549 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. This list is a great framework for showing students what they don't know, so they can actively work and practice at becoming better at their craft.

      I feel like actively annotating and "reading with a pen in hand" has been a great way to practice many of these points. Questioning texts, marking open problems, etc. goes a long way toward practicing these methods.

    1. Goutor mentions that the innovation of photocopying, while potentially useful in some cases, isn't a replacement for actual reading and proper note taking. (p30) These same sorts of affordances and problems might be similar in the newer digital/online realm for people who rely on either whole scale copy/pasting or highlight capturing of texts, but who don't do the actual work of reading, processing, and creating good notes.

      Some of the benefits like portability, ease of access, ability to work with delicate primary materials, better facsimiles of things like maps or tables, etc. are still true.

  2. Sep 2022
    1. • Daily writing prevents writer’s block.• Daily writing demystifies the writing process.• Daily writing keeps your research always at the top of your mind.• Daily writing generates new ideas.• Daily writing stimulates creativity• Daily writing adds up incrementally.• Daily writing helps you figure out what you want to say.

      What specifically does she define "writing" to be? What exactly is she writing, and how much? What does her process look like?

      One might also consider the idea of active reading and writing notes. I may not "write" daily in the way she means, but my note writing, is cumulative and beneficial in the ways she describes in her list. I might further posit that the amount of work/effort it takes me to do my writing is far more fruitful and productive than her writing.

      When I say writing, I mean focused note taking (either excerpting, rephrasing, or original small ideas which can be stitched together later). I don't think this is her same definition.

      I'm curious how her process of writing generates new ideas and creativity specifically?

      One might analogize the idea of active reading with a pen in hand as a sort of Einsteinian space-time. Many view reading and writing as to separate and distinct practices. What if they're melded together the way Einstein reconceptualized the space time continuum? The writing advice provided by those who write about commonplace books, zettelkasten, and general note taking combines an active reading practice with a focused writing practice that moves one toward not only more output, but higher quality output without the deleterious effects seen in other methods.

    1. IntertextsAs Jonathan Culler writes: “Liter-ary works are not to be consideredautonomous entities, ‘organicwholes,’ but as intertextual con-structs: sequences which havemeaning in relation to other textswhich they take up, cite, parody,refute, or generally transform.” ThePursuit of Signs (Ithaca, NY: CornelUniversity Press, 1981), 38.

      Throughout Rewriting: How To Do Things With Texts (Utah State University Press, 2006) Joseph Harris presents highlighted sidebar presentations he labels "Intertexts".

      They simultaneously serve the functions of footnotes, references, (pseudo-)pull quotes, and conversation with his own text. It's not frequently seen this way, but these intertexts serve the function of presenting his annotations of his own text to model these sorts of annotations and intertextuality which he hopes the reader (student) to be able to perform themselves. He explicitly places them in a visually forward position within the text rather than hiding them in the pages' footnotes or end notes where the audience he is addressing can't possibly miss them. In fact, the reader will be drawn to them above other parts of the text when doing a cursory flip through the book upon picking it up, a fact that underlines their importance in his book's thesis.

      This really is a fantastic example of the marriage of form and function as well as modelling behavior.

      cc: @remikalir

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2HegcwDRnU

      Makes the argument that note taking is an information system, and if it is, then we can use the research from the corpus of information system (IS) theory to examine how to take better notes.

      He looks at the Wang and Wang 2006 research and applies their framework of "complete, meaningful, unambiguous, and correct" dimensions of data quality to example note areas of study notes, project management notes (or to do lists) and recipes.

      Looks at dimensions of data quality from Mahanti, 2019.

      What is the difference between notes and annotations?

    1. Harris further illustrates hisown idea of voices adding to an author’s text; each chapter contains multiple “intertexts,”which are small graphics with citation references to outside materials addressed nearby inthe text. These intertexts reinforce the practice of adding voices to the author’s docu-ment. These illustrations are effective; essentially, Harris is reflecting and modeling thepractice.

      I quite like the idea of intertexts, which have the feeling of annotating one's own published work with the annotations of others. A sort of reverse annotation. Newspapers and magazines often feature pull quotes to draw in the reader, but why not have them as additional voices annotating one's stories or arguments.

      This could certainly be done without repeating the quote twice within the piece.

    1. Not related to this text, but just thinking...

      Writing against a blank page is dreadful and we all wish we would be visited by the muses. But writing against another piece of text can be incredibly fruitful for generating ideas, even if they don't necessarily relate to the text at hand. The text gives us something to latch onto for creating work.

      Try the following exercise:<br /> Write down 20 things that are white.<br /> (Not easy is it?)

      Now write down 20 things in your refrigerator that are white?<br /> (The ideas come a lot easier don't they, even if you couldn't come up with 20.)

      The more specific area helped you anchor your thoughts and give them a positive direction. Annotating against texts in which you're interested does this same sort of anchoring for your brain when you're writing.

      Is there research on this area of concentration with respect to creativity?

  3. Aug 2022
    1. https://web.hypothes.is/blog/100000-annotations/

      https://hypothes.is/users/heatherstaines<br /> Joined: November 11, 2016<br /> Annotations: 1,063 (public as of 2022-08-12)

      Date of publication: 2020-02-07<br /> Duration: 3 yr 3 mo or 1,183 days<br /> Average of: ~100,000/1,183 = 84.53 annotations per day

      These would be closer to the idea of fleeting notes per day and not a more zettelkasten-like permanent note. It does provide at least a magnitude of order level of measurement on practice however.

      Note that it's possible that as a part of the company she has multiple accounts including one with an earlier born by date which would tend to dilute the average.

      The publication is dated 2020-02-07 (which matches publication meta data) and somehow Heather makes an annotation on the post itself (dated 2020-02-02) saying she's already at 105,000 annotations. This could have given a smaller window on a few week's worth of annotations, except for the improbably mismatch in dates.

    1. Ballpoint pens are not tools for marking books, and felt-tip highlighters should be prohibited altogether.

      How is one to have an intimate conversation with a text if their annotations are not written in the margins? Placing your initial notes somewhere else is like having sex with your clothes on.

      syndication link

    2. The narrator considers this as vandalism and finds it hard to believe how anyone "educated enough to have access to a university library should do this to a book." To him "the treatment of books is a test of civilized behaviour."

      Highlighted portion is a quote from Kuehn sub-quoting David Lodge, Deaf Sentence (New York: Viking 2008)

      Ownership is certainly a factor here, but given how inexpensive many books are now, if you own it, why not mark it up? See also: Mortimer J. Adler's position on this.

      Marking up library books is a barbarism; not marking up your own books is a worse sin.

    1. Annotator Requirements Annotation client should be able to: handle targets for both canonical document URLs and versioned document URLs associate annotation with their specific versioned document URL establish whether the document server supports the Memento protocol, or whether there is an appropriate third-party Memento server (such as the Wayback Machine) which does store previous versions of the document negotiate datetimes with the Memento server for retrieving the correct version of the document in the case of a third-party Memento server, request that the service make a snapshot of the document at the time of annotation
    1. Looking for books with wider margins for annotations and notes


      Not long after I posted this it had about 3 upvotes, including my automatic 1. It's now at 0, and there are several responses about not writing in books at all. It seems like this particular book community is morally opposed to writing in one's books! 🤣

      Why though? There's a tremendously long tradition of writing in books, and probably more so when they were far more expensive! Now they're incredibly inexpensive commodities, so why should we be less inclined to write in them, particularly when there's reasonable evidence of the value of doing so?

      I might understand not writing in library books as part of their value within the commons, but https://booktraces.org/ indicates that almost 12% or more of the books they've tracked prior to 1924 have some sort of mark, writing, or evidence that it was actively read.

      Given what I know of the second hand markets, it's highly unlikely that my books (marked up or not) will ever be read by another person.

      There's so much more to say here, but I just haven't the time today...

    1. In line with the much-requested (and long-longed-for) feature of highlights in different colors (an exhaustive list given in #198), I would like to suggest allowing (automatic) coloring of highlights based on tags with designated patterns (like code:critiques, code:non-ergodicity in psychology, etc.), or alternatively, all tags (i.e., without specific patterns).
    1. Teachers have long understood that grasping the themes of great literature, while often times challenging, is well within the means of those readers willing to thoughtfully engage the text. Furthermore, teachers have long understood the value of margin notes as a powerful tool in accomplishing this end. Yet despite the collective wisdom of many educators, publishers continue to print the classics in a format little conducive to the kind of "text-grappling" that experts recommended. In listening to students and educators, Gladius Books has heeded the call by publishing a series of the most frequently read classics, each printed with extra-wide margins for convenient annotations. To maximize the value of margin notes, the publisher has also included an appendix with helpful note-taking suggestions.

      a publisher that takes having wider margins seriously!

    1. Annotate Books has added a 1.8-inch ruled margin on every page. The ample space lets you to write your thoughts, expanding your understanding of the text. This edition brings an end to does convoluted, parallel notes, made on minute spaces. Never again fail to understand your brilliant ideas, when you go back and review the text.

      This is what we want to see!! The publishing company Annotate Books is republishing classic texts with a roomier 1.8" ruled margin on every page to make it easier to annotate texts.

      It reminds me about the idea of having print-on-demand interleaved books. Why not have print-on-demand books which have wider than usual margins either with or without lines/grids/dots for easier note taking and marginalia?

      Link to: https://hypothes.is/a/C5WcYFhsEeyLyFeV9leIzw

    1. In getting my books, I have been always solicitous of an ample margin; this not so much through any love of the thing in itself, however agreeable, as for the facility it affords me of penciling suggested thoughts, agreements and differences of opinion, or brief critical comments in general. Where what I have to note is too much to be included within the narrow limits of a margin, I commit it to a slip of paper, and deposit it between the leaves; taking care to secure it by an imperceptible portion of gum tragacanth paste. — Edgar Allen Poe on marginalia

      Poe used the book itself as his "slip box".

    1. The network of trails functions as a shared external memory for the ant colony.

      Just as a trail of pheromones serves the function of a shared external memory for an ant colony, annotations can create a set of associative trails which serve as an external memory for a broader human collective memory. Further songlines and other orality based memory methods form a shared, but individually stored internal collective memory for those who use and practice them.

      Vestiges of this human practice can be seen in modern society with the use and spread of cultural memes. People are incredibly good at seeing and recognizing memes and what they communicate and spreading them because they've evolved to function this way since the dawn of humanity.

    1. ```js / Adapted from: https://github.com/openannotation/annotator/blob/v1.2.x/src/plugin/document.coffee Annotator v1.2.10 https://github.com/openannotation/annotator Copyright 2015, the Annotator project contributors. Dual licensed under the MIT and GPLv3 licenses. https://github.com/openannotation/annotator/blob/master/LICENSE /

      /* * nb. The DocumentMetadata type is renamed to avoid a conflict with the * DocumentMetadata class below. * * @typedef {import('../../types/annotator').DocumentMetadata} Metadata /

      import { normalizeURI } from '../util/url';

      /* * @typedef Link * @prop {string} link.href * @prop {string} [link.rel] * @prop {string} [link.type] /

      /* * Extension of the Metadata type with non-optional fields for dc, eprints etc. * * @typedef HTMLDocumentMetadata * @prop {string} title * @prop {Link[]} link * @prop {Record<string, string[]>} dc * @prop {Record<string, string[]>} eprints * @prop {Record<string, string[]>} facebook * @prop {Record<string, string[]>} highwire * @prop {Record<string, string[]>} prism * @prop {Record<string, string[]>} twitter * @prop {string} [favicon] * @prop {string} [documentFingerprint] /

      / * HTMLMetadata reads metadata/links from the current HTML document. */ export class HTMLMetadata { / * @param {object} [options] * @param {Document} [options.document] */ constructor(options = {}) { this.document = options.document || document; }

      /* * Returns the primary URI for the document being annotated * * @return {string} / uri() { let uri = decodeURIComponent(this._getDocumentHref());

      // Use the `link[rel=canonical]` element's href as the URL if present.
      const links = this._getLinks();
      for (let link of links) {
        if (link.rel === 'canonical') {
          uri = link.href;
      return uri;


      / * Return metadata for the current page. * * @return {HTMLDocumentMetadata} */ getDocumentMetadata() { / @type {HTMLDocumentMetadata} */ const metadata = { title: document.title, link: [],

        dc: this._getMetaTags('name', 'dc.'),
        eprints: this._getMetaTags('name', 'eprints.'),
        facebook: this._getMetaTags('property', 'og:'),
        highwire: this._getMetaTags('name', 'citation_'),
        prism: this._getMetaTags('name', 'prism.'),
        twitter: this._getMetaTags('name', 'twitter:'),
      const favicon = this._getFavicon();
      if (favicon) {
        metadata.favicon = favicon;
      metadata.title = this._getTitle(metadata);
      metadata.link = this._getLinks(metadata);
      const dcLink = metadata.link.find(link => link.href.startsWith('urn:x-dc'));
      if (dcLink) {
        metadata.documentFingerprint = dcLink.href;
      return metadata;


      / * Return an array of all the content values of <meta> tags on the page * where the value of the attribute begins with <prefix>. * * @param {string} attribute * @param {string} prefix - it is interpreted as a regex * @return {Record<string,string[]>} */ _getMetaTags(attribute, prefix) { / @type {Record<string,string[]>} */ const tags = {}; for (let meta of Array.from(this.document.querySelectorAll('meta'))) { const name = meta.getAttribute(attribute); const { content } = meta; if (name && content) { const match = name.match(RegExp(^${prefix}(.+)$, 'i')); if (match) { const key = match[1].toLowerCase(); if (tags[key]) { tags[key].push(content); } else { tags[key] = [content]; } } } } return tags; }

      /* @param {HTMLDocumentMetadata} metadata / _getTitle(metadata) { if (metadata.highwire.title) { return metadata.highwire.title[0]; } else if (metadata.eprints.title) { return metadata.eprints.title[0]; } else if (metadata.prism.title) { return metadata.prism.title[0]; } else if (metadata.facebook.title) { return metadata.facebook.title[0]; } else if (metadata.twitter.title) { return metadata.twitter.title[0]; } else if (metadata.dc.title) { return metadata.dc.title[0]; } else { return this.document.title; } }

      / * Get document URIs from <link> and <meta> elements on the page. * * @param {Pick<HTMLDocumentMetadata, 'highwire'|'dc'>} [metadata] - * Dublin Core and Highwire metadata parsed from <meta> tags. * @return {Link[]} */ _getLinks(metadata = { dc: {}, highwire: {} }) { / @type {Link[]} */ const links = [{ href: this._getDocumentHref() }];

      // Extract links from `<link>` tags with certain `rel` values.
      const linkElements = Array.from(this.document.querySelectorAll('link'));
      for (let link of linkElements) {
        if (
          !['alternate', 'canonical', 'bookmark', 'shortlink'].includes(link.rel)
        ) {
        if (link.rel === 'alternate') {
          // Ignore RSS feed links.
          if (link.type && link.type.match(/^application\/(rss|atom)\+xml/)) {
          // Ignore alternate languages.
          if (link.hreflang) {
        try {
          const href = this._absoluteUrl(link.href);
          links.push({ href, rel: link.rel, type: link.type });
        } catch (e) {
          // Ignore URIs which cannot be parsed.
      // Look for links in scholar metadata
      for (let name of Object.keys(metadata.highwire)) {
        const values = metadata.highwire[name];
        if (name === 'pdf_url') {
          for (let url of values) {
            try {
                href: this._absoluteUrl(url),
                type: 'application/pdf',
            } catch (e) {
              // Ignore URIs which cannot be parsed.
        // Kind of a hack to express DOI identifiers as links but it's a
        // convenient place to look them up later, and somewhat sane since
        // they don't have a type.
        if (name === 'doi') {
          for (let doi of values) {
            if (doi.slice(0, 4) !== 'doi:') {
              doi = `doi:${doi}`;
            links.push({ href: doi });
      // Look for links in Dublin Core data
      for (let name of Object.keys(metadata.dc)) {
        const values = metadata.dc[name];
        if (name === 'identifier') {
          for (let id of values) {
            if (id.slice(0, 4) === 'doi:') {
              links.push({ href: id });
      // Look for a link to identify the resource in Dublin Core metadata
      const dcRelationValues = metadata.dc['relation.ispartof'];
      const dcIdentifierValues = metadata.dc.identifier;
      if (dcRelationValues && dcIdentifierValues) {
        const dcUrnRelationComponent =
          dcRelationValues[dcRelationValues.length - 1];
        const dcUrnIdentifierComponent =
          dcIdentifierValues[dcIdentifierValues.length - 1];
        const dcUrn =
          'urn:x-dc:' +
          encodeURIComponent(dcUrnRelationComponent) +
          '/' +
        links.push({ href: dcUrn });
      return links;


      _getFavicon() { let favicon = null; for (let link of Array.from(this.document.querySelectorAll('link'))) { if (['shortcut icon', 'icon'].includes(link.rel)) { try { favicon = this._absoluteUrl(link.href); } catch (e) { // Ignore URIs which cannot be parsed. } } } return favicon; }

      /* * Convert a possibly relative URI to an absolute one. This will throw an * exception if the URL cannot be parsed. * * @param {string} url / _absoluteUrl(url) { return normalizeURI(url, this.document.baseURI); }

      // Get the true URI record when it's masked via a different protocol. // This happens when an href is set with a uri using the 'blob:' protocol // but the document can set a different uri through a <base> tag. _getDocumentHref() { const { href } = this.document.location; const allowedSchemes = ['http:', 'https:', 'file:'];

      // Use the current document location if it has a recognized scheme.
      const scheme = new URL(href).protocol;
      if (allowedSchemes.includes(scheme)) {
        return href;
      // Otherwise, try using the location specified by the <base> element.
      if (
        this.document.baseURI &&
        allowedSchemes.includes(new URL(this.document.baseURI).protocol)
      ) {
        return this.document.baseURI;
      // Fall back to returning the document URI, even though the scheme is not
      // in the allowed list.
      return href;

      } } ```

    1. yaml definitions: Annotation: type: object required: - user - uri properties: id: type: string description: Unique ID for this Annotation. uri: type: string description: URI which is the target of this Annotation. target: type: array items: - type: object properties: scope: type: array items: - type: string selector: type: array items: - type: object properties: type: description: Type of Selector--see Web Annotation Data Model. type: string source: type: string user: type: string description: User URI in the form of an `acct` prefixed URI. document: type: object description: Target document metadata schema: $ref: '#/definitions/DocumentMetadata' permissions: type: object description: Permissions for this Annotation. created: type: string format: date-time updated: type: string format: date-time AnnotationList: type: object properties: total: type: number rows: type: array items: $ref: '#/definitions/Annotation' DocumentMetadata: type: object properties: eprints: type: object title: type: string twitter: type: object properties: image:src: type: array items: type: string title: type: array items: type: string description: type: array items: type: string card: type: array items: type: string site: type: array items: type: string dc: type: object favicon: type: string prism: type: object highwire: type: object link: type: array items: type: object properties: href: type: string facebook: type: object properties: site_name: type: array items: type: string description: type: array items: type: string title: type: array items: type: string url: type: array items: type: string image: type: array items: type: string type: type: array items: type: string

  4. Jul 2022
    1. For those curious about the idea of what students might do with the notes and annotations they're making in the margins of their texts using Hypothes.is, I would submit that Dan Allosso's OER handbook How to Make Notes and Write (Minnesota State Pressbooks, 2022) may be a very useful place to turn. https://minnstate.pressbooks.pub/write/

      It provides some concrete advice on the topic of once you've highlighted and annotated various texts for a course, how might you then turn your new understanding, ideas, and extant thinking work into a blogpost, essay, term paper or thesis.

      For a similar, but alternative take, the book How to Take Smart Notes: One Simple Technique to Boost Writing, Learning and Thinking by Sönke Ahrens (Create Space, 2017) may also be helpful as well. This text however requires purchase via Amazon and doesn't carry the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike (by-nc-sa 4.0) license that Dr. Allosso's does.

      In addition to the online copy of the book, there's an annotatable .pdf copy available here: http://docdrop.org/pdf/How-to-Make-Notes-and-Write---Allosso-Dan-jzdq8.pdf/ though one can download .epub and .pdf copies directly from the Pressbooks site.

    1. https://remikalir.com/blog/sabbatical-annotated/

      It was great seeing you in person yesterday @remikalir! Glad you could make the time to hang out. Do let me know if you need anything while you're here in the neighborhood or in your pending travels on sabbatical.

      Congratulations again on all this news! I'm sure it's a bit overwhelming and a lot of change to adjust to, but I'm sure you'll come out far ahead.

      I told Evie about your sister's choreography annotation work when I picked her up from ballet. She pulled a small pocket notebook out of her ballet bag that I didn't know she had full of some of her own choreography notes!! I was so proud...

      Safe travels my friend!

    1. Digital marginalia as such requires a redefinition or at least expanded understanding of what is traditionally meant by the act of “annotation.”
    2. self-reflexive annotation

      circle back to this...

    3. As marginal note-taking it often is the basis for questions asked in class discussion or points made in a final paper.

      Jeremy Dean indicates that marginal notes are often "the basis for [...] points made in a final paper", but I wonder how frequently this is the case in the computer era? I rarely see or hear of educators encouraging the reuse of marginalia or even notes in academic settings, even within the framing of Hypothes.is which is an ideal tool for such a practice.

      It's been my experience that while notes are in margins, they tend to sit there lonely and unused. Few are actually creating content based on them. When this is the case, memory of the idea or issue at hand is necessary so that it may be looked up and transcribed back into a bigger piece. When it does happen it's also far more likely to be academic writers or researchers who are concertedly building up particular areas. It's much less likely to be high school or undergraduate college students who should have picked up the practice earlier in junior high school or even elementary school so that their school research years are easier.

      A potential resurgence of this broader practice may be coming back into vogue with the slew of new note taking apps that have been popping up and the idea of the zettelkasten coming back into a broader consciousness.

  5. Jun 2022
    1. Those who read with pen in hand form a species nearly extinct. Those who read the marginal notes of readers past form a group even smaller. Yet when we write in antiphonal chorus to what we’re reading, we engage in that conversation time and distance otherwise make impossible.
    1. Reid, A. J. (Ed.). (2018). Marginalia in Modern Learning Contexts. New York: IGI Global.

      Heard about this at the Hypothes.is SOCIAL LEARNING SUMMIT: Spotlight on Social Reading & Social Annotation

    1. The third UDL principle is to provide multiple means of expression and action. We find it helpful to think of this as the principle that transcends social annotation: at this point, students use what they’ve learned through engagement with the material to create new knowledge. This kind of work tends to happen outside of the social annotation platform as students create videos, essays, presentations, graphics, and other products that showcase their new knowledge.

      I'm not sure I agree here as one can take other annotations from various texts throughout a course and link them together to create new ideas and knowledge within the margins themselves. Of course, at some point the ideas need to escape the margins to potentially take shape with a class wiki, new essays, papers, journal articles or longer pieces.

      Use of social annotation across several years of a program this way may help to super-charge students' experiences.

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awce_j2myQw

      Francis Ford Coppola talks about his notes and notebook on The Godfather.

      He went to the Cafe Trieste to work.

      Coppola had an Olivetti typewriter. (4:20)

      Sections on pitfalls

      I didn't need a script cause I could have made the movie just from this notebook.

    1. Now he’s giving the public a peek into that creative process with The Godfather Notebook (Regan Arts, Nov. 15, $50), an exact reproduction of his original, right down to the handwriting, plus rarely seen photos. A signed $500 limited edition even comes in a replica three-ring binder.

      Francis Ford Coppola published an exact reproduction of his original prompt book for The Godfather called The Godfather Notebook (Regan Arts, 2016).

    2. To organize his thoughts, Coppola made a “prompt book,” a theater trick he learned in college at Hofstra. Into a three-ring binder he stuffed his annotated copy of the novel, scene-by-scene breakdowns, notes on the times and setting, cliches to avoid and casting ideas.

      Francis Ford Coppola created and used a prompt book to organize his notes and annotations on Mario Puzo's The Godfather to create the 1972 Paramount blockbuster.

      Having learned the stage managers' technique of keeping a prompt book at Hofstra, his contained an annotated copy of the novel with scene-by-scene breakdowns, notes on setting, cliches to avoid, and even casting ideas.

    1. “As I was reading the book and makingthese notes and then putting them on the margins obviously themore pens I was using and the more rulers, and the more squigglylines, sort of implied the excitement of the book was higher andhigher, so that the sheer amount of ink on the page would tell melater on this is one of the most important scenes.”

      The density of annotations on a text can tell one about where the value and excitement of a work may be hiding.

    1. The course Marginalia in Books from Christopher Ohge is just crying out to have an annotated syllabus.

      Wish I could follow along directly, but there's some excellent reference material hiding in the brief outline of the course.

      Perhaps a list of interesting people here too for speaking at https://iannotate.org/ 2022 hiding in here? A session on the history of annotation and marginalia could be cool there.

    2. Jacqueline Broad (Monash University)


      Short Bio

      Jacqueline Broad is an Associate Professor of Philosophy in the School of Philosophical, Historical, and International Studies at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. She is also a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities.

      Her area of research expertise is early modern women’s philosophy. She writes on early modern theories of virtue, the ethical and religious foundations of women’s rights, historical conceptions of the self, and connections between feminism and Cartesianism in the seventeenth century.

      She has recently become Series Editor for Cambridge University Press’s new Elements series on Women in the History of Philosophy.

      Select bibliography

      • Jacqueline Broad, ‘Undoing Bayle’s Scepticism: Astell’s Marginalia as Disarmament’, in Marginal Notes: Social Reading and the Literal Margins, edited by Patrick Spedding and Paul Tankard (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021), pp. 61–84.
    3. Francesca Benatti (Open University)


      Short Bio

      I joined The Open University in 2012 as a member of the Arts Faculty and I am now part of the School of Arts and Humanities and the English and Creative Writing Department. I hold a Laurea in Lettere Moderne from the University of Bologna, as well as an MA in Literature and Publishing and a PhD in English from the National University of Ireland, Galway.

      My main role in the Faculty is to promote research in the Digital Humanities as the co-leader of DH_OU, the Digital Humanities at The Open University Research Collaboration (web and Twitter) and of the OOC DTP Digital Humanities training programme.

      I am a member of the READ-IT project, the Reading Experience Database, the History of Books and Reading Research Group, the Gender and Otherness in the Humanities (GOTH) Research Centre, the European Romanticism in Association and RÊVE project and the Open Arts Archive.

      During 2014-2019 I led the Arts and Humanities in the Digital Age training programme for the CHASE doctoral training partnership. In 2017 I was the Principal Investigator of the A Question of Style project, which was funded by a Research Society for Victorian Periodicals Field Development Grant. In 2016-2019 I was a member of the Executive Committee of the British Association for Romantic Studies (BARS) and of the International Executive Council of centerNet.

      Select bibliography

      • Understanding the phenomenology of reading through modelling (2021-01-26) Antonini, Alessio; Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; Adamou, Alessandro; Benatti, Francesca; Vignale, François; Gravier, Guillaume and Lupi, Lucia Semantic Web Journal, 12(2) (pp. 191-217)
      • *ing the Written Word: Digital Humanities Methods for Book History (2020) Antonini, Alessio and Benatti, Francesca In : SHARP 2020: Power of the Written Word (11-15 Jul 2020, Amsterdam)
    4. Recommended preliminary reading  Antonini A., Benatti F., Blackburn-Daniels S. ‘On Links To Be: Exercises in Style #2’, 31st ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media (July 2020): 13–15. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3372923.3404785   Grafton, Anthony. Worlds Made by Words : Scholarship and Community in the Modern West (Harvard UP, 2011).  Jackson, H. J. Marginalia: Readers Writing in Books (Yale UP, 2001).  –––. Romantic Readers: The Evidence of Marginalia (Yale UP, 2005).  Ohge, Christopher and Steven Olsen-Smith. ‘Computation and Digital Text Analysis at Melville’s Marginalia Online’, Leviathan: A Journal of Melville Studies 20.2 (June 2018): 1–16.  O’Neill, Helen, Anne Welsh, David A. Smith, Glenn Roe, Melissa Terras, ‘Text mining Mill: Computationally detecting influence in the writings of John Stuart Mill from library records’, Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 36.4 (December 2021): 1013–1029, https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqab010  Sherman, William. Used Books: Marking Readers in Renaissance England (U of Pennsylvania P, 2008).  Spedding, Patrick and Paul Tankard. Marginal Notes: Social Reading and the Literal Margins (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021). 

      An interesting list of readings on annotation.

      I'm curious if anyone has an open Zotero bibliography for this area? https://www.zotero.org/search/?p=2&q=annotation&type=group

      of which the following look interesting: - https://www.zotero.org/groups/2586310/annotation - https://www.zotero.org/groups/2423071/annotated - https://www.zotero.org/groups/2898045/social_annotation

      This reminds me to revisit Zocurelia as well: https://zocurelia.com

    1. two-tailed t-test

      Statistical significance test evaluating whether a sample is greater than or less than a specific value range. Critical distribution area is two-sided.

    2. Significance levels

      The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

    3. between-subject

      Variability for individuals themselves in the sample.

    4. within

      Variability of specific scores for individuals in the sample.

    5. voxel

      A value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space. In this case, composes the 3-dimensional brain image.

    6. T2*-sensitive functional imag-ing

      MR imaging frequency that displays CSF as the brightest contrast, white matter as the second brightest contrast, and gray matter as the third brightest contrast. Stronger than T2 MR imaging frequency.

    7. 3-T Siemens Trio MRI scan-ner

      3 Tesla-powered scanner model. In our replication, we will be using a different scanner.

    8. fixation cross

      A cross presented to research participants in a perception task with the intent directing the participants' attention to wherever the investigator wants them to look.

    9. inter stimulus intervals

      The amount of time between the end of one stimulus being presented and the start of another stimulus being presented.

    10. T1-weighted images

      MR imaging frequency that displays gray matter as the brightest contrast, white matter as the second brightest contrast, and CSF matter as the third brightest contrast.

    11. cerebellum

      Structure at the lower back of the brain, associated with motor control.

    12. cortex

      Outermost brain layer, associated with higher order cognitive abilities.



  6. May 2022
    1. The new lines you mention really are present in the text content of the element. HTML tags are not being replaced by new lines, they just get omitted entirely. If you look at the textContent property of the <p> element you selected in the browser console, and you'll see the same new lines. Also if you select the text and run window.getSelection().getRangeAt(0).toString() in the browser console you'll see the same new lines. In summary, this is working as it is currently expected to. What I think may have been surprising here is that the captured text is not the same as what would be copied to the clipboard. When copying to the clipboard, new lines in the source get replaced with spaces, and <br> tags get converted to new lines. Browser specifications distinguish the original text content of HTML "in the source" as returned by element.textContent from the text content "as rendered" returned by element.innerText. Hypothesis has always captured quotes from and searched for quotes in the "source" text content rather than the "rendered" text. This behavior causes issues with line breaks as well. It might make sense for us to look at capturing the rendered text (as copied to the clipboard) rather than the source text in future. We'd need to be careful to handle all the places where this distinction comes up, and also make sure that all existing annotations anchor properly. Also we should talk to other parties interested in the Web Annotations specifications to discuss how this impacts interoperability.
      What I think may have been surprising here is that the captured text is not the same as what would be copied to the clipboard. When <mark>copying to the clipboard, <mark style="background-color: #8000314f">new lines in the source</mark> get <mark style="background-color:#00800030">replaced with spaces</mark>, and <br> tags get converted to new lines</mark>. </br> <mark>Browser specifications distinguish <mark style="background-color: #00800036">the original text content of HTML "in the source"</mark> as returned by <mark style="background-color: #00800036"/>element.textContent</mark> from <mark style="background-color: #ffa500a1">the text content "as rendered" returned by element.innerText.</mark></mark> Hypothesis has always captured quotes from and searched for quotes in the "source" text content rather than the "rendered" text.
    1. Even if we can capture patterns and overcome sharing, we might come back to consider the commonplace book.

      How cool would it be if we could aggregate old commonplace books to create indicators of how often older books were not only read, but which annotations resonated with their readers during subsequent periods of history and overlay them in some visual way? Something like a historical version of Amazon Kindle's indicators that a certain number of readers have highlighted a particular sentence of a book.

    2. Robin Sloan, a writer and media inventor, asks reviewers of his forthcoming book, Mr. Penumbra's Twenty Four Hour Book Store, to share their "mental state" via marginalia. Developing a visual language for real-time annotations, he welcomes people to go through his text at a reader's pace, marking their reactions in real time.
    3. Microsoft researcher Cathy Marshall found students evaluated textbooks based on how "smart" the side margin notes seemed before purchasing. In an effort to discover methods for using annotations in eBooks, Marshall stumbled upon this physical-world behavior, an approach to gaining a wisdom-of-crowds conclusion tucked away in the margins [3].
      1. Marshall, C.C. Collection-level analysis tools for books online. Proc. of the 2008 ACM Workshop on Research Advances in Large Digital Book Repositories. (Napa Valley, CA, Oct. 26–30) ACM, New York, 2008.

      Cathy Marshall has found that students evaluated their textbooks prior to purchasing based on the annotations within them.

    4. Blackwood Magazine most likely introduced the term in 1819, but Edgar Allan Poe popularized it some 25 years later with some of his published material: Marginalia. Since then, authors have had varying degrees of success creating their own collections of published marginalia. Among them is Walter Benjamin, who struggled after 13 years of research, leaving behind The Arcades Project: "the theater," he called it, "of all my struggles and all my ideas"

      Blackwood Magazine most likely introduced the term marginalia in 1819. Edgar Allen Poe popularized the term with some of his published material entitled Marginalia.

      What other (popular) published examples of marginalia exist?

      Source for the Blackwood Magazine assertion?

    1. As John Dickerson recently put it on Slate, describing his attempt to annotate books on an iPad: “It’s like eating candy through a wrapper.”


    1. I like how Dr. Pacheco-Vega outlines some of his research process here.

      Sharing it on Twitter is great, and so is storing a copy on his website. I do worry that it looks like the tweets are embedded via a simple URL method and not done individually, which means that if Twitter goes down or disappears, so does all of his work. Better would be to do a full blockquote embed method, so that if Twitter disappears he's got the text at least. Images would also need to be saved separately.

    1. He notes that authors of such projects should consider the return on investment. It take time to go through community feedback, so one needs to determine whether the pay off will be worthwhile. Nevertheless, if his next work is suitable for community review, he’d like to do it again.

      This is an apropos question. It is also somewhat contingent on what sort of platform the author "owns" to be able to do outreach and drive readers and participation.

    2. A short text "interview" with the authors of three works that posted versions of their books online for an open review via annotation.

      These could be added to the example and experience of Kathleen Fitzpatrick.

    1. I returned to another OER Learning Circle and wrote an ebook version of a Modern World History textbook. As I wrote this, I tested it out on my students. I taught them to use the annotation app, Hypothesis, and assigned them to highlight and comment on the chapters each week in preparation for class discussions. This had the dual benefits of engaging them with the content, and also indicating to me which parts of the text were working well and which needed improvement. Since I wasn't telling them what they had to highlight and respond to, I was able to see what elements caught students attention and interest. And possibly more important, I was able to "mind the gaps', and rework parts that were too confusing or too boring to get the attention I thought they deserved.

      This is an intriguing off-label use case for Hypothes.is which is within the realm of peer-review use cases.

      Dan is essentially using the idea of annotation as engagement within a textbook as a means of proactively improving it. He's mentioned it before in Hypothes.is Social (and Private) Annotation.

      Because one can actively see the gaps without readers necessarily being aware of their "review", this may be a far better method than asking for active reviews of materials.

      Reviewers are probably not as likely to actively mark sections they don't find engaging. Has anyone done research on this space for better improving texts? Certainly annotation provides a means for helping to do this.

    1. Writer and photographer Craig Mod wrote, “There is a gapingopportunity to consolidate our myriad marginalia* into an even morerobust commonplace book. One searchable, always accessible,easily shared and embedded amongst the digital text we consume.”6

      6 Craig Mod, “Post-Artifact Books and Publishing,” craigmod.com, June 2011, https://craigmod.com/journal/post_artifact/.

      It's not just me... I might hope that someone could leverage Hypothes.is' product to create a more explicit digital commonplace book out of their product.

    1. This specification, Open Annotation in EPUB, defines a profile of the W3C Open Annotation specification [OpenAnnotation] for the creation, distribution and rendering of annotations for EPUB® Publications.

      This appendix is informative

      All examples use the same hypothetical publication of Alice in Wonderland, and are given in the collection structure with a single annotation.

      • Commentary Annotation on Publication with URI json-ld { "@context": "http://www.idpf.org/epub/oa/1.0/context.json", "@id": "http://example.org/epub/annotations.json", "@type": "epub:AnnotationCollection", "annotations": [ { "@id": "urn:uuid:E7E3799F-3CD5-4F69-87C6-5478B22873D6", "@type": "oa:Annotation", "hasTarget": { "@type": "oa:SpecificResource", "hasSource": { "@id": "http://www.example.org/ebooks/A1B0D67E-2E81-4DF5/v2.epub", "@type": "dctypes:Text" } }, "hasBody": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "format": "application/xhtml+xml", "chars": "<div xml:lang='en' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml'>I love Alice in Wonderland</div>", "language": "en" }, "motivatedBy": "oa:commenting" } ] }

      • Commentary Annotation on Publication without Identifying URI json-ld { "@context": "http://www.idpf.org/epub/oa/1.0/context.json", "@id": "http://example.org/epub/annotations.json", "@type": "epub:AnnotationCollection", "annotations": [ { "@id": "urn:uuid:E7E3799F-3CD5-4F69-87C6-5478B22873D6", "@type": "oa:Annotation", "hasTarget": { "@type": "oa:SpecificResource", "hasSource": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "uniqueIdentifier": "isbn:123456789x", "originURL": "http://www.example.com/publisher/book/", "dc:identifier": "urn:uuid:A1B0D67E-2E81-4DF5-9E67-A64CBE366809", "dcterms:modified": "2011-01-01T12:00:00Z" } }, "hasBody": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "format": "application/xhtml+xml", "chars": "<div xml:lang='en' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml'>I love Alice in Wonderland</div>", "language": "en" }, "motivatedBy": "oa:commenting" } ] }

      • Collection Metadata json-ld { "@context": "http://www.idpf.org/epub/oa/1.0/context.json", "@id": "http://example.org/epub/annotations.json", "@type": "epub:AnnotationCollection", "dc:title": "Alice in Wonderland Annotations", "dc:publisher": "Example Organization", "dc:creator": "Anne O'Tater", "dcterms:modified": "2014-03-17T12:30:00Z", "dc:description": "Anne's collection of annotations on Alice in Wonderland", "dc:rights": [ { "@value": "Quelques droits en Français", "@language": "fr" }, { "@value": "Some Rights in English", "@language": "en" } ], "annotations": [ { "@id": "urn:uuid:E7E3799F-3CD5-4F69-87C6-5478B22873D6", "@type": "oa:Annotation", "hasTarget": { "@type": "oa:SpecificResource", "hasSource": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "uniqueIdentifier": "isbn:123456789x", "originURL": "http://www.example.com/publisher/book/", "dc:identifier": "urn:uuid:A1B0D67E-2E81-4DF5-9E67-A64CBE366809", "dcterms:modified": "2011-01-01T12:00:00Z" } }, "hasBody": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "format": "application/xhtml+xml", "chars": "<div xml:lang='en' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml'>I love Alice in Wonderland</div>", "language": "en" }, "motivatedBy": "oa:commenting" } ] }

      • Annotation with Ancillary Resources in the Zip json-ld { "@context": "http://www.idpf.org/epub/oa/1.0/context.json", "@id": "http://example.org/epub/annotations.json", "@type": "epub:AnnotationCollection", "annotations": [ { "@id": "urn:uuid:E7E3799F-3CD5-4F69-87C6-5478B22873D6", "@type": "oa:Annotation", "hasTarget": { "@type": "oa:SpecificResource", "hasSource": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "uniqueIdentifier": "isbn:123456789x", "originURL": "http://www.example.com/publisher/book/", "dc:identifier": "urn:uuid:A1B0D67E-2E81-4DF5-9E67-A64CBE366809", "dcterms:modified": "2011-01-01T12:00:00Z" } }, "hasBody": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "format": "application/xhtml+xml", "chars": "<div xml:lang='en' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml'>I love Alice in Wonderland! <img src='/imgs/heart.jpg'/></div>" }, "motivatedBy": "oa:commenting" } ] }

      • Styling of Selection

      json-ld { "@context": "http://www.idpf.org/epub/oa/1.0/context.json", "@id": "http://example.org/epub/annotations.json", "@type": "epub:AnnotationCollection", "annotations": [ { "@id": "urn:uuid:E7E3799F-3CD5-4F69-87C6-5478B22873D6", "@type": "oa:Annotation", "styledBy": { "@type": "oa:CssStyle", "format": "text/css", "chars": ".red { border: 1px solid red; }" }, "hasTarget": { "@type": "oa:SpecificResource", "hasSelector": { "@type": "oa:FragmentSelector", "value": "epubcfi(/6/4[chap01ref]!/4[body01]/10[para05]/3:10)" }, "hasSource": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "uniqueIdentifier": "isbn:123456789x", "originURL": "http://www.example.com/publisher/book/", "dc:identifier": "urn:uuid:A1B0D67E-2E81-4DF5-9E67-A64CBE366809", "dcterms:modified": "2011-01-01T12:00:00Z" }, "styleClass": "red" }, "hasBody": { "@type": "dctypes:Text", "format": "application/xhtml+xml", "chars": "<div xml:lang='en' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml'>I love this part of the text</div>", "language": "en" }, "motivatedBy": "oa:commenting" } ] }

    1. We use the Web Annotation Protocol to sync bookmarks and last reading position across devices. At a glance it covers all the use cases here, and it's a well-defined protocol with multiple independent implementations. In particular, WAP defines a relation for discovery. Here's how we link to the annotation endpoint for a specific book in an OPDS 1.2 feed. Note the distinctive link relation and media type:
    1. Annotating an in-text reference pointer with a citation function

      ```turtle @prefix : http://www.sparontologies.net/example/ . @prefix cito: http://purl.org/spar/cito/ . @prefix c4o: http://purl.org/spar/c4o/ . @prefix oa: http://www.w3.org/ns/oa# . @prefix per: http://data.semanticweb.org/person/ .

      :annotation a oa:Annotation ; oa:hasBody :citation ; oa:hasTarget :in-text-ref-pointer ; oa:annotatedBy per:silvio-peroni .

      :citation a cito:Citation; cito:hasCitingEntity :paper-a ; cito:hasCitationEvent cito:extends ; cito:hasCitedEntity :paper-b .

      :in-text-ref-pointer a c4o:InTextReferencePointer ; c4o:hasContent "[6]" . ```

    2. Annotating a citation with an additional text-defined citation function

      ```turtle @prefix : http://www.sparontologies.net/example/ . @prefix cito: http://purl.org/spar/cito . @prefix cnt: http://www.w3.org/2011/content# . @prefix oa: http://www.w3.org/ns/oa# .

      :annotation a oa:Annotation; oa:motivatedBy oa:commenting ; oa:hasBody :comment ; oa:hasTarget :citation .

      :comment a cnt:ContentAsText ; cnt:chars "I'm citing that paper because it initiated this whole new field of research." .

      :citation a cito:Citation; cito:hasCitingEntity :paper-a ; cito:hasCitationCharacterization cito:cites ; cito:hasCitedEntity :paper-b . ```