914 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2024
    1. Eine neue Studie kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass ein Umkippen des nordatlantischen Strömungssystems Amoc in einem anderen Zustand schon sehr bald drohen könnte, wenn sich die globale Erhitzung fortsetzt. Die Studie modelliert auch die Folgen, zum Beispiel sehr schnell steigende Wasserstände an der amerikanischen Ostküste, ein Umkippen des Amazonas-Regenwaldes und wesentlich niedrigere Temperaturen in Europa. Der Studienautor stellt fest, dass wir die Erhitzung sehr viel ernster nehmen müssen. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/feb/09/atlantic-ocean-circulation-nearing-devastating-tipping-point-study-finds

      Studie: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.adk1189

    1. consider the role Krishna plays in this text

      In the text, Lord Krishna is a massive character in the text. In the epic, people respected Lord Krishna. People saw him as " People consider Krishna their leader, hero, protector, philosopher, teacher and friend all rolled into one." In the epic, Lord Krishna was the mentor of Arjuna and took him under his wing, helping him get through tough situations.

    1. For example, an HS event closely followed by heavy rainfall caused the deaths of more than 500,000 livestock and over $1.2 billion in economic losses

      for - epiphany - money is the only lens that business sees reality through

      epiphany - money is the only lens that business sees reality through - Just hit me how economics is the dominant and only metric that seems to matter to much of the business community - even in most research papers, we have to keep translating environmental into economic, as if the only people that matter are business people - it is indicative that we DO NOT KNOW HOW TO INTRINSICALLY VALUE NATURE

    1. I think basically imagination is a lot of work

      for - adjacency - self construction - judgment as simplification - imagination is hard work

      adjacency - between - self construction - judgment as simplification - imagination as hard work - adjacency statement - We construct the self of others because we are lazy. - It takes hard work to construct a complex picture of another human being. - It's easier to just pass simple judgment and create a label for the other.

  2. Jan 2024
    1. dreaming can be seen as the "default" position for the activated brain

      for - dream theory - dreaming as default state of brain

      • Dreaming can be seen as the "default" position for the activated brain
      • when it is not forced to focus on
        • physical and
        • social reality by
          • (1) external stimuli and
          • (2) the self system that reminds us of
            • who we are,
            • where we are, and
            • what the tasks are
          • that face us.

      Question - I wonder what evolutionary advantage dreaming would bestow to the first dreaming organisms? - why would a brain evolve to have a default behaviour with no outside connection? - Survival is dependent on processing outside information. There seems to be a contradiction here - I wonder what opinion Michael Levin would have on this theory?

    1. The second thing we are missing is our need to grow beyond our predominantly postmodern worldview

      for - key insight - polycrisis - solving - postmodernism alone if insufficient

      definition - postmodernism - worldview that champions decentralization, diversity, leaderless coalitions, horizontal networks, etc., etc. author: John Bunzl

      claim - post modernism alone is no match for the dynamics of hierarchical Destructive Global Capitalism (DGC) - unity of required amongst the fragmented postmodern movements

    1. cheap energy is a hell of a drug. we found it 200 years ago, our trip peaked about 20 years ago, and now we are getting sober, and most people hate it, because most people are stupid and have no "plan B", and when SHTF they will commit suicide, and before SHTF they will work for a suicide-culture to accelerate the collapse.

      i already had this intuition 20 years ago at the age of 15... i spent some years on self-study of psychology, to make this intuition more conscious. my "final answer" on all the problems of this world is my book: pallas. who are my friends. group composition by personality type. because obviously, most people are too stupid to choose their real friends, and instead are exploited by enemies aka "false friends".

      idiots are insulted by the radical simplicity of my proposed solution, and instead, they continue their doomed-to-fail journey to find complex-but-wrong solutions... idiots are tragic heros, fighting lost wars, dragging everyone else down to their stupid level

    1. we hear a lot 00:04:00 of these stories that 'We are nothing but' and so the question of what we are is important and fascinating, but it's not nearly as important as, "What do we do next?"

      for - question - what do we do next? - investigate - why "what do we do next?" is salient

    1. Instance methods Instances of Models are documents. Documents have many of their own built-in instance methods. We may also define our own custom document instance methods. // define a schema const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String }, { // Assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema through schema options. // By following this approach, there is no need to create a separate TS type to define the type of the instance functions. methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } }); // Or, assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); }; Now all of our animal instances have a findSimilarTypes method available to them. const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema); const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog' }); dog.findSimilarTypes((err, dogs) => { console.log(dogs); // woof }); Overwriting a default mongoose document method may lead to unpredictable results. See this for more details. The example above uses the Schema.methods object directly to save an instance method. You can also use the Schema.method() helper as described here. Do not declare methods using ES6 arrow functions (=>). Arrow functions explicitly prevent binding this, so your method will not have access to the document and the above examples will not work.

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided code snippets:

      1. What is it and why is it used?

      In Mongoose, a schema is a blueprint for defining the structure of documents within a collection. When you define a schema, you can also attach methods to it. These methods become instance methods, meaning they are available on the individual documents (instances) created from that schema.

      Instance methods are useful for encapsulating functionality related to a specific document or model instance. They allow you to define custom behavior that can be executed on a specific document. In the given example, the findSimilarTypes method is added to instances of the Animal model, making it easy to find other animals of the same type.

      2. Syntax:

      Using methods object directly in the schema options:

      javascript const animalSchema = new Schema( { name: String, type: String }, { methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } } );

      Using methods object directly in the schema:

      javascript animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      Using Schema.method() helper:

      javascript animalSchema.method('findSimilarTypes', function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); });

      3. Explanation in Simple Words with Examples:

      Why it's Used:

      Imagine you have a collection of animals in your database, and you want to find other animals of the same type. Instead of writing the same logic repeatedly, you can define a method that can be called on each animal instance to find similar types. This helps in keeping your code DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) and makes it easier to maintain.

      Example:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const { Schema } = mongoose;

      // Define a schema with a custom instance method const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String });

      // Add a custom instance method to find similar types animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      // Create the Animal model using the schema const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema);

      // Create an instance of Animal const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog', name: 'Buddy' });

      // Use the custom method to find similar types dog.findSimilarTypes((err, similarAnimals) => { console.log(similarAnimals); }); ```

      In this example, findSimilarTypes is a custom instance method added to the Animal schema. When you create an instance of the Animal model (e.g., a dog), you can then call findSimilarTypes on that instance to find other animals with the same type. The method uses the this.type property, which refers to the type of the current animal instance. This allows you to easily reuse the logic for finding similar types across different instances of the Animal model.

      Certainly! Let's go through each part and explain it in simple terms: ### 1. `this` in Mongoose: - **What is `this`?** In JavaScript, `this` refers to the current context or object. In Mongoose, particularly within methods and middleware functions, `this` represents the instance (document) the function is currently operating on. - **Why is it used?** `this` is used to access and modify the properties of the current document. For example, in a Mongoose method, `this` allows you to refer to the fields of the specific document the method is called on. ### 2. Example: Let's use the `userSchema.pre("save", ...)`, which is a Mongoose middleware, as an example: ```javascript userSchema.pre("save", async function (next) { if (!this.isModified("password")) { next(); } else { this.password = await bcrypt.hash(this.password, 10); next(); } }); ``` - **Explanation in Simple Words:** - Imagine you have a system where users can sign up and set their password. - Before saving a new user to the database, you want to ensure that the password is securely encrypted (hashed) using a library like `bcrypt`. - The `userSchema.pre("save", ...)` is a special function that runs automatically before saving a user to the database. - In this function: - `this.isModified("password")`: Checks if the password field of the current user has been changed. - If the password is not modified, it means the user is not updating their password, so it just moves on to the next operation (saving the user). - If the password is modified, it means a new password is set or the existing one is changed. In this case, it uses `bcrypt.hash` to encrypt (hash) the password before saving it to the database. - The use of `this` here is crucial because it allows you to refer to the specific user document that's being saved. It ensures that the correct password is hashed for the current user being processed. In summary, `this` in Mongoose is a way to refer to the current document or instance, and it's commonly used to access and modify the properties of that document, especially in middleware functions like the one demonstrated here for password encryption before saving to the database.

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    1. 1:10:00 identity politics: the only stable "identity" is personality type, which is inborn and constant for life.<br /> my heresy: i found a hypothesis for the question: how must we connect different personality types to create stable groups?<br /> "the system" likes my work so much, they are threatening to bust my door, steal my stuff, and throw me in jail for five years, as a punishment for publishing my radical answer to the question: who are my friends?<br /> my book: pallas. who are my friends. group composition by personality type

    1. 58:00 "anteilig haben sie bei afghanen ein vielfaches an sexualdelikten als beim durchschnitt der bevölkerung. statistik. denk ich mir nicht aus." - "und davor wollen sie die jugend auch schützen?" - "ja, davor will ich auch die jugend schützen, jeden, auch sie."

      ich glaube kaum, dass die gut in mathe ist. eine "bedingte wahrscheinlichkeit" (P von A wenn B) berechnen wird auch dadurch erschwert, wenn das ergebnis "schlechte stimmung" verbreitet.

      mit der letzten antwort hat beckamp den vogel abgeschossen : D weil bevor linke sich von "nazis" helfen lassen, vorher friert die hölle zu!

    2. 54:20 "was würden sie sagen, wie viele ein-und-zwei-personen haushalte haben wir in großstädten wie in köln und düsseldorf?" - "viele." - "anteil? prozent?" - "ich bin ganz furchtbar mit zahlen." - "75 prozent."

      warum eskaliert die gleich von "weiss ich nicht" zu "ich bin ganz furchtbar mit zahlen"?<br /> und warum erinnert mich das an den kontrast zwischen religion und naturwissenschaft...?<br /> religion im sinn von "my feelings dont care about your facts!!"

    1. Interest
    2. I feel we need a agreeable definition of work-items. It is getting confusing already. If the goal is to avoid confusion then exceptions must be avoided.
    3. Additionally, it reiterates the need to define "What isn't a Work Item?"
    4. You can see how the constant jumping between these two tools in the first scenario is super annoying, and also very risky as none of the changes you make in Figma are also automatically being updated in the same GitLab designs.
    5. As a positive example of where this works well: Our VS Code GitLab Workflow extension allows users to not only see comments that were written inside the GitLab UI, but also allows these users to respond to these comments right from the IDE, the tool where they actually have to make these changes.
    1. It assigns accountability for the whole project, which means it’s less likely for small details and tasks to “fall through the cracks”, those of which could be missed when responsibility is spread among multiple individuals.
    1. 1:15 violence, rape, murder, ... executive order to dissolve chaz and restore order.<br /> too bad, murder is exactly where my fun starts. but this world is ruled by militant pacifists,<br /> who only replace serial murder with overpopulation and mass murder every 100 years, aka "war".<br /> they only replace death with accumulated "debt"... idiots. idiocracy is here and now.

    1. What they say is this is due to is new EU policies about messenger apps. I'm not in the EU. I reckon it's really because there's a new Messenger desktop client for Windows 10, which does have these features. Downloading the app gives FB access to more data from your machine to sell to companies for personalized advertising purposes.
    1. is maximum returns really what we insist upon if that is the force that's driving our fragility and ecological crisis
      • for: key question - maximizing returns

      • key question

      • quote: Marjorie Kelly
        • Is maximizing returns really what we insist upon if that is the force that's driving our fragility and ecological crisis?
    2. he said to Harry Belafonte, he said, you know, I think we're going to win the battle of integration. He, I think that we will get that. But he said, but I worry that I'm integrating my people into a burning house. 00:17:26 And I think that's a perfect metaphor. I mean, you're trying to get people of color to have jobs or to own houses, but meanwhile, it's hard for anyone to own a house now with interest rates going up and prices so high. Jobs themselves are being destroyed. And so it's not enough to integrate into the economy as it is. We need to transform that economy.
      • for: quote - Martin Luther King Jr., quote racial integration alone is not enough

      • quote: Martin Luther King Jr.

        • I think we are going to win the battle of integration but i worry I'm integrating my people into a burning house
      • comment

        • It's not good enough to share in the same privileges as whites because the way that wealth supremacy works, ALL peopple suffere equally.
    1. Zusammenfassender Artikel über Studien zu Klimafolgen in der Antarktis und zu dafür relevanten Ereignissen. 2023 sind Entwicklungen sichtbar geworden, die erst für wesentlich später in diesem Jahrhundert erwartet worden waren. Der enorme und möglicherweise dauerhafte Verlust an Merreis ist dafür genauso relevant wie die zunehmende Instabilität des westantarktischen und möglicherweise inzwischen auch des ostantarktischen Eisschilds. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/31/red-alert-in-antarctica-the-year-rapid-dramatic-change-hit-climate-scientists-like-a-punch-in-the-guts

      • for: COP28 talk - later is too late, Global tipping points report, question - are there maps of feedbacks of positive tipping points?, My Climate Risk, ICICLE, positive tipping points, social tipping points

      • NOTE

        • This video is not yet available on YouTube so couldn't not be docdropped for annotation. So all annotations are done here referred to timestamp
      • SUMMARY

        • This video has not been uploaded on youtube yet so there is no transcription and I am manually annotating on this page.

        • Positive tipping points

          • not as well studied as negative tipping points
          • cost parity is the most obvious but there are other factors relating to
            • politics
            • psychology
          • We are in a path dependency so we need disruptive change
      • SPEAKER PANEL

        • Pierre Fredlingstein, Uni of Exeter - Global carbon budget report
        • Rosalyn Conforth, Uni of Reading - Adaptation Gap report
        • Tim Lenton, Uni of Exeter - Global Tipping Report
      • Global Carbon Budget report summary

      • 0:19:47: Graph of largest emitters

        • graph
        • comment
          • wow! We are all essentially dependent on China! How do citizens around the world influence China? I suppose if ANY of these major emitters don't radically reduce, we won't stay under 1.5 Deg C, but China is the biggest one.
      • 00:20:51: Land Use Emissions

      • three countries represent 55% of all land use emissions - Brazil - DRC - Indonesia

      • 00:21:55: CDR

        • forests: 1.9 Gt / 5% of annual Fossil Fuel CO2 emissions
        • technological CDR: 0.000025% of annual Fossil Fuel CO2 emissions
      • 00:23:00: Remaining Carbon Budget

        • 1.5 Deg C: 275 Gt CO2
        • 1.7 Deg C. 625 Gt CO2
        • 2.0 Deg C. 1150 Gt CO2
      • Advancing an Inclusive Process for Adaptation Planning and Action

      • adaptation is underfinanced. The gap is:

        • 194 billion / year
        • 366 billion / year by 2030
      • climate change increases transboundary issues
        • need transboundary agreements but these are absent
        • conflicts and migration are a result of such transboundary climate impacts
        • people are increasing climate impacts to try to survive due to existing climate impacts

      -00:29:46: My Climate Risk Regional Hubs - Looking at climate risks from a local perspective. - @Nate, @SoNeC - 00:30:33 ""ICICLE** storyllines - need bottom-up approach (ICICLE - Integrated Climate Livelihood and and Environment storylines)

      • 00:32:58: Global Tipping Points

      • 00:33:46: Five of planetary systems can tip at the current 1.2 Deg C

        • Greenland Ice Sheet
        • West Antarctic
        • Permafrost
        • Coral Reefs - 500 million people
        • Subpolar Gyre of North Atlantic - ice age in Europe
          • goes in a decade - like British Columbia climate
      • 00:35:39

        • risks go up disproportionately with every 0.1 deg C of warming. There is no longer a business-as-usual option now. We CANNOT ACT INCREMENTALLY NOW.
      • 00:36:00

        • we calculate a need of a speed up of a factor of 7 to shut down greenhouse gas emissions and that is done through positive tipping points.

      -00:37:00 - We have accelerating positive feedbacks and if we coordinate policy changes with consumer behavior change and business behavior change to reinforce these positive feedbacks, we can help accelerate change in the other sectors of the global economy responsible for all the other emissions

      • 00:37:30

        • in the report we walk you through the other sectors, where their tipping points are and how we have to act to trigger them. This is the only viable path out of our situation.
      • 00:38:10

        • Positive tipping points can also reinforce each other
        • Question: Are there maps of the feedbacks of positive tipping points?
        • Tim only discusses economic and technological positive tipping points and does not talk about social or societal
  3. Dec 2023
    1. “I do all my own research,” she said, “though reviewers have speculatedthat I must have a band of hirelings. I like to be led by a footnote ontosomething I never thought of. I rarely photocopy research materials because, for me, note-taking is learning, distilling. That’s the whole essence ofthe business. In taking notes, you have to discard what you don’t need. If you[photocopy] it, you haven’t chewed it.”

      Sounds similar to Umberto Eco's admonition about photocopying: https://hypothes.is/a/U3Sg_r0ZEe25T2tD3U-nmw

    1. where every voicematters and all decide as equals with each other
      • for:question - SONEC - is equal voting really equal?, question - SONEC - voter education

      • question

        • all may decide as equals with each other, but each human being is unique so each decision will be unique.
        • some may be better suited to make a decision than another, but if all have equal weight, that is also not fair if someone without enough education decides. How to resolve this?
        • Can the Indyweb help with this to map out the unique lifeworld (lebenswelt) of each individual to surface the unique capacities of each person, and their competencies for voting on a particular issue?
        • Voting is an important decision-making position and the voter is either informed, or if not sufficiently informed should ideally be educated to make an informed decision
    1. is there a way to say what that means about the actual world you're operating in uh when you're dealing with companies 00:35:01 or governments or Davos and these fancy one% Summits or as you alluded to conspiracies earlier as you know the Illuminati qinon typ they believe that there's that seven of you guys in a room and you they're deciding it for everyone 00:35:14 else uh uh for the internet also I think that I think that's wishful thinking they hope that there is somebody in charge truth is much worse it's chaos the truth is chaos
      • for: conspiracy theories - truth is much worse
    2. does your scholarship suggest why so many societies do that rather than 00:20:09 saying maybe we start with a Declaration of Human Rights today maybe we write a new one from scratch based on what we know today um because it's very difficult to reach an agreement between a lot of 00:20:21 people and also you know you need to base a a a a real Society is something something extremely complex which you need to base on empirical experience 00:20:34 every time that people try to create a completely new social order just by inventing some Theory it ends very badly you need on yes you do need the ability 00:20:46 to change things a long time but not too quickly and not everything at once so most of the time you have these founding principles and shr find in this 00:20:58 or that text also orally it doesn't have to be written down and at least good societies also have mechanisms to change it but you have to start from some kind 00:21:12 of of of of social consensus and some kind of of social experience if every year we try to invent everything from scratch then Society will just collapse
      • for: insight - creating new social norms is difficult

      • insight

        • creating new social norms is difficult because society is complex
        • society adheres to existing social norms. Adding something new is always a challenge
        • social norms are like the rules of a game. If you change the rules too often, it doesn't work. Society needs stable rules.
      • analogy: changing social norms, sports

        • changing social norms is difficult. Imagine changing the rules off a sports competition each time you play.
    1. in my view the biggest the most dangerous phenomenon on the human on our planet is uh human stupidity it's not artificial intelligence
      • for: meme - human stupidity is more dangerous than artificial intelligence

      • meme: human stupidity is more dangerous than artificial intelligence

      • author:Nikola Danaylov
      • date: 2021
    1. its design as by its original destination, the car is a luxury good. And luxury, in essence, cannot be democratized: if everyone has access to luxury, no one benefits from it; on the contrary: everyone cheats, frustrates and dispossesses others and is cheated, frustrated and dispossessed by them.
      • for: quote - luxury cannot be democratized, 1% - democracy, elites - democracy, adjacency - luxury - democracy, luxury is not democratic, luxury is inequality, Andre Gorz, Terrestrial website, adjancency - luxury - democracy, quote luxury

      • quote

        • ... By its design as by its original destination, the car is a luxury good. And luxury, in essence, cannot be democratized: if everyone has access to luxury, no one benefits from it; on the contrary: everyone cheats, frustrates and dispossesses others and is cheated, frustrated and dispossessed by them.
      • author: Andre Gorz
      • date: Sept. 25, 2023
      • publication: Terrestrial

      • comment

        • insightful comment reveals an adjacency between luxury and democracy that is obvious in hindsight, but missed seeing in foresight!
      • adjacency between:

        • luxury
        • democracy
      • adjacency statement
        • luxury is, by definition a premium artefact so by definition is beyond the reach of most people. It is therefore un-democratic by design.
    1. For a flip-of-a-coin chance of staying at or below 1.5°C we have, globally, just five to eight years of current emissions before we blow our carbon budget
      • for: do people know? - 50% chance, 1.5 Deg. C target - is still a crap shoot

      • new trailmark: do people know?

      • do people know?: 50% chance

        • the well known 1.5 Deg C. target, which currently seems almost impossible to achieve, is still a crap shoot! There is a 50% chance that if be we achieve it, we can still trigger very harmful impacts like tipping points
    1. how do we organize a green de Democratic Revolutio
      • for: question - how do we organise a green democratic revolution when power is so entrenched?

      • question

        • how do we organise a green democratic revolution when power is so entrenched?
    2. the overwhelming majority of people support are not on the political agenda which is why this whole the idea that there is a center in politics is a complete fiction
      • for: quote - there is no center, it's a fiction, quote - James Schneider - Progressive International

      • quote

      • key point
        • the things that the overwhelming majority of people support are not on the political agenda
          • which is why this whole the idea that there is a center in politics is a complete fiction
        • Elite consensus opinion is almost always massively in the minority
          • and so you have to work very hard to prevent things which are massively in the majority from getting political expression
        • Polling between 2/3 and 3/4 of people support (including generally speaking the majority of people who voted in the last election support) things like
          • public ownership of
            • energy
            • water
            • rail
            • mail, etc
          • a 15 pound an hour minimum wage
          • a wealth tax
      • All of these things considered way way on the left are not on the left, that's actually the center if you're talking about where is the mainstream British public opinion - and it's such strong public opinion because no one ever says it in the public sphere and when they do they are ridiculed
      • author: James Schneider, Progressive International
      • date: Dec, 2023
    3. the changes that we need to make to our political system go well well 00:41:10 well beyond like having a better P party in changing who some of the MPS are and so on and so forth because it is structurally set up to insulate the ruling class from popular pressure
      • for: quote - political system change is required

      • quote

        • the changes that we need to make our political system go well beyond having a better party or changing who some of the MPS are and so on
          • because it is structurally set up to insulate the ruling class from popular pressure
    1. Getting over the fear of perfection .t3_188j2xt._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; } I have so many half-filled notebooks or ones that I abandoned because I disliked my penmanship or because I “ruined” pages. I am the type of person who will tear out a page if I make a mistake or if it looks bad.I really want to start a commonplace book but I feel like I must get over this fear of “messing up” in a notebook. Anyone else struggle with this?

      reply to u/FusRoDaahh at https://www.reddit.com/r/commonplacebook/comments/188j2xt/getting_over_the_fear_of_perfection/

      I had this problem too, but eventually switched to keeping my commonplace entirely on index cards, which also allows me to move them around and re-arrange them as necessary or when useful. (It also fixed some of my indexing problems.)

      The side benefit is that if I botch a single card, no sweat, just pull out a new one and start over! If you like the higher end stationery scene afforded in notebooks, then take a look at Clairfontaine's bristol cards from Exacompta which are lush and come in a variety of sizes, colors, and rulings. (They're roughly equivalent to the cost per square meter of paper you'll find in finer notebooks like Leuchtturm, Hobonichi, Moleskine, etc., though some of the less expensive index cards still do well with many writing instruments.) Most of their card sizes are just about perfect for capturing the sorts of entries that one might wish to commonplace.

      Once you've been at it a while, if you want to keep up with the luxe route that some notebook practices allow, then find yourself a classy looking box to store them all in to make your neighbors jealous. My card indexes bring me more joy than any notebook ever did.

      When penmanship becomes a problem, then you can fix it by printing your cards, or (even better in my opinion), typing them on your vintage Smith-Corona Clipper.

      And of course the first thing one could type out on their first card and file it at the front where you can see it every day:

      "Le mieux est le mortel ennemi du bien" (The better is the mortal enemy of the good).<br /> — Montesquieu, in Pensées, 1726

      aka "Don't let perfection be the enemy of the good."

  4. Nov 2023
    1. may define Foo, instead of reopen it
    2. Since require has global side-effects, and there is no static way to verify that you have issued the require calls for code that your file depends on, in practice it is very easy to forget some. That introduces bugs that depend on the load order.

      class of bugs

    1. the official fantasy of the 20th century after the war but now also the 21st century is this that of course they will 00:53:15 all become like us and after the war we called it development and they were then third world countries would become first world some second world countries as well and the interesting thing is is 00:53:30 that fundamentally that really hasn't changed if you scratch under the paint of the UN's sustainable development goals what you find is they want to take the very best fruits of modernity and 00:53:42 make them in a fair way distribute them more evenly across the planet so that everybody has the advantages of a modern life and as billa suggested that's a 00:53:56 fantasy that isn't going to happen there isn't enough planet for that to happen but nevertheless this is the official fantasy it drives the OECD and the folks at Davos and the UN and most 00:54:08 universities
      • for: key insight - modernity framework is the major narrative, quote - modernity framework is the major narrative

      • key insight: modernity framework is the major narrative

      • quote: modernity framework is the major narrative
        • the official fantasy of the 20th century after the war but now also the 21st century is this that
          • of course they will all become like us
            • after the war we called it development
            • they were then third world countries would become first world
            • some second world countries as well
          • and the interesting thing is is that fundamentally that really hasn't changed
          • if you scratch under the paint of the UN's sustainable development goals what you find is they want to take the very best fruits of modernity and make them in a fair way distribute them more evenly across the planet so that everybody has the advantages of a modern life and
          • as Bill (Reese) suggested, that's a fantasy that isn't going to happen
          • there isn't enough planet for that to happen but
          • nevertheless this is the official fantasy that drives
            • the OECD and
            • the folks at Davos and
            • the UN and
            • most universities
    1. when Jimmy greets 00:15:11 anybody he's greeting someone anybody made in the image of God he's looking into the face of God he's looking at somebody with the in a soul of infinite value and dignity he's looking at somebody so important that 00:15:24 Jesus was willing to die for that person now you could be Christian Jewish Muslim Muslim Buddhist atheist agnostic I don't care but greeting each person you meet with that level of reverence and respect 00:15:36 is a precondition for seeing them well
      • for: good story - everyone is sacred
    2. people not feeling seen valued and heard and when you feel yourself not seen you regard that as an insult which it is and an injustice which it is and so you lash 00:08:38 out and so a society that becomes more sad eventually becomes more mean
      • for: meme - unheard, meme - pain is the root of anger

      • new meme

        • a society that becomes more sad is a society that becomes more mad
    1. Ask a scientist what the world is made out of, and he or she may talk about atoms or molecules, or quantum mechanical wave functions, or possibly strings or vacuum fluctuations, depending on the level on which one want to focus. Diverse as those answers may be, they all have in common that they borrow elements from descriptions of building blocks of nature, as used already within contemporary physics. Now propose to a scientist that everything could be seen as `made out of experience', or at least, for starters, as `given in experience.'
      • for: what is the world made of, paradigm shift - scientific ontology

      • question

        • what off the world made of?
      • answer ( Phenomenological)
        • experience!
    1. From this self-critical and controlled reasoning which is applied objectively andmethodically to the world, it makes sure to construct an "objectivity" which transcends the
      • for: adjacency - objectivity - imputation of the other

      • adjacency between

        • objectivity
        • imputation of the other
      • adjacency statement
        • there is a subtle assumption behind objectivity, namely that at least one other consciousness exists which can experience something the phenomena in a sufficiently similar way.
        • this is not a trivial assumption. Consider Thomas Nagel's "What is it like to be a bat?" Another human subject is typically required when "objectivity" is invoked. Certainly a bat could not experience the same phenomena objectively!
        • This also begs the question: to what extent can another human experience the phenomena the same way? We are assuming that two human beings who agree on the objectivity of a fact know what it is like to be the other in some salient way.
    1. Butno matter how the form may vary, the fact that an organism hasconscious experience at all means, basically, that there is somethingit is like to be that organism
    2. for: empathy, self other dualism, symbolosphere, Deep Humanity, DH, othering, What is it like to be a bat?, Thomas Nagel, ingroup outgroup

      • title: What is it Like to be a Bat?
      • author: Thomas Nagel
      • date: Oct 1974

      • comment

        • Forget about what it's like to be a bat, what's it like to be another human!
        • This is a paper that can deepen our understanding of what it means to be empathetic and also its opposite, what it means to participate in othering. In the fragmented , polarized world we live in, these are very important explorations.
        • Insofar as the open source Deep Humanity praxis is focused on exploring the depths of our humanity to help facilitate the great transition through the meaning / meta / poly crisis embroiling humanity, knowing what the "other" means is very salient.

      NOTE - references - for references to any words used in this annotation which you don't understand, please use the tool in the following link to search all of Stop Reset Go's annotations. Chances are that any words you do not understand are explored in our other annotations. Go to the link below and type the word in the "ANY" field to find the annotator's contextual understanding, salience and use of any words used here

      https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true

    1. the answer to the question what is experience is rather simple my experience is made of the sensations 00:10:43 feelings emotions thoughts and actions that i live instant after instant
      • for: definition, definition of experience, question, question - what is experience?

      • question : experience

        • what use experience?

      definition: experience - it just the sum of the sensations feelings emotions thoughts and actions that i live instant after instant

  5. Oct 2023
    1. What interests us far more is that these apprentice writers have interesting ideas to convey, and manage to support their arguments well.

      only partial match: the most important thing is the information (more than presentation/formatting)

    1. Acknowledgement: Great thanks to Chris Aldrich who saw the Quote Investigator article about the saying “We shape our tools, and thereafter our tools shape us”. Aldrich notified QI of the germane quotation examined in this new article. Aldrich pointed to its presence in “Walden”. This led QI to create this article and to update the existing article.

      https://quoteinvestigator.com/2023/10/21/tools-of-tools/

      I'm responsible for a quote investigator article being rewritten! Huzzah!

      Cross reference my note: https://boffosocko.com/2023/05/22/men-have-become-the-tools-of-their-tools-henry-david-thoreau/

    1. Thank you. Steve, for raising the alarm on this catastrophe! One minor comment. It should be QC'ed, not QA'ed. Quality control is done first. Quality Assurance (QA) comes after QC. QA is basically checking the calculations and the test results in the batch records. I worked in QC and QA for big pharma for decades. I tried to warn people in early 2021 that there's no way the quality control testing could be done at warp speed. Nobody listened to me despite my decades of experience in big pharma!

      "warp speed" sounds fancy, plus "its an emergency, we have no time"...

      it really was just an intelligence test, a global-scale exploit of trust in authorities. (and lets be honest, stupid people deserve to die.)

      problem is, they (elites, military, industry) seem to go for actual forced vaccinations, which would be an escalation from psychological warfare to actual warfare against the 95% "useless eaters".

      personally, i would prefer if they would globally legalize serial murder and assault rifles, then "we the people" would solve the overpopulation. (because: serial murder is the only alternative to mass murder.) but they are scared that we would also kill the wrong people (their servants because they are evil or stupid). (anyone crying about depopulation should suggest better solutions. denying overpopulation is just another failed intelligence test.)

    1. seeking to exonerate people who participated in the Jan. 6, 2021, siege of the U.S. Capitol as civic-minded people who were being politically persecuted
  6. learn-eu-central-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com learn-eu-central-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.content.blackboardcdn.com
    1. Society is a concept that refers to the interactions among the members of a single species, where individuals cooperate with one another to achieve collective objectives that they cannot achieve as individuals .

    1. Kuuk Thaayorre language (Australia) orients everything with respect to cardinal directions or is mapped onto their terrain/land. Even their perception of time (chronology) is mapped onto the land with respect to their bodies.

    2. Perception of events can differ dramatically in different languages based on their constructions and what those constructions dictate.

      Example: Accidents in different languages are seen differently. In English, focus is on the actor who receives blame while in Spanish, there is more focus on the action and intention rather than what English would view as "perpetrator". Spanish eyewitness are less likely to remember the actor for testimony versus in English.

    1. The reason eval is there is because when you need it, when you really need it, there are no substitutes. There's only so much you can do with creative method dispatching, after all, and at some point you need to execute arbitrary code.
  7. Sep 2023
    1. (A) Strategy used to identify genes withaltered 3D chromatin organization as aresult of species-specific rearrangements.

      Hypothesis: Scientists predicted that rearrangements in 3D chromatin organization can alter regulatory domains and affect gene expression. Methods: In genome comparisons, synteny breaks can identify rearrangements. Mole genomes were compared with full-chromosome assemblies from human, mouse, and shrew. These were used for comparison as they are the closest taxonomical outgroup with normal ovarian development. These comparisons were performed to identify rearrangements specific to moles. Moreover, Hi-C domain predictions were used to identify genes located in topologically associating domains (TAD) that were affected by a synteny break. They then filtered the located genes according to Gene Ontology (GO terms). Results: They found 286 synteny breaks, and 2,595 genes with altered 3D chromatin organization. Conclusion: After filtering candidates based on GO terms, the list was restricted to 39 genes that were possibly effected. Concept from Ainsworth 2015: A made a connection between female mole's genitalia and the DSD called, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which causes the body to produce excessive amounts of male sex hormones. If you have this condition and are XX, you are born with an enlarged clitoris and fused labia that resemble a scrotum. In the study they compared the mole genome with humans, so I find this interesting. Concept from Ridnik 2021: In this paper, TAD's are described in a bit more detail, as well as the Hi-C domain. Hi-C is a genome-wide chromosome conformation capture technique. Investigation of Hi-C interaction maps reveled that genome is further organized into megabase-scale units. These are called TADs. TADs there are regulatory elements (enhancers) and they are predicted to interact with their promoters by forming a loop to control gene expression. In the Real paper, they use both Hi-C and TAD predictions for their 3D chromatin organization.

    1. Watch the scale and scope of what you're doing. If you read a book and make a hundred highlights and small notes, DO NOT attempt to turn all of these into permanent notes. You might fell like that is the thing to do, but resist it. A large portion are small things or potentially useful facts that you'll likely never use again or would easily remember, particularly once you've read a whole book.

      Find the much smaller subset (5-10% or less of the overall total of notes and highlights as a ballpark rule of thumb) of the most interesting and potentially long term useful ones, and turn those into your permanent notes. Anything beyond this is sure to cause overwhelm. Also don't think that your permanent notes need to be spectacular, awesome, or even bordering on "perfect". They just need to be useful enough for you.

      If you own the books or keep your brief notes and highlights written down and need them in the future, you'll still have those to search/find and do something with later as a backstop just in case.

    1. t I think there is a risk that we end up being 'activists for the status quo' by being silent.
      • for: quote, quote - Kevin Anderson, quote - silence - activism for the status quo, Stop Oil
      • quote

        • There is a risk that we end up being activists for the status quo by being silent
      • comment

        • I would agree with Kevin. Silence is making a statement, it's not neutral
        • the "activists" are doing the dirty work of critiquing the top down actors
    1. Recent work has revealed several new and significant aspects of the dynamics of theory change. First, statistical information, information about the probabilistic contingencies between events, plays a particularly important role in theory-formation both in science and in childhood. In the last fifteen years we’ve discovered the power of early statistical learning.

      The data of the past is congruent with the current psychological trends that face the education system of today. Developmentalists have charted how children construct and revise intuitive theories. In turn, a variety of theories have developed because of the greater use of statistical information that supports probabilistic contingencies that help to better inform us of causal models and their distinctive cognitive functions. These studies investigate the physical, psychological, and social domains. In the case of intuitive psychology, or "theory of mind," developmentalism has traced a progression from an early understanding of emotion and action to an understanding of intentions and simple aspects of perception, to an understanding of knowledge vs. ignorance, and finally to a representational and then an interpretive theory of mind.

      The mechanisms by which life evolved—from chemical beginnings to cognizing human beings—are central to understanding the psychological basis of learning. We are the product of an evolutionary process and it is the mechanisms inherent in this process that offer the most probable explanations to how we think and learn.

      Bada, & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism Learning Theory : A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.

    1. This done, Adler can say that young crit ics of “the System” are not true revolutionaries. Real revolutionaries work within the System — since the System is the Revolution.

      How does the general idea of zeitgeist of the early 70's relate to the idea of "revolution"?

      See also: Gil Scott-Heron's "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised" (1970)

    1. Disadvantage to ourselves as formerly we have been sensible of, if it be the Lord’s mercy that we are not consumed, It certainly bespeaks our positive Thankfulness, when our Enemies are in any measure disappointed or destroyed; and fearing the Lord should take notice under so many Intimations of his returning mercy

      Observation: The councilor believes their success and their enemies' destruction is due to God's Mercy, so they should be thankful in-turn. Interpretation: He believes his success that has been given to him by God will return if he remains grateful,

      Contingency: Thanksgiving has been continuously celebrated so one can continue to have God's Mercy.

  8. Aug 2023
    1. In fact, it might be good if you make your first cards messy and unimportant, just to make sure you don’t feel like everything has to be nicely organized and highly significant.

      Making things messy from the start as advice for getting started.

      I've seen this before in other settings, particularly in starting new notebooks. Some have suggested scrawling on the first page to get over the idea of perfection in a virgin notebook. I also think I've seen Ton Ziijlstra mention that his dad would ding every new car to get over the new feeling and fear of damaging it. Get the damage out of the way so you can just move on.

      The fact that a notebook is damaged, messy, or used for the smallest things may be one of the benefits of a wastebook. It averts the internal need some may find for perfection in their nice notebooks or work materials.

    1. Zettelkasten in one or several language(s)? .t3_15wo3f2._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; }

      As long as you know and understand what you're writing, use as many languages as you or your zettelkasten wants or needs.

      I'm often working with ideas from other languages and cultures which have no direct translations into English, so I use those native words interspersed with English. Sometimes I don't have words in any language and make up a shorthand phrase in English until I can come up with a better word. Often I'll collect examples of the same "foreign" words in multiple contexts to tease out their contextual meanings as was comprehensively done with large group zettelkasten like the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae and the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache. I also frequently use mathematical symbols, equations, and other scientific notations, graphs, drawings, color, etc. to make my meanings clear.

      I've also worked with historical figures who have had names in multiple languages over the centuries and cross index them in a variety of different languages based on context. As an example, I've got at least 11 different variations of names for Ramon Llull in almost as many languages and variations of transliterations. I try to keep each one in its original context, but link them in my index.

      There are certainly zettelkasten out there written in four and more languages as suited the needs of their users. S.D. Goitein certainly used Hebrew, English, German, Arabic, Aramaic in his and may have likely had other languages (Yiddish, Coptic, Egyptian?) interspersed to lesser extents. Adolph Erman certainly used Egyptian hieroglyphs along with German in his. It can easily be argued that their zettelkasten and work required multiple languages.

      https://web.archive.org/web/20180627163317im_/https://aaew.bbaw.de/wbhome/Broschuere/abb08.jpg A example zettelkasten slip showing a passage of text from the victory stele of Sesostris III at the Nubian fortress of Semna. The handwriting is that of Adolf Erman, who had "already struggled with the text as a high school student".

      At the end of the day, they're your notes, so write them as you like.

    1. highlights the dire financial circumstances of the poorest individuals, who resort to high-interest loans as a survival strategy. This phenomenon reflects the interplay between human decision-making and development policy. The decision to take such loans, driven by immediate needs, illustrates how cognitive biases and limited options impact choices. From a policy perspective, addressing this issue requires understanding these behavioral nuances and crafting interventions that provide sustainable alternatives, fostering financial inclusion and breaking the cycle of high-interest debt.

      • for: polycrisis, collapse, tweedledums, tweedledees, wicked problem, social mess, stuck, stuckness, complexity
      • title
        • Is This How Political Collapse Will Unfold?
      • author
        • Dave Pollard
      • date
        • Aug 3, 2023
      • comment
        • thought provoking
        • honest, diverse, open thinking
        • a good piece of writing to submit to SRG / Deep Humanity analysis for surfacing insights
        • adjacency
          • complexity
          • emptiness
          • stuckness
            • this word "stuckness" stuck out in me (no pun intended) today - so many intractable, stuck problems, at all levels of society, because we oversimplify complexity to the point of harmful abstraction.
      • definition

        • Tweedledums

          • This is a Reactionary Caste that believes that salvation lies in a return to a non-existent nostalgic past, characterized by respect for
            • authority,
            • order,
            • hierarchy,
            • individual initiative, and
            • ‘traditional’ ways of doing things,
          • governed by a
            • strict,
            • lean,
            • paternalistic elite
          • that leaves as much as possible up to individual families guided by
            • established ‘family values’ and
            • by their interpretation of the will of their god.
        • Tweedledees

          • This is a PM (Professional-Managerial) Caste that believes that salvation lies in striving for an impossibly idealistic future characterized by
            • mutual care,
            • affluence
            • relative equality for all,
          • governed by a
            • kind,
            • thoughtful,
            • educated,
            • informed and
            • representative
          • elite that appreciates the role of public institutions and regulations, and is guided by principles of
            • humanism and
            • ‘fairness’.
        • references
        • Aurélien
        • source
        • led here by reading Dave Pollard's other article
  9. Jul 2023
    1. The concept of the purity of science should be abandoned.
      • for: progress trap, abstraction
        • comment
          • we do not recognize the power of abstraction
          • through it, we begin to construct Indra's Net of Jewels, one jewel (idea) at a time
          • but each jewel (idea) that we construct is just a little knowledge, and as Dan observes, a little knowledge, compared to the endless knowledge reflected in any jewel is dangerous.
          • this then, is our dangerous predicament - we base technology on incomplete jewels of Indra's net
          • as we know from mathematics, when the finite meets the infinite, it can never win
      • Title
        • Life is not easily bounded
      • Subtitle
        • Working out where one hare ends and another begins is easy; a siphonophore, not so much. What is an individual in nature?
      • Author

        • Derk J. Skillings
      • comment

        • this article delves into the subject of defining what an individual is
          • what makes a biological organism the same or different from another biological organism?
          • This question is not so easy to answer if we are looking for a general definition that can apply to ALL species
  10. Jun 2023
    1. This thread is locked.

      Yet another example of why it's dumb for Microsoft to lock Community threads. This is in the Bing search results as the top article for my issue with 1,911 views. Since 2011 though, there have been new developments! The new Media Player app in Windows 10 natively supports Zune playlist files! Since the thread is locked, I can't put this news in a place where others following my same search path will find it.

      Guess that's why it makes sense to use Hypothes.is 🤷‍♂️

  11. May 2023
    1. It is unfortunate that the German word for a box of notes is the same as the methodology surrounding Luhmann.

      reply to dandennison84 at https://forum.zettelkasten.de/discussion/comment/17921/#Comment_17921

      I've written a bit before on The Two Definitions of Zettelkasten, the latter of which has been emerging since roughly 2013 in English language contexts. Some of it is similar to or extends @dandennison84's framing along with some additional history.

      Because of the richness of prior annotation and note taking traditions, for those who might mean what we're jokingly calling ZK®, I typically refer to that practice specifically as a "Luhmann-esque zettelkasten", though it might be far more appropriate to name them a (Melvil) "Dewey Zettelkasten" because the underlying idea which makes Luhmann's specific zettelkasten unique is that he was numbering his ideas and filing them next to similar ideas. Luhmann was treating ideas on cards the way Dewey had treated and classified books about 76 years earlier. Luhmann fortunately didn't need to have a standardized set of numbers the way the Mundaneum had with the Universal Decimal Classification system, because his was personal/private and not shared.

      To be clear, I'm presently unaware that Dewey had or kept any specific sort of note taking system, card-based or otherwise. I would suspect, given his context, that if we were to dig into that history, we would find something closer to a Locke-inspired indexed commonplace book, though he may have switched later in life as his Library Bureau came to greater prominence and dominance.

      Some of the value of the Dewey-Luhmann note taking system stems from the same sorts of serendipity one discovers while flipping through ideas that one finds in searching for books on library shelves. You may find the specific book you were looking for, but you're also liable to find some interesting things to read on the shelves around that book or even on a shelf you pass on the way to find your book.

      Perhaps naming it and referring to it as the Dewey-Luhmann note taking system or the Dewey-Luhmann Zettelkasten may help to better ground and/or demystify the specific practices? Co-crediting them for the root idea and an early actual practice, respectively, provides a better framing and understanding, especially for native English speakers who don't have the linguistic context for understanding Zettelkästen on its own. Such a moniker would help to better delineate the expected practices and shape of a note taking practice which could be differentiated from other very similar ones which provide somewhat different affordances.

      Of course, as the history of naming scientific principles and mathematical theorems after people shows us, as soon as such a surname label might catch on, we'll assuredly discover someone earlier in the timeline who had mastered these principles long before (eg: the "Gessner Zettelkasten" anyone?) Caveat emptor.

    1. This ensures that GetResponse and our customers comply with Anti-Spam laws.

      IMHO, the customer should be able to opt out of this automatic adding if they want more/full control over the footer. Then they can take on the responsibility themselves.

    1. My magic trick (having faced a similar dilemma with many lovely notebooks over the years) is to turn to the first double page and write in large lettersDON'T BE AFRAID TO MAKE YOUR MARK UPON LIFE'S PAGE.And just like that the new notebook spell is broken and the pen is free to write again.
    2. I somehow made myself write in it and started with a sentence that I think would make for an excellent essay title some day: "Cheap paper is the perfectionist's salvation."
    1. ’ve been studying notebooks for over a decade and I still haven’t landed on a perfect organization method. I have, however, found the perfect pen: uni-ball signo, .38mm. I discovered them while teaching in Korea in 2008 and haven’t looked back.

      It can't be a good sign that an academic who has spent over a decade studying notebooks and note taking still hasn't found the "perfect" organization method.

    1. The few notes I did refer back to frequently where checklists, self-written instructions to complete regular tasks, lists (reading lists, watchlists, etc.) or recipes. Funnily enough the ROI on these notes was a lot higher than all the permanent/evergreen/zettel notes I had written.

      Notes can be used for different purposes.

      • productivity
      • Knowledge
        • basic sense-making
        • knowledge construction and dispersion

      The broad distinction is between productivity goals and knowledge. (Is there a broad range I'm missing here within the traditions?) You can take notes about projects that need to be taken care of, lists of things to do, reminders of what needs to be done. These all fall within productivity and doing and checking them off a list will help one get to a different place or location and this can be an excellent thing, particularly when the project was consciously decided upon and is a worthy goal.

      Notes for knowledge sake can be far more elusive for people. The value here generally comes with far more planning and foresight towards a particular goal. Are you writing a newsletter, article, book, or making a video or performance of some sort (play, movie, music, etc.)? Collecting small pieces of these things on a pathway is then important as you build your ideas and a structure toward some finished product.

      Often times, before getting to this construction phase, one needs to take notes to be able to scaffold their understanding of a particular topic. Once basically understood some of these notes may be useless and not need to be reviewed, or if they are reviewed, it is for the purpose of ensconcing ideas into long term memory. Once this is finished, then the notes may be broadly useless. (This is why it's simple to "hide them with one's references/literature notes.) Other notes are more seminal towards scaffolding ideas towards larger projects for summarization and dissemination to other audiences. If you're researching a topic, a fair number of your notes will be used to help you understand the basics while others will help you to compare/contrast and analyze. Notes you make built on these will help you shape new structures and new, original thoughts. (note taking for paradigm shifts). These then can be used (re-used) when you write your article, book, or other creative project.

    1. Bond

      A bond is a fixed-income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental). A bond could be thought of as an I.O.U. between the lender and borrower that includes the details of the loan and its payments. Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states, and sovereign governments to finance projects and operations. Owners of bonds are debtholders, or creditors, of the issuer.

  12. Apr 2023
    1. A writer collective is a set of editorial and financial structures designed to give writers the autonomy and upside that they get from writing alone, and the support and security they get from working for a media company. 

      If the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts" who benefits from the excess value and how is that economically broken up in a fair manner?

  13. mastodon.social