4,991 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. microvascular endothelium

      The sheet of cells covering the inner lining of the smallest vessels in the vascular system.

    2. albumin

      Protein found in blood plasma, made in the liver, that ensures blood stays in arteries and veins. Helps to carry hormones, vitamins, and enzymes throughout the body

    3. microdevice

      A very small device, whose dimensions are on the micro scale (under 1mm). Often referenced in the context of biomechanical-electric system (BMEM)

    4. alveolar-capillary interface

      Where gas exchange (passive diffusion of gasses [oxygen]) occurs between the alveolus (tiny air sacs in lung) and capillaries

    5. peristalsis

      Involuntary contraction or relaxation in a muscular canal (such as intestines) causing wave-like movements.

    6. nanotoxicology

      Toxicology (study of adverse chemical substances' effects, diagnostics, and treatments) on the nanoscale (10^-9 base SI unit)

    7. parenchymal

      Tissue that conducts the function of the organ

    8. cyclic mechanical strain

      Repeated forces (stress) that damage a material over time

    9. inflammatory responses

      Inflammation. When tissues react to foreign materials (like silica) and become damaged and swollen

    10. spatiotemporal

      Having qualities in both space and time

    11. cytokines

      small molecules secreted by cells in the immune system that also have an effect on other cells

    12. extracellular matrix (ECM)

      A series of interconnected protein and carbohydrate networks that surround and support cells in 3 dimensions. The ECM is also a highway of biological signals for cells, often carrying the information needed to begin cell differentiation

    13. lung

      respiratory organ

    14. organ-on-a-chip

      Microdevices that mimics a specific organ or tissue

    15. biomimetic

      mimicking a biological system or molecule.

  2. Dec 2022
    1. There are two major types of autophagy pathways, bulk and selective

      Bulk autophagy also called non-selective macroautophagy. During bulk autophagy, autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles resulting in the degradation of the cargo.

      While during selective autophagy, the cargo is distinguished (mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, peroxisomes and etc.) and recognized by specific cargo receptors, or selective autophagy receptors, to connect with the autophagosome for degradation.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gc9gx33GvF0&t=2s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ws0mOmfC9EU

    2. SEC24C

      SEC24C in mammalian cells is the homolog for Lst1 in yeast.

    3. vacuolar protease Pep4

      Pep4, a vacuolar protease required for function of multiple hydrolases, is required for autophagic cargo degradation

    4. Selective autophagy receptors bind to the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 at sites of autophagosome formation (9). Consistent with the proposal that Lst1 functions with Atg40 to target ER domains for degradation, rapamycin induced Atg8-Lst1 colocalization in wild-type (WT) but not atg40Δ cells

      Atg8 protein is a marker protein to observe autophagosome formation. When Atg8 protein engineered with the red florescence protein (RFP), RFP-Atg8, RFP-Atg8 protein will be conjugated to the lipids and enable the membrane fusion to form the autophagosome.

      Atg8 also plays an important role in cargo recognition for selective autophagy by interacting with the receptor protein. When Atg40 is mutant, Lst1 is failed to interact and colocalize with Atg40, indicating that Lst1 is acting together with Atg40 to form autophagosome. And Sec23 is partially required with Atg40 to form autophagosome.

    1. reconstituted nuclei

      Used here to refer to the sperm chromatin added to the extract

    2. amplitude

      The maximum amount of distance a wave can travel from its rest position

    3. fluorogenic

      Something that generates fluorescence.

      Example: The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein that emits bright green fluorescence upon exposure to light in the blue to ultraviolet range. Hence GFP can be said to be fluorogenic.

    4. cytosolic proteins

      Large complexes of enzymes in the cytosol of the cell that are involved in various cellular pathways including metabolism, biosynthesis and cell signalling.

      The cytosol is the aqueous part of the cytoplasm of a cell where cellular components (e.g., organelles) are suspended.

    5. kymograph

      Distance-time plots that are used in biology to monitor and track the movement of fluorescent or fluorescently-labeled particles (e.g., molecules, organelles etc.) along a predicted path.

    6. bistable biochemical reactions

      Describes a system with two stable equilibrium states and therefore capable of resting in (or reaching) either of the two states. It arises from feedback loops that exhibit mutual activation or mutual repression.

    7. chimeric protein

      A protein made by combining two or more genes that code for the synthesis of their individual proteins joined together. Synthesis results in the formation of one protein with specific functional properties.

    8. cytoplasmic extract

      Contains the all the internal contents of the cell

    9. cell-free Xenopus laevis egg extracts

      Preparation obtained by crushing the eggs of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to release its internal contents.

    10. glutathione S-transferase

      A protein that is popularly used as a tag for the purification of recombinant proteins. It can be fused to either ends of the desired protein, usually the end that does not affect the function of the target protein.

      A recombinant protein is produced by cloning a gene into a system that allows the expression of that gene and the translation of its gene product.

    11. self-regenerating trigger waves

      Self-renewing biological phenomenon that is capable of long-range transmission/propagation of information.

    12. Apoptosis

      A series of events that are genetically programmed to result in the death of a cell. It takes place as a normal part of the growth and development of an organism.

      Here is an animation video that illustrates apoptosis: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vmtK-bAC5E

      Here is an introductory lecture to the process of apoptosis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=31dmXwBZNWI&ab_channel=iBiology

    1. transgene

      See transgenic above

    2. imaginary discs

      A group of undifferentiated cells that eventually form the drosophila wing.

    3. in vivo

      Experiments are carried out within the living organisms as opposed to the experiments in test tubes or Petri dishes. Up until here, all experiments done in this paper are in vitro.

  3. Nov 2022
    1. green fluorescent protein

      A protein that emits bright green fluorescence upon exposure to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.

      Fluorescence occurs when light of a shorter/high-energy wavelength (such as UV light) is directed on a surface allowing a specific component (e.g. green fluorescent protein) on the targeted surface to emit light of a specific wavelength.

    2. calcium waves

      An increase in the concentration calcium ions in the cytosol which causes a succession of the same events to take place in a wave-like manner. The generation of calcium waves can therefore be viewed a positive feedback mechanism.

      Here is a visualization of the propagation of calcium waves in a fertilized egg: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8GC-zwlF8w

    3. reconstituted extract

      Used here to refer to the cytosolic extract where the mitochondria has been added back.

      Remember that the cytosolic extract is devoid of mitochondria.

    4. fluorophore

      A fluorescent compound that can re-emit light upon excitation. They are typically used in techniques such as fluorescent imaging.

    5. time-lapse fluorescence microscopy

      A form of microscopy where microscopic images are first recorded sequentially and then viewed at a higher speed to provide an accelerated view of the process being visualized.

    6. nuclear localization sequence

      A short protein sequence that serves as a signal for target proteins to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In this chimeric (fusion) protein, the sequence the GST-GFP component to be transported into the nucleus.

    7. allele

      One of two or more versions of a gene (found at the same place on the chromosome) that comes about due to changes in the DNA sequence.

    8. Fractionation

      A method used to separate cellular components

    1. ER exit sites (ERES)

      The ER exit sites are specialized ER zones for the transport of cargo proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.

    2. mitophagy

      The degradation of damaged mitochondria in the cell through selective autophagy.

    3. pexophagy

      A type of selective autophagy to degrade a specific organelle called peroxisomes in the cell.

    4. nucleophagy

      Nuclear component that is selectively degraded via autophagy pathway.

    5. nuclear ER degradation

      Nucleophagy and ER-phagy

    6. ER-associated degradation (ERAD)

      Misfolded protein are retained in the ER and subjected for proteosomal degradation which occurs in the cytosol.

      Learning from the youtube:


    7. unfolded protein response (UPR)

      When newly synthesized protein is not properly folded into their correct orientation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ER now is under the stress to degrade the misfolded protein. To degrade the misfolded proteins and maintain the ER homeostasis, the cellular signaling will turn on the unfolded protein response to help the cell deals with problematic proteins for recycle and degradation.


    8. isoforms

      Genes are commonly generate isoforms from the same locus to produce different mRNA and thus give rise to different length of amino acid with similar protein functions.

    9. mammalian homolog, SEC24C,

      Lst1 and SEC24C, are homologous gene in yeast and mammalian respectively. The protein or DNA sequence of these genes, Lst1 and SEC24C, are highly similar and evolutionary share the common ancestor, termed as homolog.

    10. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

      ER is a transportation system of the eukaryotic cell composed of network of tubules and sheet-like area adjacent with the nuclear envelope and stretches out to the cell periphery.

      Learning corner with video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=an7tpWR16mo

    1. Xenopus laevis oocytes

      Cells of a type of frogs (Xenopus laevis) native to sub-Saharan Africa. These are used as model organisms for studying cell function such as ion channel which is reported in this paper

    2. Apoptosis

      A programmed and normal process of cell death. See the YouTube videos here for a little more detail https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DR80Huxp4y8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4lUnOY0U5w

    3. transmembrane domains

      Certain sections are located across (intersect) membranes such as cell membrane, lysosome membrane, mitochondria membrane etc.

    4. anterior-posterior shortening

      Reduced body length

    5. autophagy

      Self eating by cells, that is break down of cell components to recycle nutrients for use by the cells

    6. wing phenotype

      External appearance/morphology of wings

    7. transposon

      Jumping genes/DNA

    8. current spikes

      Indication of electrical current strength

    9. single-channel currents in the cell-attached mod

      Electrical current through the channel is proportional to the amount of ions going through the channel.

    10. electrophysiological properties

      Electrical properties of cells. These are related to the role of RECS1 as an Ion channel

    11. MODELLER platform

      A web-based computer program for predicting the 3D protein structures. Check it out at the link below. https://www.salilab.org/modeller/

    12. homology models of the three-dimensional (3D)

      Models based on closely related proteins of known structures.

    13. morphology

      Structure, shape, size

    14. pH (OGDx)

      Fluorescence probe used for measuring lysosomal pH. Find more information about this probe at the following link: https://journals.biologists.com/jcs/article/115/3/599/34970/pH-dependent-regulation-of-lysosomal-calcium-in

    15. atiometric calcium (Fura-2Dx)

      Fura-2 is a ratiometric fluorescent dye which binds free intracellular calcium. Find more information about this dye at the following link: https://www.aatbio.com/resources/assaywise/2015-4-1/ratiometric-calcium-indicators

    16. calcium-binding affinities

      A measure of the readiness/ease by which a protein attaches/bind to calcium

    17. short hairpin RNA (shRNA)

      an artificial RNA molecule with a tight hairpin turn that can be used to silence target gene expression via RNA interference. Check out the following page for more information. https://horizondiscovery.com/en/applications/rnai/shrna-applications

    18. Silencing

      To reduce the expression of a specific gene, without completely stopping its function

    19. siRNAs

      Short RNA sequences that interfere with the expression of specific genes with sequences similar to the siRNA. The siRNA can be introduced into cells by transformation using plasmids. The siRNAs degrade specific mRNAs of target genes thereby preventing their translation into proteins. Here is a video about siRNA by Nature: https://www.youtube.com/embed/cK-OGB1_ELE?wmode=transparent

    20. endogenous RECS1

      RECS1 that naturally exist inside the cells

    21. mobility shift

      A technique used in biology to detect proteins bound to DNA based on their rate of movement in a gel. DNA-free protein appear smaller that the same protein bound to DNA.

    22. ip/Grp78 and Chop/Gadd153 (fig. S5H), two sensitive markers of ER stress (13, 15).

      Proteins whose expression changes during ER stress.

    23. UPR

      Unfolded protein response characterized by reduced protein production, or increased protein folding or increased protein degradation in response to ER stress.

    24. XBP1s

      X-box binding protein is a protein which accumulates in cells experiencing ER stress.

    25. downstream

      A step in cellular pathway that occurs after another (upstream) step

    26. LMP

      Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization - When the lysosomal membrane is forced to take in substances which may otherwise be prevented from entry.

    27. pathophysiological processes

      Abnormal changes in the body that result from disease or malfunctioning of the cells/body parts

    28. endogenous


    29. HeLa

      Another type of immortal cells used in biomedical research. For a primer on the origin and significancy of HeLa cells, see the following link. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/henriettalacks/

    30. confocal microscopy

      Microscopy used to block most of the irrelevant light to produce good quality images. See a glimpse of the operating principle of a confocal microscope: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fluorescent_and_confocal_microscopes.ogv

    31. immunofluorescence

      A technique for determining the location of an antigen (or antibody) in tissues by reaction with an antibody (or antigen) labeled with a fluorescent dye.

    32. bafilomycin A1

      Blocks lysosomal pH reduction by V-ATPase protein.

    33. V-ATPase (vacuolar H+-ATPase)

      Protein that lowers the pH of vacuoles/lysosomes.

    34. pH alkalization

      Increased PH

    35. lysosomotropic agents

      Compounds which induce lysosomal stress such as CQ and HCQ

    36. depolarize

      Change the charge (negative or positive to neutral)

    37. BAX and BAK double-knockout (DKO) background (Fig. 1F)

      Cells in which both BAX and BAK are non-functional

    38. caspases

      Proteins that degrade/breakdown other proteins (proteolysis). BAX and BAK are some of these caspases.

    39. intracellular signals

      Signals from within the cell

    40. transient transfection

      Temporary expression of foreign plasmid DNA in cells. The foreign DNA does not get integrated into the cell genome.

    41. propidium iodide (PI)

      A red fluorescent dye that is used to stain DNA and RNA in dead cells. Only cells with a compromised membrane (dead cells) can allow it to enter. So, PI can be used as an indicator of the proportion of cells that are alive or dead.

    42. FLAG

      A small protein (peptide sequence) that is added to the end of the protein. In this case, FLAG was tagged onto RECS1 to enable detection of RECS1 in cells. Tagging is done through transformation

    43. doxycycline-inducible

      Expressed only in the presence of doxycycline antibiotic

    44. embryonic fibroblast (MEF)

      Fibroblast cells (cells that make connective tissue) from mouse embryos. These cells are immortalized (they grow indefinitely when maintained on specific media) and are used for research purposes.

    45. (D295Q)

      Aspartic acid (D) at position 295 in RECS1 is substituted for Glutamine (Q). This amino acid is necessary for regulation of lysosome membrane properties.

    46. proapoptotic

      Activates or positively regulates cell death

    47. mutation

      Change in amino acid or DNA sequence, resulting in altered function/structure of a protein

    48. LMP,

      Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization - Making the lysosome membrane able to take up substance easily.

    49. cytotoxic agents

      Chemicals that may be toxic to cells at certain doses

    50. gain- and loss-of-function approaches

      Enhance (gain) or reduce/block (loss) the expression of a gene to study its biological function

    51. intracellular

      Inside the cell

    52. Golgi apparatus

      One of the cell organelles

    53. ortholog

      A similar gene in different species of organisms

    54. putative

      Thought to be

    55. rheostat

      Regulation by control of the levels of contrasting signals

    56. ion channe

      A passage in the cell membranes through which charged chemical elements (ions) enter or exit the cell or cell compartment

    57. calcium homeostasis

      Regulation of Calcium use in cells.

    58. cytotoxic stimuli

      Cyto (from cell) - toxic: Poisonous situation/condition/change in a cell

    59. homologs

      Related proteins across different organisms

    60. transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing (TMBIM) superfamily

      A group of proteins that span membranes and oppose the function of BAX (a positive regulator of apoptosis).

    61. pathophysiological


    62. lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)

      Making a membrane easily take up external substances, where it would normally not

    63. caspase cascade

      A group of proteins that function together in programmed cell death

    64. cytochrome c

      Protein associated with the inner membrane of mitochondria and is involved in apoptosis

    65. homo-oligomerization

      Protein complex consisting of identical protein subunits.

    66. conformational activation

      Activation preceded by a change in protein structure

    67. proapoptotic proteins

      Positively regulate programmed cell death. Proteins such as BAK and BAX

    68. Dysmorphic embryos

      Zebrafish embryos with abnormal morphology/structure/shape.

    69. cridine orange (

      An organic dye for cell imaging. Dead cells are stained more by AO.

    70. The di-aspartyl sensor is conserved in all six TMBIM proteins, while the arginine latch is only present in the LFG subfamily (LFG1 to LFG4) but not in BI-1, where it has been replaced by His78 (Fig. 7A) (11).

      Two conserved Aspartic acid residues in all proteins in this group. These two residues are involved in sensing lysosomal pH changes.

    71. intraluminal cathepsins

      Proteins inside the lysosomes that degrade other proteins

    72. cytotoxic

      Toxic to cells at certain doses

    73. abrogate


    74. Ablation

      To remove

    75. BAX and BAK

      Two of the proteins that are well known to be activators of cell death (proapoptotic proteins)

    76. SYTO16 staining

      A green fluorescent dye that stains live cells

    77. lysosomotropic agents

      Chemicals that cause stress to lysosomes

  4. Oct 2022
    1. BH3 protein

      Proteins that possess a characteristic short protein (or peptide) sequence termed the "BH3 domain" (also called the death domain).

      Members of this family of proteins are known to trigger key mitochondrial events that kill the cell and hence are associated with apoptosis.

    2. curve fitting

      The process of constructing a curve that has the best fit to a series of data points.

    3. chromogenic caspase assay

      An experiment which uses colored of fluorescent substrates (e.g., Z-DEVD-R110) to quantify the activity of an enzyme (e.g., caspase).

      As a result, the higher the fluorescence detected, the higher the enzyme activity.

    4. mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP)

      Process where pores are created in the outer membrane of the mitochondria to facilitate the release of cytochrome c which in turn activates caspases necessary for apoptosis to occur.

    5. XIAP

      A protein that blocks apoptosis by keeping caspase-3 and caspase-7 in an inactive state where they are not able to perform their roles in apoptosis.

    6. hydrolyzed

      To break down (a compound) by chemical reaction with water.

    7. substrate

      A molecule upon which an enzyme (e.g., caspase) acts. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions involving the substrate(s).

    8. interphase extract

      Refers to "interphase cytoplasmic extract" with no cycloheximide treatment and no cytochrome c.

    9. chromatin

      A nucleic acid–protein complex that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes

    10. apoptotic extract

      Refers to the cycloheximide-treated interphase with cytochrome c

    11. cytochrome c

      Small protein which is loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondria [powerhouse of the cell]. Perturbations to the inner mitochondrial membrane causes the release of cytochrome c which then activates apoptosis.

    12. Texas Red–conjugated dextran

      Dye used to monitor cell division and track the movement of live cells.

    13. cycloheximide

      A chemical that blocks protein synthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Upon exposure, many cell types rapidly undergo apoptosis.

    14. video microscopy

      Provides live feed (real-time) video image directly to a computer for visualization and monitoring.

    15. inflammatory response

      Defense mechanism used by an organism to remove harmful agents (such as damaged cells and pathogens).

    16. regulatory network

      Used here to describe a system of biological molecules that interact to obtain desired outcome such as apoptosis.

    17. meiosis II

      A stage in cell division where chromatids [one half of a duplicated chromosome] separate.

    18. metaphase

      The second stage of cell division where the chromosomes prepare to be separated into daughter cells by aligning in the equator of the parent cell.

    19. cell signaling

      A form of cellular communication involving the reception, processing and transmission of biological and chemical signals.

    20. caspase

      Proteases (enzymes that break down proteins) that function as the main effectors of apoptosis

    21. oocytes

      An immature egg

    22. inhibitor studies

      Used here to describe assays or experiments involving the blocking of activity of an enzyme or biological process.

    23. homeostasis

      Steady state conditions (no disturbances)

    24. evolutionarily conserved

      Describes a process or feature that is maintained and takes place across different species (organisms that share common characteristics)

    25. programmed cell death

      Describes a process where cells destroy themselves when they are no longer needed.

  5. Sep 2022
    1. Consumers expect ever easier and faster services. The SEPA Instant Credit Transfer scheme delivers these by enabling pan-European credit transfers with the funds made available on the account in less than ten seconds.
  6. May 2022
    1. What is difference between mission and vision?The mission sets the direction for the company's goals and the vision should light a path for how the organization can get there. These statements establish part of the framework for expected behavior and give employees and volunteers a sense of cohesiveness.Jul 21, 2021
    1. convection

      The movement caused within a fluid by the forces acting on the fluid, primarily due to pressure.

    2. diffusive

      Relates to the intermingling of substances by the natural movements of their molecules or particles.

    1. elastic oscillations

      The regular changes in the prototype's structure, where the original size and shape is retained after contact forces have been removed.

  7. Apr 2022
    1. aqueous buffer

      Aqueous buffer is a solution of weak acid and its conjugate base which provides a degree of stability to prevent the rapid fluctuation in pH when a small amount of strong acid or base is added.

    2. uniaxial flows,

      Flows constrained along a single dimension such as those found in the microchannels of microfluidic devices.

    3. DOI 10.1126/science.1066238

      Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a standardized method for uniquely referencing digital documents with the aim of easily leading to the documents location. Almost all published academic journal articles as well as research reports and data sets have an assigned DOI.

    4. homogenize

      To make uniform or similar.

  8. Mar 2022
    1. a differing payment basically means an agreement between the lender and borrower where the borrower requests the lender to give them loan and that loan will be repaid at a later date when situation would be comparatively better

      What is deferring payment ?

    2. sri lankan government has approached the international monetary fund for a bailout bailout basically means asking 00:00:37 financial assistance in order to save any business or in this case you can say save the country's economy from collapsing and you also need to ponder upon the fact that the sri lankan government is asking this kind of financial assistance on deferring loan

      IMF bailout for SriLanka

    1. unimorph piezoelectric structure

      Piezoelectric materials undergo a shape change when voltage is applied across them. A piezoelectric unimorph is a thin and long microstructure that flexes when voltage is applied to it. In this paper, the properties of the piezoelectric material are used to create forward movement of the robot.

    2. duty cycles

      Fraction of time spent in each phase of one cycle of the motion.

    3. information reconnaissance

      Military term for gathering information about an enemy for combat intelligence.

    4. fault-tolerant behavior

      The ability to continue operating despite the failure of one or more components

    5. fail-safe

      Revert to a safe state in the event of failure

    6. Paratarsotomus macropalpis

      Mite species native to Southern California. Discovered to be worlds fastest terrestrial animal and passed the Australian Tiger Beetle as the previous record holder.

    7. gait

      A pattern of limb movement, where the gallop, commonly seen in horses, is the one of the fastest gait that can be performed.

    8. anisotropic lateral forces

      The force that acts in the direction parallel to ground, with varying magnitudes in different directions.

    9. first vibrational mode

      The lowest frequency at which a system oscillates (displays distinct periodic patterns of motion).

    10. oscillatory center of mass (COM) trajectory

      The point within an object at which the whole mass may be considered as concentrated. Here, the authors tracked the center of mass (COM) motion to represent the motion of the entire robot.

    1. transverse

      Perpendicular to the direction of the flow along the channel

    2. kinematic viscosity

      The measurement of a fluid's internal resistance to flow

    3. lithography

      The process of printing a design onto a flat surface using chemical reactions.

    4. Stokes flow

      A form of fluid motion dominated by viscous forces. This occurs at low fluid velocities, high fluid viscosities, or very small length-scales of flow.

    5. layer-by-layer geometries

      Lithography techniques rely on fabricating one layer at a time to construct device features at the microscale.

    6. Pe ́cletnumber

      A dimensionless number that represents the ratio of the rate of transport by bulk motion of a fluid to the rate of transport by diffusion.

    1. umbra

      Sunspots are darker, cooler areas of the sun's surface. The umbra is the darkest part of a sunspot, at its center. It is surrounded by the lighter penumbra.

    1. To get a sorted list of all glossary items you could use YAML in the front matter of each glossary term then use the dataview plugin and sort ascending.
      • idea for glossary
  9. Feb 2022
    1. vertical spring-damper

      a spring that absorbs up and down movement

    2. torsional spring-damper

      a spring that absorbs rotational movement

    3. resonant frequencies

      At resonant frequency, the circuit exhibits a maximum oscillatory, or regularly varying, response at a specific frequency (the number of times the AC switches between positive and negative in 1 second).

    4. two-segment mass-spring model

      This idealized model allows for the characterization of motion animals use, like bouncing. Specifically, it is assumed that the movement behaves like a mass bouncing on a spring.

    5. piezoelectric effect

      The ability of the PVDF to generate an electric charge in response to the applied voltage, resulting in expansion (or stretching) and contraction (or shrinking).

    6. pin joint

      A connection between two rigid bodies that allows only relative rotation about a single direction.

    7. cross-sectional view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image

      SEM is an instrument that produces a largely magnified image by using electrons instead of light to form an image.

    8. MATLAB

      A programming language that is primarily used for numerical computation as well as computational modeling, simulation, and prototyping.

    9. ground reaction force

      The force that opposes gravity because it is exerted by the ground onto a body that is in contact with the ground.

    1. microstructure

      Structures of an object, organism, or material with a typical feature length scale of 1-100 micrometers

    2. dermis

      Inner layer of the skin tissue containing blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles.

    3. mechanoreceptors

      Receptors typically located on cell membrane that relay external mechanical stimuli such as pressure, touch, or motion.

    4. biomimetic

      Synthetic materials/methods that mimic biological materials/mechanisms.