz Kafka was born on this day, July 3rd, in 1883. A letter to his father, Herman, written in 1919, includes handwritten annotations added to multiple versions, yet “The 47-page letter never reached its destination.” #Annotate22 184/365

    1. The act outlawed segregation in businesses such as theaters, restaurants, and hotels. It banned discriminatory practices in employment and ended segregation in public places such as swimming pools, libraries, and public schools.

      Annotation marks civil rights. </br>Signatures and smudges mark the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Signed July 2, “The act outlawed segregation in businesses such as theaters, restaurants, and hotels. It banned discriminatory practices in employment and ended segregation in public places such as swimming pools, libraries, and public schools." #Annotate22 183/365

    1. 39th Avenue Greenway

      Annotation by(e) Denver. </br>“whereami,” a placemark added to Denver’s 39th Avenue Greenway, as part of the city's recently installed “markers” project. Goodbye, Denver, see you in a year. #Annotate22 181/365

  8. Jun 2022
    1. Since early May, more than $700 billion has been wiped out in a devastating crypto crash, plunging investors into financial ruin

      Annotation by folly. </br>“Spend the new currency” sticker added to a compressed air dispenser circa 1983. “Since early May, more than $700 billion has been wiped out in a devastating crypto crash, plunging investors into financial ruin.” #Annotate22 180/365 Original photograph.

    1. First!


      What I really mean is: <br /> I'm bookmarking this for my digital notebook https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1474022220915128

      “Something fruitful for all of us”: Social annotation as a signature pedagogy for literature education<br /> Jeffrey Clapp, Matthew DeCoursey, Sze Wah Sarah Lee, et al.<br /> First Published March 29, 2020<br /> https://doi.org/10.1177/1474022220915128

      There's always something suspicious about journal articles about social annotation when there's no public sign of social annotation on them.

      We've remedied this problem...

    1. Reid, A. J. (Ed.). (2018). Marginalia in Modern Learning Contexts. New York: IGI Global.

      Heard about this at the Hypothes.is SOCIAL LEARNING SUMMIT: Spotlight on Social Reading & Social Annotation

    1. On June 25, 1978, the ninth anniversary of the Stonewall Riot in New York City, Harvey Milk gave an impassioned speech to his fellow San Franciscans celebrating Gay Freedom Day.

      Annotation by JSTOR Daily. </br>“On June 25, 1978, the ninth anniversary of the Stonewall Riot in New York City, Harvey Milk gave an impassioned speech to his fellow San Franciscans celebrating Gay Freedom Day.” As Pride Month comes to an end, and given the many challenges of the moment, June's “Annotations” entry is a must read (and thank you Liz Tracey for curating this and all the excellent posts in this series). #Annotate22 179/365

    1. June 27 Hypothesis annotation

      So tired yesterday I forgot to annotate. #Annotate22 178/365

    2. June 9 Hypothesis annotation

      Parents, any annotated pictures to share? #Annotate22 160/365

    1. “When one right is taken away, every other right we’ve come to rely on in this country is at risk. It’s a dark day for civil rights in our nation,” said Jim Obergefell, the main plaintiff in the 2015 Supreme Court case Obergefell v. Hodges that legalized same-sex marriage under the 14th Amendment.

      Annotation by rainbow light. </br>7 years ago, June 26, 2015. Jim Obergefell said Friday: “When one right is taken away, every other right we’ve come to rely on in this country is at risk. It’s a dark day for civil rights in our nation." #Annotate22 177/365 Image credit: GPA Photo Archive/David Shelby.

    1. send off your draft or beta orproposal for feedback. Share this Intermediate Packet with a friend,family member, colleague, or collaborator; tell them that it’s still awork-in-process and ask them to send you their thoughts on it. Thenext time you sit down to work on it again, you’ll have their input andsuggestions to add to the mix of material you’re working with.

      A major benefit of working in public is that it invites immediate feedback (hopefully positive, constructive criticism) from anyone who might be reading it including pre-built audiences, whether this is through social media or in a classroom setting utilizing discussion or social annotation methods.

      This feedback along the way may help to further find flaws in arguments, additional examples of patterns, or links to ideas one may not have considered by themselves.

      Sadly, depending on your reader's context and understanding of your work, there are the attendant dangers of context collapse which may provide or elicit the wrong sorts of feedback, not to mention general abuse.

    1. The Dobbs v. Jackson Decision, Annotated

      Annotation by The New York Times. </br>“Support for abortion is actually higher than it was a decade ago, but the partisan divide over it is growing wider.” Annotation by Sheryl Gay Stolberg, part of Times’ “The Dobbs v. Jackson Decision, Annotated.” #Annotate22 176/365

    1. With sorrow—for this Court, but more, for the many mil-lions of American women who have today lost a fundamen-tal constitutional protection—we dissent.

      Annotation by Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan. </br>“With sorrow—for this Court, but more, for the many millions of American women who have today lost a fundamental constitutional protection—we dissent.” A somber, final comment added in response to today’s opinion. #Annotate22 175/365

  9. turingarchive.kings.cam.ac.uk turingarchive.kings.cam.ac.uk
    1. AMT/C/30

      Annotation by Alan Turing. </br>Corrections, comments, and labeled code added to “the Prof’s book,” a report describing the methods Alan Turing and colleagues at Bletchley Park used to break the Enigma cipher. Turing was born on this day, June 23rd, in 1912. #Annotate22 174/365

    1. Draft of an early version of Kindred (with the working title To Keep Thee in all Thy Ways), ca. 1977. The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. Copyright Estate of Octavia E. Butler.

      Annotation by Octavia Butler. </br>Revisions by Butler to an early draft of Kindred (working title “To Keep Thee in all Thy Ways"). This lovely Huntington Library post includes examples of her notes, drafts, and drawings. Butler was born on this day, June 22nd, in 1947. #Annotate22 173/365

    1. But systems of schooling and educational institutions–and much of online learning– are organized in ways that deny their voices matter. My role is to resist those systems and structures to reclaim the spaces of teaching and learning as voice affirming. Voice amplifying.

      Modeling annotation and note taking can allow students to see that their voices matter in conversation with the "greats" of knowledge. We can and should question authority. Even if one's internal voice questions as one reads, that might be enough, but modeling active reading and note taking can better underline and empower these modes of thought.

      There are certainly currents within American culture that we can and should question authority.

      Sadly some parts of conservative American culture are reverting back to paternalized power structures of "do as I say and not as I do" which leads to hypocrisy and erosion of society.

      Education can be used as a means of overcoming this, though it requires preventing the conservative right from eroding this away from the inside by removing books and certain thought from the education process that prevents this. Extreme examples of this are Warren Jeff's control of religion, education, and social life within his Mormon sect.

      Link to: - Lawrence Principe examples of the power establishment in Western classical education being questioned. Aristotle wasn't always right. The entire history of Western science is about questioning the status quo. (How can we center this practice not only in science, but within the humanities?)


      My evolving definition of active reading now explicitly includes the ideas of annotating the text, having a direct written conversation with it, questioning it, and expanding upon it. I'm not sure I may have included some or all of these in it before. This is what "reading with a pen in hand" (or digital annotation tool) should entail. What other pieces am I missing here which might also be included?

    1. https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/bringing-theories-to-practice-universal-design-principles-and-the-use-of-social-annotation-to-support-neurodivergent-students/

      A very brief primer on UDL and how Hypothes.is and social annotation might fit within its framework. There seems to be a stronger familiarity with Hypothes.is as a tool and a bit less familiarity with UDL, or perhaps they just didn't bind the two together as tightly as they might have.

      I'm definitely curious to look more closely at the UDL framework to see what we might extract from it.

      The title features neurodiversity, but doesn't deliver on the promise.

      An interesting reframing would be that of social annotation with the idea of modality shifts, particularly for neurodiverse students.

    2. The third UDL principle is to provide multiple means of expression and action. We find it helpful to think of this as the principle that transcends social annotation: at this point, students use what they’ve learned through engagement with the material to create new knowledge. This kind of work tends to happen outside of the social annotation platform as students create videos, essays, presentations, graphics, and other products that showcase their new knowledge.

      I'm not sure I agree here as one can take other annotations from various texts throughout a course and link them together to create new ideas and knowledge within the margins themselves. Of course, at some point the ideas need to escape the margins to potentially take shape with a class wiki, new essays, papers, journal articles or longer pieces.

      Use of social annotation across several years of a program this way may help to super-charge students' experiences.

    3. By asking students to share their annotations openly, we help students to see a wide range of annotation practices, thus demystifying what has often been a private, individual practice.

      Teachers can model their own reading and annotating practices for students, but this can be expanded when using social annotation. This will allow students to show each other a wider variety of potential note taking and annotation strategies which help to reinforce the teacher's own modeling. This can be useful modelling of a practice in public which has historically been done privately.

      By featuring notes which might be reused for papers or developing later research, teachers can also feature the portions of the note taking process which can be reused for developing new ideas. How might annotations within a text be linked to each other outside of the particular flow of the paper? Might there have been different orderings for the arguments that may have been clearer?

      What ideas in the broader class might the ideas within a particular text be linked to? What ideas outside of the class can be linked to those found within the text?

      In less experienced groups, teachers might occasionally call out individual annotations in discussion to ask the group for what purposes a student might have annotated specific portions to highlight the various methods and reasons.

      What are the list of particular note types here? - Paraphrasing segments to self-test for understanding - Creation of spaced repetition type notes for memorizing definitions and facts - Conversations with the text/original author and expansion of the ideas - Questioning the original text, do we agree/disagree? - Linking ideas from the text into one's broader knowledge base - Highlighting quotes for later reuse - others??


      Link to - double-entry journaling in Bruce Ballenger<br /> - types of questions one might ask within a text, Ballenger again

    4. there is clear evidence that explicitly teaching reading strategies to students improves their overall academic performance, such instruction is often limited to developmental reading or study skills courses (Saxby 2017, 37-38).

      Teaching reading strategies to students improves their overall academic performance, but this instruction is often limited to developmental reading or study skills courses.

      ref: Saxby, Lori Eggers. “Efficacy of a College Reading Strategy Course: Comparative Study.” Journal of Developmental Education 40, no. 3 (2017): 36-38.

      Using Hypothes.is as a tool in a variety of courses can help to teach reading strategies and thereby improve students' overall academic performance.

    1. Does it surprise me that a model trained on raw data from the internet would see mathematics as a collection of meaningless symbols being taught (not otherwise developed) by old white men with beards from a bygone age? Of course not.

      Annotation by #craiyon. </br>The prompt “annotation” created by Craiyon “an AI model that can draw images from any text prompt.” Pleased that prompts for “marginalia” and “illuminated manuscript fever dream” generated such similar images. https://www.craiyon.com/ #Annotate22 172/365

    1. Schwitters, Kurt

      Annotation by Schwitters. </br>“Large S” numbered, dated, and signed by artist Kurt Schwitters. Schwitters was born on this day, June 20th, in 1887. His birthday is a nice occasion to consider how collage expresses the practice of annotation. #Annotate22 171/365