622 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2024
    1. Ein Report zum Stand der Dinge bei der Entfernung von CO2 aus der Atmosphäre (CO2 Removal) ist in der zweiten Version erschienen. Insgesamt ist die CO2-Menge, die mit anderen Mitteln als der Wiederaufforstung im Pflanzen von Bäumen aus der Atmosphäre entfernt wird, extrem gering. Der Bericht kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Pariser Klimaziele ohne CDR unerreichbar sein werden, dass aber CDR ohne deutlich mehr Investitionen und eine schnelle Verringerung von Treibhausgasemissionen wirkungslos bleiben wird. https://www.derstandard.de/story/3000000222642/treibhausgase-aus-der-atmosphaere-saugen-wo-wir-bei-der-co2-entnahme-stehen

  2. May 2024
    1. (Christin 1999 ; Vitali-Rosati et al. 2020)

      pourquoi tu mets les références ici ? ça trouble un peu

    1. rather than being born into a culture and almost becoming a victim of it one could choose ones culture or cultures and integrate one’s perception of them into one’s own creativity. both in time and in space one could travel around our world absorbing the best that different cultures and epochs have to offer us and making this, if appropriate, our own voice. i came to see music as one language with countless different dialects when viewed both internationally and inter-temporally any of which could be incorporated into one’s own self-expression if the subject matter of what one wished to express so necessitated it. (‘preface’ to ‘six baroque suites’, 2006)
    2. Surendran recorded two solo CDs in Johannesburg, Ready, Steady, Go! (1994) and Rough’n Reddy (1996), wonderfully illustrate his  crossover style, one of the conventions of which (as with playing Chopin) is maintaining a steady beat in the left hand “while the right hand moves rhapsodically, and with possibilities of rubato, above it” (‘Composer’s Note’).
  3. Jan 2024
    1. Its instance variables are the involved protagonists of the game


      Its internal collaborators are the main protagonists of the game.

    2. We want a meaningful class name.

      Suggest removal

    3. entry


    4. After defining the classes involved in the game design, we now define several states of these classes:

      I'd rather stop using “states” and start talking about ”internal collaborators“. For example:

      After discerning the classes that our game needs, we can now assign them responsibilities and internal collaborators:

    1. These two overriding methods are more efficient as they avoid unnecessary checks and ifTrue/ifFalse branches. Polymorphism is often used to avoid unnecessary checks and code branches.

      The goal is not computing efficiency but flexibility, scalability, simplicity, readability; that is, the goal is human efficiency.

  4. Dec 2023
    1. Link to or mention the Cuis Smalltalk terse guide

    2. Include a note about specific Cuis idioms, explain why they exist, and link to discussion and documentation: * backticks for compound literals * double colon as an alternative to parentheses * #[aFloat] for Float64Array * #[anInteger] for ByteArray

      See the thread Language Constructs initiated by Erik Stel in the Cuis-dev mailing list in 2020-05; especially the answers by Juan Vuletich.

      Backtick compound literals

      ... In some cases it can improve performance or reduce memory usage. But the deeper reason is to put all classes in equal footing with those privileged ones that are known by the Compiler.

      More here

    3. Backticks (`) can be used to create compound literals at compile time. All components of a compound literal must be known when the code is compiled.
    1. the class Transcript

      At this point, where classes have not yet been discussed, maybe it is best to rewrite:

      the object Transcript

    1. the policy

      the tradeoffs

    2.   Not to save the image is just best practice advice for you when your primary goal is to create new code. We already discussed the caveats of saving the image concerning code management (See The Image). But from time to time, you’ll find yourself in the position of an explorer when you open multiple code browsers and workplaces to figure something out. In this case, the state of the system, the open windows and code snippets, holds the value you care about, and saving the image is the right way to preserve the system’s state.27

      This should go in the previous section Daily Workflow.

      I submitted a PR

    1. If I give you something that you can play with and extend, even a piece of paper with a paragraph and I say it’s not written well, rewrite it, that’s easier than giving you nothing and say make something; you know, giving a blank sheet of paper and starting to write. So the lovely part that has proven true for professional programmers as well as kids is when you start with something, an object that does something, and then you put many objects like those together and have them interact, and then you extend and make them behave a little differently, you can take a very incremental approach to learning how to control a computer system. — Adele Goldberg
    1. (28) https://quoteinvestigator.com/2015/07/23/great-power/

      Do we really need to read a discussion on the origin of this sentence?

    2. Well, this looks familiar. I know what to do here.

      If this is a rethorical device, I'd prefer to replace it.

    1.   The String class has several method category names starting with fileman- for converting pathnames (system names for files and directories) into FileEntry and DirectoryEntry objects. String>>asFileEntry gives examples.

      Moved up to CharacterSequence. The categories are: fileman-converting, fileman-testing, and fileman-accessing.

    2. out of synch

      “synch” is an alternative spelling sanctioned by dictionaries. I wouldn't mind using this expression colloquially but in the context of a book perhaps I can find a better way to rewrite this. Not very important.

    1. This is another area where the actual mechanics are complex, but the basic ideas are simple.

      This is an excellent opportunity to link to an official video showing how to use the debugger.

    1. We think of Morphs and “data objects” as able to present themselves to be inspected, but Smalltalk’s runtime state is also presentable.

      The mention of Morphs is pertinent as an example because they were discussed recently and moreover, because they are blatantly visible and reactive. The mention of “‘data objects’” between double quotes, on the other hand, doesn't bring much to the table and is potentially confusing.

      Proposed alternative

      As Morphs and objects in general, are able to present themselves to be inspected, so is Smalltalk’s runtime state also presentable.

    1. self runningWorld doOneCycleNow.

      Again, explain why do we have to send #doOneCycleNow once more.

      As we changed several visual parts, we request one update cycle of the environment

      Is not enough.

    2. self runningWorld doOneCycleNow.

      This is necessary for the changes to actually show. I'd add a footnote explaining why it is necessary.

    3.   In addition to adding a package preload requirement, you can also select a requirement and delete or update it using the buttons at the lower right. Sometimes a package changes which your code depends on and you have to change your code to accord. When this happens, to want to be sure to require the newer, changed version. Selecting a requirement and pressing update will update the requirement to use the latest loaded package version.

      This should go in the previous section The Package.

      I submitted a PR.

    4. list := UISupervisor ui submorphs reject: [:aMorph | aMorph is: #TaskbarMorph]. list do: [:each | each delete].

      Alternative implementation:

      Smalltalk userInterface := UISupervisor ui. taskbar := userInterface taskbar. userInterface submorphs do: [:morph | morph delete] without: taskbar.

    1. Observe how each category – class or method one – of an extension is prefixed with a *.


      Alternative 1

      Observe how each category —regardless of wether it applies to a class or to a method— of an extension is prefixed with a *.

      Alternative 2:

      Observe how class categories and method categories of an extension are prefixed with a *.

      I prefer the alternative 2.

    2. Now we are facing a problem. For the need of the TheBook package we extend the Integer class with a method printStringToc, however this method addition is part of the Cuis-Smalltalk core system and its associated default change set.

      Proposed change along these lines:

      Now we are facing a problem: we extended the Integer class with #printStringToc, however, because we didn't categorize it properly, this method addition is by default part of the Cuis-Smalltalk core system and its associated default change set instead of being part of TheBook

    3. Let’s say that in our clock morph we want to use color named as in the Color-Extra package. So to be able to load our Morphic-Learning package which makes use of this we need to select our new package and click on the add Requirement button at center, right.

      This is an example of adding a requirement to a package but it is difficult to understand

    4. version level

      proposed change to “version number”

    1. This is a drawback when using the image as your sole source code repository. The net result could be loosing your work.

      Then the problem is not keeping backups, and not the fact that we are working with an image.

    2. file system may be unstable

      The underlying file system? If so, why is this pertinent? Unless for example the image file gets corrupted, but if that is the case, say that instead.

    3. the environment may be in a lock down state

      What does this mean?

    1. Basically,

      Again, why basically?

    2. Basically,

      Why basically?

    3. Modern integrated System On a Chip (SOC) hardware has many circuits which are active at the same time. So one kind of event is sensing something happening in the world. Class EventSensor handles keyboard key press and mouse hardware interrupts, translating between hardware signals and software event objects.

      Confusing paragraph. How does the first sentence relate to the second? How does the second relate to the third?

    1. Footnotes (23) In a quartz clock, the hand for the seconds moves every second. (24) In an automatic clock, the hand for the seconds moves every fraction of a second. The smaller the fraction, the more premium the clock is. (25) A Japanese automatic clock will be just fine too.

      All these could be a single footnote.

    1. rect

      Why use “rect” as an abbreviation for rectangle? Is confusing since it has another meaning.

    1. (17 * 13 > 220) ifTrue: [ 'bigger' ] ifFalse: [ 'smaller' ] ⇒ 'bigger' The class Boolean offers a fascinating insight into how much of the Smalltalk language has been pushed into the class library. Boolean is the abstract superclass of the Singleton classes True and False19. Most of the behaviour of Boolean instances can be understood by considering the method ifTrue:ifFalse:, which takes two blocks as arguments: (4 factorial > 20) ifTrue: [ 'bigger' ] ifFalse: [ 'smaller' ] ⇒ 'bigger'

      I don't see a need for two examples of #ifTrue:ifFalse.

    1. divisors := [:x | (1 to: x) select: [:d | x \\ d = 0] ].

      Smalltalk divisors := [:m | (1 to: m) select: [:n | m isDivisibleBy: n]].

      Yet, there ought to be better algorithms to compute divisors.

    1. TODO: Build the html from the texinfo sources locally in order to find out why there is an extra empty bullet point at the begining of this itemized list, and verify if this still happens.

    1. Observe how pi is the first element of the set:

      Observe how pi which was added last, is shown first, because of how Set >> #add: is implemented.

    2.   How to add ’Orange’ after ’Apple’ in coll1?

      How to add ’Orange’ after ’Apple’ and before 2@1 in coll1?

      or alternatively:

      How to insert ’Orange’ between ’Apple’ and 2@1 in coll1?

    1. When searching perfect cubic roots, it is useful to know about some cubes:

      Consider removal or rephrasing. Maybe rewiting ”For example, when searching...”, etc.

    2. and block of code

      Missing article

      and a block of code

    3. Comparing objects deserves its own section.

      This looks more like a comment by the author.

    1. Therefore, to declare a method variable we just name it at the beginning of the script and surround it by pipe characters “|”.

      Why start with “Therefore”?

    1. to two or only one object depending computational history

      Unclear choice of words. Maybe: “to two different or to a single object”.

      “depending computational history” is also unclear.

    1. Tip. In the workspace Ctrl-b (Browse) on the class name will open a Browser on the named class:


      Using “that”

      Tip. In the workspace Ctrl-b (Browse) on the class name will open a Browser on that class:

      using “named”

      Tip. In the workspace Ctrl-b (Browse) on the class name will open a Browser on the class named so:

    2. Tip. In the workspace Ctrl-b (Browse) on the class name will open a Browser on the named class:



      Tip. In the workspace Ctrl-b (Browse) on the class name will open a Browser on that class:

      Tip. In the workspace Ctrl-b (Browse) on the class name will open a Browser on the class named so:

    1. Like #shuffled, all collections answer to the message #sorted, which answers a sorted collection.

      The original reads kind of funny. Besides that, #shuffled is a message, not a collection. This paragraph could be rewritten as follows:

      Similarly as with #shuffled, all collections know how to answer #sorted with a sorted copy of themselves.

  5. Nov 2023
    1. In the Spacewar! code snippet below, the parentheses make it more clear that the addition happens first:

      In the Spacewar! code snippet below, the parentheses aren't necessary but clarify that the addition happens first:

  6. Jun 2023
  7. May 2023
    1. Frandsen, G., & Pennington, S. (2018). Abrams’ clinical drug: Rationales for nursing practice (11th ed.). pp. 305, 310, 952-953, 959-960. Wolters Kluwer. ↵

      considering updating to 12th edition for all Abrams' citations


      This chapter shows up as Chapter IV in the 1891 edition.

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added six additional chapters to the entire 1891 edition. The first 1891 chapter addition would be found here, in between this edition's Chapter II and Chapter III. The additional chapter, in summary, includes a scene between Lord Henry and his uncle, Lord George Fermor, in which Henry asks for any information regarding Dorian Gray. Uncle George tells Henry that he knew Dorian's mother, Lady Margaret Devereux, "intimately," and that she was a very beautiful woman. Lady Devereux had run off to marry some "penniless man," and, though tragic, Henry found it romantic. After learning about Dorian's wealthy parentage, Henry headed to his Aunt Agatha's house; on the way, he marveled about Dorian's backstory and beauty. Lawler mentions in his footnotes that "the scene at Aunt Agatha's house is one of the two social cameos Wilde added in the revised addition. The other comes late in the novel at Selby Royal. Each forms a background for another kind of dramatic action. In this scene, Henry's performance established his influence over Dorian's mind. The scene itself, however, foreshadows the success Wilde was soon to enjoy in the theatre" (34).

    2. I knew that if I spoke to Dorian I would become absolutely devoted to him, and that I ought not to speak to him.

      From LAWLER 177: Was "I would never leave him till either he or I were dead" in the original manuscript. Omitted completely from the 1891 text.


      This chapter shows up as Chapter VI in the 1891 edition.

      ZABROUSKI: Directly preceding this chapter, Wilde had added his second chapter addition, considered to be "Chapter V". The added chapter is told from Sibyl Vane's perspective, describing her excitement about the engagement with Dorian. Also in this chapter is the first mention of Sibyl's brother, James Vane, whom Wilde created in 1891. James will eventually become Dorian's unsuccessful nemesis.

    2. worshipped

      From LAWLER 233: Wilde made extensive revisions to this paragraph in 1891, deleting two passages, "It is quite true... country" and "I quite admit... was with you," and adding as much as he removed. Carson made much of such passages during the first cross-examination of the libel trial.

    3. Rugged and straightforward as he was, there was something in his nature that was purely feminine in its tenderness

      From LAWLER 230: This was deleted in 1891.

      ZABROUSKI: Because of the typical stereotypes Victorian men and women were placed, readers would have viewed this characteristic as immoral effeminacy.

    4. herself.

      ZABROUSKI: Following this line, Wilde added another line of dialogue in 1891: The elder man buried his face in his hands. 'How fearful,' he muttered, and a shudder ran through him." Following this line of dialogue, Dorian continues as seen here.

    5. And her only child, too!

      From LAWLER 228: Wilde let this stand in 1891, but added Dorian's reply below that Sibyl had a brother (an invention of the revised edition).

    6. in your life

      From LAWLER 223: Changed to "during the last fortnight" in 1891.

    7. What was he to say of that?

      From LAWLER 217: Following this question, Wilde originally had the following lines: "Where was he to hide it? It could not be left for common eyes to gaze at." He cancelled them in the typescript.

    8. He

      ZABROUSKI: Immediately preceding this paragraph, Wilde added the following paragraph in 1891: "In the huge gilt Venetian lantern, spoil of some Doge’s barge, that hung from the ceiling of the great, oak-panelled hall of entrance, lights were still burning from three flickering jets: thin blue petals of flame they seemed, rimmed with white fire. He turned them out and, having thrown his hat and cape on the table, passed through the library towards the door of his bedroom, a large octagonal chamber on the ground floor that, in his new-born feeling for luxury, he had just had decorated for himself and hung with some curious Renaissance tapestries that had been discovered stored in a disused attic at Selby Royal. As he was turning the handle of the door, his eye fell upon the portrait Basil Hallward had painted of him. He started back as if in surprise. Then he went on into his own room, looking somewhat puzzled. After he had taken the button-hole out of his coat, he seemed to hesitate. Finally, he came back, went over to the picture, and examined it. In the dim arrested light that struggled through the cream-coloured silk blinds, the face appeared to him to be a little changed. The expression looked different. One would have said that there was a touch of cruelty in the mouth. It was certainly strange."

    9. A long line of boys carrying crates of striped tulips, and of yellow and red roses, defiled in front of him, threading their way through the huge jade-green piles of vegetables. Under the portico, with its gray sun-bleached pillars, loitered a troop of draggled bareheaded girls, waiting for the auction to be over.

      From LAWLER 216: Added in the typescript.

      ZABROUSKI: After these sentences, Wilde revised the rest of the paragraph in 1891: "Others crowded round the swinging doors of the coffee-house in the piazza. The heavy cart-horses slipped and stamped upon the rough stones, shaking their bells and trappings. Some of the drivers were lying asleep on a pile of sacks. Iris-necked and pink-footed, the pigeons ran about picking up seeds. After a little while, he hailed a hansom and drove home. For a few moments he loitered upon the doorstep, looking round at the silent square, with its blank, close-shuttered windows and its staring blinds. The sky was pure opal now, and the roofs of the houses glistened like silver against it. From some chimney opposite a thin wreath of smoke was rising. It curled, a violet riband, through the nacre-coloured air."

    10. apes

      From LAWLER 215: Wilde had originally had these lines in the typescript, but crossed them out before publication: "A man with curious eyes had suddenly peered into his face and then dodged him with stealthily footsteps, passing and repassing him many times." It is likely that Sibyl's avenging brother, James, added in 1891, may have originated here.

    11. I couldn't bear it.

      From LAWLER 215: Wilde added the following in 1891 to foreshadow: "Oh! Don't go away from me. My brother... No; never mind. He didn't mean it. He was in jest... But you, oh!"

    12. God

      From LAWLER 211: Changed to "the gods" in 1891.

    13. sad

      From LAWLER 209: Changed to "tired" in 1891.

    14. it

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added the following lines in 1891: "As for marriage, of course that would be silly, but there are other and more interesting bonds between men and women. I will certainly encourage them. They have the charm of being fashionable."

    15. appointment

      From LAWLER 206: Wilde added several lines here in 1891: "Are you serious?" / "Quite serious, Basil. I should be miserable if I thought I should ever be more serious than I am at the present moment."

      ZABROUSKI: This may just be a personal opinion, but I don't think adding that extra dialogue was necessary. However, I suppose the extra back and forth between Basil and Henry is meant to emphasize how beautiful Sybil is. Because there was no lead up to Basil asking Harry if he approves of the marriage, one may have argued that Basil was hinting at previous romantic relations between Harry and Dorian.

    16. Hallward turned perfectly pale, and a curious look flashed for a moment into his eyes, and then passed away, leaving them dull.

      From LAWLER 206: Wilde changed these lines to "Hallward started, and then frowned." This change was to mute Basil's reaction.

    1. 7th

      From LAWLER 255: Changed to "9th" in 1891 and the birthday from the "thirty-second" to "thirty-eighth."

      From TEMPLE: It's highly possible that Wilde changed Dorian’s age in the 1891 edition so that no one could argue that as a connection between them (they were both 32 at the time).

    2. infamous!"

      From LAWLER 259: Changed to "bad, and corrupt, and shameful" in 1891.

    3. devoted

      From LAWLER 259: Changed to "a staunch friend" in 1891.

    4. Dorian, Dorian, your reputation is infamous. I know you and Harry are great friends. I say nothing about that now, but surely you need not have made his sister's name a by-word.

      From LAWLER 258: Wilde removed this sentence and added another section of dialogue 1891: “Stop, Basil. You are talking about things of which you know nothing,” said Dorian Gray, biting his lip, and with a note of infinite contempt in his voice. “You ask me why Berwick leaves a room when I enter it. It is because I know everything about his life, not because he knows anything about mine. With such blood as he has in his veins, how could his record be clean? You ask me about Henry Ashton and young Perth. Did I teach the one his vices, and the other his debauchery? If Kent’s silly son takes his wife from the streets, what is that to me? If Adrian Singleton writes his friend’s name across a bill, am I his keeper? I know how people chatter in England. The middle classes air their moral prejudices over their gross dinner-tables, and whisper about what they call the profligacies of their betters in order to try and pretend that they are in smart society and on intimate terms with the people they slander. In this country, it is enough for a man to have distinction and brains for every common tongue to wag against him. And what sort of lives do these people, who pose as being moral, lead themselves? My dear fellow, you forget that we are in the native land of the hypocrite.” [New paragraph] “Dorian,” cried Hallward, “that is not the question. England is bad enough I know, and English society is all wrong. That is the reason why I want you to be fine. You have not been fine. One has a right to judge of a man by the effect he has over his friends. Yours seem to lose all sense of honour, of goodness, of purity. You have filled them with a madness for pleasure. They have gone down into the depths. You led them there. Yes: you led them there, and yet you can smile, as you are smiling now. And there is worse behind. I know you and Harry are inseparable. Surely for that reason, if for none other, you should not have made his sister’s name a by-word.” [New paragraph] “Take care, Basil. You go too far.” [New paragraph] “I must speak, and you must listen. You shall listen."

    5. chapter

      From LAWLER 254: "Fourth chapter" was cancelled in the typescript. Wilde changed this to "seventh chapter" in 1891.

    6. dangerous

      From LAWLER 254: Wilde changed this to "wonderful" in 1891.

    7. Carlton

      From LAWLER 252: Changed to "Churchill" in 1891. The Carlton was a famous conservative political club located in Pall Mall.

    8. Elagabalus

      From LAWLER 249: Wilde changed this to "Priest of the Sun" in 1891. Elagabalus was priest of the sun god at Emesa and later Roman emperor under the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

    9. one hundred and four pearls

      From LAWLER 248: Wilde changed this to "three hundred and four pearls" in 1891.

    10. cope

      From LAWLER 245: Changed to "dalmatic" in 1891.

    11. "Ah, if you have discovered that, you have discovered a great deal," murmured Lord Henry, with his curious smile. "Come, let us go in to dinner. It is dreadfully late, and I am afraid the champagne will be too much iced."

      From LAWLER 241: Changed to "'Ah, you have discovered that?' murmured Lord Henry. And they passed into the dining room" in 1891.

    12. Décadents

      From LAWLER 241: Changed to "Symbolistes" in 1891.

    13. into a gilt basket.

      From LAWLER 240: Reduced to "away" in 1891.

    14. "A terrible load to carry,"

      From LAWLER 238: Wilde changed this line three times. In the typescript, there was another sort of pun in Dorian's reply: "There is a good deal of heaviness in modern art." In 1891, Wilde changed it again to the deliberately prosaic "I am afraid it is rather heavy," emphasizing a different mood entirely.

      ZABROUSKI: While the original quote portrayed a fictional character's humor, the 1891 change seems to portray Wilde's personal struggle in publishing this book. This change may be alluding to the backlash Wilde received when Dorian Gray was first published. Thus, this darker, sadder, and overall more pessimistic tone would be bringing attention to Wilde's opinion on the debate between morality vs. art.

    15. "Well, Master Dorian," she said, "what can I do for you? I beg your pardon, sir,"—here came a courtesy,—"I shouldn't call you Master Dorian any more. But, Lord bless you, sir, I have known you since you were a baby, and many's the trick you've played on poor old Leaf. Not that you were not always a good boy, sir; but boys will be boys, Master Dorian, and jam is a temptation to the young, isn't it, sir?"He laughed. "You must always call me Master Dorian, Leaf. I will be very angry with you if you don't. And I assure you I am quite as fond of jam now as I used to be. Only when I am asked out to tea I am never offered any. I want you to give me the key of the room at the top of the house."

      From LAWLER 234: This section was cut in 1891. Wilde's revision all but removed the comic side of Leaf's personality. Most of her dialogue and Dorian's replies were changed in both substance and tone. This is the lone instance when Wilde eclipsed a character or diluted a scene in his last revision.

    1. ripping the thing right up from top to bottom.

      From LAWLER 280: Wilde deleted this after changing "canvas" to "picture" in 1891.

    2. It would kill the past, and when that was dead he would be free.

      From LAWLER 280: Wilde added this sentence in the typescript and added the following sentence in 1891: "It would kill this monstrous soul-life, and without its hideous warnings, he would be at peace."

    3. tell?

      From LAWLER 280: Wilde added five lines here in 1891: "...No. There had been nothing more. Through vanity he had spared her. In hypocrisy he had worn the mask of goodness. For curiosity's sake he had tried the denial of self. He recognized that now."

    4. think

      From LAWLER 279: Wilde added the following reference to Sibyl's brother here in 1891: "James Vane was hidden in a nameless grave in Selby churchyard."

    5. him?

      From LAWLER 279: Wilde added two paragraphs here in 1891: Ah! in what a monstrous moment of pride and passion he had prayed that the portrait should bear the burden of his days, and he keep the unsullied splendour of eternal youth! All his failure had been due to that. Better for him that each sin of his life had brought its sure swift penalty along with it. There was purification in punishment. Not “Forgive us our sins” but “Smite us for our iniquities” should be the prayer of man to a most just God. [New paragraph] The curiously carved mirror that Lord Henry had given to him, so many years ago now, was standing on the table, and the white-limbed Cupids laughed round it as of old. He took it up, as he had done on that night of horror when he had first noted the change in the fatal picture, and with wild, tear-dimmed eyes looked into its polished shield. Once, some one who had terribly loved him had written to him a mad letter, ending with these idolatrous words: “The world is changed because you are made of ivory and gold. The curves of your lips rewrite history.” The phrases came back to his memory, and he repeated them over and over to himself. Then he loathed his own beauty, and flinging the mirror on the floor, crushed it into silver splinters beneath his heel. It was his beauty that had ruined him, his beauty and the youth that he had prayed for. But for those two things, his life might have been free from stain. His beauty had been to him but a mask, his youth but a mockery. What was youth at best? A green, an unripe time, a time of shallow moods, and sickly thoughts. Why had he worn its livery? Youth had spoiled him.

    6. out.

      From LAWLER 278: Chapter 19 (1891) ends here.

    7. be

      From LAWLER 278: A dozen lines or so were added here in 1891, nearly half of which argue against art influencing human action: As for being poisoned by a book, there is no such thing as that. Art has no influence upon action. It annihilates the desire to act. It is superbly sterile. The books that the world calls immoral are books that show the world its own shame. That is all. But we won’t discuss literature. Come round to-morrow. I am going to ride at eleven. We might go together, and I will take you to lunch afterwards with Lady Branksome. She is a charming woman, and wants to consult you about some tapestries she is thinking of buying. Mind you come. Or shall we lunch with our little duchess? She says she never sees you now. Perhaps you are tired of Gladys? I thought you would be. Her clever tongue gets on one’s nerves. Well, in any case, be here at eleven.” [New paragraph] “Must I really come, Harry?” [New paragraph] “Certainly. The park is quite lovely now. I don’t think there have been such lilacs since the year I met you.”

    8. have been

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "are" in 1891.

    9. "

      ZABROUSKI: This passage is connected to the previous paragraph in 1891.

    10. heliotrope

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "lilas blanc" in 1891.

    11. I

      ZABROUSKI: In 1891, this paragraph begins with "Yes: you are the same. I wonder what..."

    12. It was his chief defect.

      From LAWLER 276: Wilde added about four new pages here in 1891, beginning "what would you say, Harry" and ending with "given up our belief in the soul."

    13. her

      From LAWLER 276: Wilde added the following in 1891: "But then one regrets the loss even of one's worst habits. Perhaps one regrets them the most. They are such an essential part of one's personality."

    14. He remembered that the night before, for the first time in his life, he had forgotten to hide it, when he crept out of the room.

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde changed this to "He remembered that the night before he had forgotten, for the first time in his life, to hide the fatal canvas, and was about to rush forward, when he drew back with a shudder" in 1891.

    15. grinning

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "leering" in 1891.

    16. This was the man that Dorian Gray was waiting for, pacing up and down the room, glancing every moment at the clock, and becoming horribly agitated as the minutes went by. At last the door opened, and his servant entered

      From LAWLER 268: Wilde replaced these sentences and added the following: "This was the man Dorian Gray was waiting for. Every second he kept glancing at the clock. As the minutes went by he became horribly agitated. At last he got up and began to pace up and down the room, looking like a beautiful caged thing. He took long stealthy strides. His hands were curiously cold. [New paragraph] The suspense became unbearable. Time seemed to him to be crawling with feet of lead, while he by monstrous winds was being swept towards the jagged edge of some black cleft of precipice. He knew what was waiting for him there; saw it, indeed, and, shuddering, crushed with dank hands his burning lids as though he would have robbed the very brain of sight and driven the eyeballs back into their cave. It was useless. The brain had its own food on which it battened, and the imagination, made grotesque by terror, twisted and distorted as a living thing by pain, danced like some foul puppet on a stand and grinned through moving masks. Then, suddenly, time stopped for him. Yes: that blind, slow-breathing thing crawled no more, and horrible thoughts, time being dead, raced nimbly on in front, and dragged a hideous future from its grave, and showed it to him. He stared at it. Its very horror made him stone. [New paragraph] At last the door opened and his servant entered. He turned glazed eyes upon him."

    17. pain

      From LAWLER 263: Wilde changed this from "in the uncertain gloom" in the typescript. In 1891, Wilde changed "as if in pain" to "to and fro."

    18. him

      From LAWLER 263: Wilde added to this sentence in 1891: "as though it had been suggested to him by the image on the canvas, whispered to his ear by those grinning lips."

    19. shameful.

      ZABROUSKI: In 1891, Wilde added another sentence here: "You were to me such an ideal as I shall never meet again."

    20. romance

      From LAWLER 262: Wilde changed "romance" to "ideal" in 1891.

    21. He knew it, and he felt as if his blood had changed from fire to sluggish ice in a moment.

      ZABROUSKI: Reordered to "He knew it, and he felt as if his blood had changed in a moment from fire to sluggish ice" in 1891.

    22. passed entirely away

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "completely passed away" in 1891.

    23. lips

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "mouth" in 1891.

    24. marred

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "spoiled" in 1891.

    25. leering

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "grinning" in 1891.

    26. thing

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "face" in 1891.

    27. Hallward's

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "the painter's" in 1891.

  8. Apr 2023
    1. Good artists give everything to their art, and consequently are perfectly uninteresting in themselves.

      From LAWLER 203: Changed to "Good artists exist simply in what they make, and consequently are perfectly uninteresting in what they are" in 1891.

    2. "You don't mean to say that Basil has got any passion or any romance in him?"

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Oh, Basil is the best of fellows, but he seems to me just a bit of a Philistine. Since I have known you, Harry, I have discovered that" in 1891.

      A "Philistine" is a person who is indifferent to the culture or the arts (Oxford Dictionary). This alteration not only ties into Wilde's interest in aestheticism but more importantly detaches Basil from any romantic characteristics. Additionally, the following two lines of dialogue are deleted in the 1891 edition, which mutes the homoerotic undertones between Basil and Lord Henry; Lord Henry's comment that "[Basil] certainly has romance" provides insight that there was some sort of romantic relationship between the two. Furthermore, the fact that Henry asks Dorian if Basil has ever "let [him] know that" rather than "tell [him] that" also points to Basil's homosexuality. Because having any homosexual relations was illegal at the time, Henry's phrasing acts as an unspoken tip to Dorian. One could argue, then, that Basil, Lord Henry, and Dorian are homosexual. Another thing to note is that this particular deletion draws more attention to Basil's art rather than romantic relations. In this way, Wilde adds emphasis to the romance of art rather than homosexual romance.

      From LAWLER 203: Originally, Dorian had asked whether "Basil has got a passion for somebody?" Lord Henry answered, "Yes, he has. Has he never told you?" This dialogue was cancelled, and Wilde wrote the changes in the margin.

    3. "He gives you good advice, I suppose. People are very fond of giving away what they need most themselves."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "People are very fond of giving away what they need most themselves. It is what I call the depth of generosity" in 1891.

    4. me."

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added "He gives me good advice" in 1891.

    5. "I believe he was quite right there. But, on the other hand, most of them are not at all expensive."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "I should not wonder if he was quite right there. But, on the other hand, judging from their appearance, most of them cannot be at all expensive" in 1891.

    6. all

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "every one of them" in 1891.

    7. "I was not surprised either.

      ZABROUSKI: This sentence was deleted in 1891.

    8. yours

      From LAWLER 200: Was originally "your mistress," but Stoddart changed it. Wilde altered Stoddart's emendation in 1891, making it "I suppose she will belong to you some day."

      ZABROUSKI: I found this specific change interesting, for it seems like such a minor alteration yet makes a big impact in the grand scheme of things. Lawler claimed that the 1891 alteration is "stronger" than what is here. Given the time this was published, that claim rings true; because Victorian women were typically viewed as property or arm candy rather than an actual partner, saying the phrase "belong to" would have been fitting for a heterosexual Victorian man.

    9. Sibyl

      From LAWLER 197: Stoddart changed the spelling from Wilde's "Sybil" here and throughout the text of this edition, and it remained "Sibyl" in the 1891 text.

    10. And now tell me,—reach me the matches, like a good boy: thanks,—tell me, what are your relations with Sibyl Vane?"

      From LAWLER 200: This is another of the series of bowdlerizations by Stoddart. This line was written by Wilde: "is Sybil Vane your mistress?" Stoddart simply rewrote it in its present form, and although Wilde made an addition in 1891, he did not restore the original reading."

    11. Faithlessness is to the emotional life what consistency is to the intellectual life,—simply a confession of failure.

      From LAWLER 198: Wilde added this epigram to the typescript and followed it up with four additional sentences in 1891: "Faithfulness! I must analyze it someday. The passion for property is in it. There are many things that we would throw away if we were not afraid that others might pick them up."

    12. love

      From LAWLER 198: Wilde added three more sentences here in 1891: "A grande passion is the privilege of people who have nothing to do. That is the one use of the idle classes of a country. Don't be afraid. There are exquisite things in store for you. This is merely the beginning."

    13. patchouli

      From LAWLER 196: Wilde changed the perfume to frangipanni in 1891. Patchouli was a scent identified with London prostitutes.

    14. twenty-seven,

      From LAWLER 195: Wilde changed the number of photographs to "eighteen" for humorous effect in 1891.

    15. "And, after all, it is purely a question for physiology.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Why, even in love it is purely a question for physiology" in 1891.

    16. It is either an unfortunate accident, or an unpleasant result of temperament.

      From LALWER 194: Wilde dropped this sentence in 1891.

    17. "My doing?""Yes, yours, and you know it."

      From LAWLER 192: Wilde dropped Henry's question and Basil's answer in 1891.

    18. ignoble

      From LAWLER 191: Wilde change this to "dreadful" in 1891.

    19. impulses

      From LAWLER 186: Wilde changed his word to "influences" in 1891.

    20. Basil

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Hallward" in 1891.

    21. Mr. Gray.

      From LAWLER 184: Wilde added the following epigram in 1891: "It is so tedious a subject that one would have to talk seriously about it."

    22. He was made to be worshipped.

      From LAWLER 184: Deleted in 1891.

    23. that makes life absolutely lovely to me, and that gives to my art whatever wonder or charm it possesses.

      From LAWLER 183: Changed to "who gives to my art whatever charm it possesses: my life as an artist depends on him" in 1891.

    24. for me.

      ZABROUSKI: Cut in 1891.

    25. about the housing of the poor, and the necessity for model lodging-houses.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "the feeding of the poor and the necessity for model lodging-houses. Each class would have preached the importance of those virtues, for whose exercise there was no necessity in their own lives. The rich would have spoken on the value of thrift, and the idle grown eloquent over the dignity of labour" in 1891.

    26. He thought with pleasure of

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "He pictured to himself with silent amusement" in 1891.

    27. in the ivy,

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "in the green lacquer leaves of the ivy" in 1891.

    28. Those who are faithful know only the pleasures of love:

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Those who are faithful know only the trivial side of love:" in 1891.

    29. The worst of having a romance is that it leaves one so unromantic.”

      From LAWLER 182: Changed to "What you have told me is quite a romance, a romance of art one might call it, and the worst of having a romance of any kind is that it leaves one so unromantic" in 1891.

    30. I give myself away.

      From LAWLER 181: Wilde dropped this sentence from the 1891 text together with the phrase "walk home together from the club arm in arm" from the next sentence.

    31. "Oh, she murmured, 'Charming boy—poor dear mother and I quite inseparable—engaged to be married to the same man—I mean married on the same day—how very silly of me! Quite forget what he does—afraid he—doesn't do anything—oh, yes, plays the piano—or is it the violin, dear Mr. Gray?' We could neither of us help laughing, and we became friends at once."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Oh, something like, 'Charming boy--poor dear mother and I absolutely inseparable. Quite forget what he does--afraid he--doesn't do anything--oh, yes, plays the piano--or is it the violin, dear Mr. Gray?' Neither of us could help laughing, and we became friends at once" in 1891.

      The phrase "engaged to be married to the same man--I mean married on the same day" suggests that Dorian was engaged to a man, and in accidentally sharing that piece of information, Lady Brandon attempts to correct herself. The 1891 text omits that phrase completely, for readers may have pointed out the homosexual undertone in the 1890 edition.

    32. "Because I have put into it all the extraordinary romance of which, of course, I have never dared to speak to him. He knows nothing about it. He will never know anything about it. But the world might guess it; and I will not bare my soul to their shallow, prying eyes. My heart shall never be put under their microscope. There is too much of myself in the thing, Harry,—too much of myself!"

      From LAWLER 181: Wilde altered this paragraph in every revision.

      ZABROUSKI: In the 1891 version, Wilde wrote, “Because, without intending it, I have put into it some expression of all this curious artistic idolatry, of which, of course, I have never cared to speak to him. He knows nothing about it. He shall never know anything about it. But the world might guess it, and I will not bare my soul to their shallow prying eyes. My heart shall never be put under their microscope. There is too much of myself in the thing, Harry—too much of myself!” In the original manuscript, Wilde had (after "But the world might guess it") "where there is merely love, they would see something evil. Where there is spiritual passion, they would suggest something vile." If Wilde kept those two sentences in, it could be assumed that critics would have used it as fuel for their argument on what constitutes a moral vs immoral book.

    33. me

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde added "Some subtle influence passed from him to me, and for the first time in my life I saw in the plain woodland the wonder I had always looked for and always missed" to the end of this paragraph in 1891.

      LAWLER 180: From the original manuscript, Wilde deleted "and as he leaned across to look at it, his lips touched my hand. The world becomes young to me when I hold his hand..." In 1891, Wilde added another sentence here (which I transcribed above) emphasizing Dorian's influence over Basil's art.

    34. Harry!

      ZABROUSKI: Deleted in 1891.

    35. that

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "a model or a sitter" in 1891.

    36. model from him.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "sketch from him" in 1891.

    37. Of course sometimes it is only for a few minutes. But a few minutes with somebody one worships mean a great deal."

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "He is absolutely necessary to me" in 1891.

      From LAWLER 180: This change omits the homoerotic overtones.

    38. He has stood as Paris in dainty armor, and as Adonis with huntsman's cloak and polished boar-spear. Crowned with heavy lotus-blossoms, he has sat on the prow of Adrian's barge, looking into the green, turbid Nile. He has leaned over the still pool of some Greek woodland, and seen in the water's silent silver the wonder of his own beauty.

      From LAWLER 180: Was moved by Wilde to another context (in Chapter IX) in 1891.

    39. Art sounds better, doesn't it?

      From LAWLER 180: Wilde revised the dialogue above in 1891, leaving out "worship" and muting the homoerotic overtones.

    40. They

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "The masses" in 1891.

    41. classes

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "orders" in 1891.

    42. right or wrong.

      From LAWLER 179: Wilde altered details here and in the preceding two paragraphs in 1891.

    43. I choose my friends for their good looks, my acquaintances for their characters, and my enemies for their brains.

      From LAWLER 178: Another epigram Wilde touched up a little in 1891.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "I choose my friends for their good looks, my acquaintances for their good characters, and my enemies for their good intellects" in 1891.

    44. She either explains them entirely away, or tells one everything about them except what one wants to know. But what did she say about Mr. Dorian Gray?"

      ZABROUSKI: Wilde changed this sentence and added more dialogue in the 1891 text.

      "She either explains them entirely away, or tells one everything about them except what one wants to know."

      "Poor Lady Brandon! You are hard on her, Harry!" said Hallward, listlessly.

      "My dear fellow, she tried to found a salon, and only succeeded in opening a restaurant. How could I admire her? But tell me, what did she say about Mr. Dorian Gray?"

    45. Hallward buried his face in his hands.

      From LAWLER 178: Wilde made several stylistic changes in the preceding eight lines in the 1891 text.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "Hallward shook his head" in 1891.

    46. "Laughter is not a bad beginning for a friendship, and it is the best ending for one," said Lord Henry, plucking another daisy.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "'Laughter is not at all a bad beginning for a friendship, and it is far the best ending for one,' said the young lad, plucking another daisy" in 1891.

    47. something like 'Sir Humpty Dumpty—you know—Afghan frontier—Russian intrigues: very successful man—wife killed by an elephant—quite inconsolable—wants to marry a beautiful American widow—everybody does nowadays—hates Mr. Gladstone—but very much interested in beetles: ask him what he thinks of Schouvaloff.'

      From LAWLER 178: Removed from 1891 text.

    48. personality

      From LAWLER 178: Was originally "beauty had so stirred me."

    49. My father destined me for the army. I insisted on going to Oxford. Then he made me enter my name at the Middle Temple. Before I had eaten half a dozen dinners I gave up the Bar, and announced my intention of becoming a painter.

      From LAWLER 177: Deleted in 1891.

    50. A grasshopper began to chirrup in the grass, and a long thin dragonfly floated by on its brown gauze wings.

      From LAWLER 176: Several stylistic changes made here in 1891.

      ZABROUSKI: Changed to "A grasshopper began to chirrup by the wall, and like a blue thread a long thin dragon-fly floated past on its brown gauze wings" in 1891.

    51. little golden white-feathered disk,

      From LAWLER 176: Wilde deleted "that had charmed all the poets from Chaucer to Tennyson" from his manuscript and modified the style of the epigram following 1891.

    52. "Please don't."

      From LAWLER 176: This sentence and Henry's "I must" deleted in 1891.

    53. "Well, this is incredible," repeated Hallward, rather bitterly,—"incredible to me at times. I don't know what it means.

      From LAWLER 177: Opening lines of this paragraph deleted in 1891.

    54. and for a time they did not speak.

      ZABROUSKI: "and... speak" changed to "and ensconced themselves on a long bamboo seat that stood in the shade of a tall laurel bush" in 1891.

    55. shaking his hand off,

      From LAWLER 175: "shaking... off" deleted in 1891.

    56. laying his hand upon his shoulder;

      From LAWLER 175: "laying... shoulder" deleted in 1891. This is the first of many such deletions or rewrites eliminating descriptions of physical contact suggestive of homoerotic behavior.

    57. fame

      From LAWLER 175: Changed to "art" in 1891.

    58. an exaggeration,

      From LAWLER 174: Changed to "a mode of exaggeration" in 1891.

    59. consequently

      From LAWLER 174: Changed to "as a natural consequence" in 1891.

    60. "I don't think I will send it anywhere,"

      From LAWLER 174: Wilde wrote Coulson Kernahan, editor of the revised edition of Ward, Lock and Company, asking that he "look after my 'wills' and 'shalls' in proof," explaining that his "usage was not Celtic English" (Letters 289).

    61. The Grosvenor is the only place."

      From LAWLER 174: This last sentence was omitted in 1891.

    62. in an art that is necessarily immobile

      ZABROUSKI: Refined to "through the medium of an art that is necessarily immobile" in 1891.

    63. round the black-crocketed spires of the early June hollyhocks

      From LAWLER 173: Changed to "round the dusty gilt horns of the straggling woodbine," in 1891.

    64. as usual

      From LAWLER 173: Changed to "as was his custom" in 1891.

  9. Feb 2023
  10. May 2021
    1. L’écriture scientifique concerne par ailleurs, selon les contextes, la publication scientifique, c’est-à-dire un ensemble de connaissances scientifiques certifiées ; les écritures intermédiaires qui l’ont précédée, fruits du travail quotidien des chercheurs ; les gestes graphiques ; la trace matérielle du travail d’inscription ; la mise en forme d’un savoir ; son contexte de diffusion, etc. Le terme d’écriture scientifique renvoie donc simultanément à des objets, à des concepts et à des pratiques variés
    2. Le travail scientifique s’organise en effet autour de dispositifs de communication qui génèrent la production et l’interprétation de signes graphiques et gestuels de natures diverses et il existe une multitude de dispositifs d’écriture mobilisés quotidiennement par les chercheurs (variété des registres sémiotiques : langage formel et symbolique, dessins mais également gestes et mouvements ; variété des supports : feuilles de papier, écran d’ordinateur, tableau, espace en 3 dimensions ; variété des genres : brouillons, notes, articles, communication, lettres, écrits électroniques, etc.) qui renvoient à autant de moments distincts de l’activité de production et de diffusion des connaissances.
    3. et montre la variété des problématiques aujourd’hui envisagées : quels est le rôle de l’écriture dans la construction d’un savoir et d’une discipline scientifique ? Comment aborder la question de l’auteur en tant qu’acteur de cette écriture ? Dans une démarche plus épistémologique, quelle est la dimension réflexive induite par toute activité d’écriture, et en particulier par toute recherche en sciences humaines et sociales ? C’est à l’exploration des enjeux professionnels

      Groupe Edition

    4. objet de ce numéro est de mieux cerner les conditions pragmatiques d’écriture des sciences. Il propose un panorama de recherches actuelles sur le rôle des dispositifs d’écriture et de leurs supports matériels dans les différentes dimensions de cette activité professionnelle (Fraenkel

      Goupe Edition

    5. 2& al. 2001) et montre la variété des problématiques aujourd’hui envisagées : quels est le rôle de l’écriture dans la construction d’un savoir et d’une discipline scientifique ? Comment aborder la question de l’auteur en tant qu’acteur de cette écriture ? Dans une démarche plus épistémologique, quelle est la dimension réflexive induite par toute activité d’écriture, et en particulier par toute recherche en sciences humaines et sociales ? C’est à l’exploration des enjeux pro

      le role de l'ecriture dans la construction du savoir

    1. Dans l’inconscient collectif, elle évoque pour beaucoup Frankenstein, c’est-à-dire en fait une métaphore pour désigner la créature qui échappe à son créateur. Par analogie, elle semble triompher des limites de l’esprit en donnant vie aux machines. La réalité est toute autre. C’est avant tout une formidable aventure technologique qui a démarré avec les progrès des calculateurs et qui connecte les objets entre eux, les humains entre eux et les machines avec les humains. Les systèmes informatiques sensibles à leur environnement, capables d’apprendre en fonction de ce qu’ils perçoivent, capables aussi de prendre une décision, sont dits « intelligents ». Mais l’Intelligence artificielle n’est pour le moment rien d’autre que du traitement de l’information, à savoir la possibilité pour les calculateurs de traiter un très grand nombre d’informations et de plus en plus vite. Elle est utilisée pour soulager l’être humain dans la réalisation de tâches répétitives.

      IA sert et aide à la prise de décision

    2. L’Intelligence artificielle… Ces deux mots, devenus magiques dans notre société postmoderne fascinent autant qu’ils font peur. Bien sûr, cela est dû à la littérature qui existe autour du mythe de l’homme qui supplanterait Dieu en créant lui-même une intelligence. Aujourd’hui, nous y sommes, sauf que ces deux mots « Intelligence artificielle » sont devenus des mots fourre-tout.  

      Interesting article

    3. Intelligence artificielle … Mythes, réalités et perspectives

      Titre de l'article

    4. IA mot magique